The Town planning review

Published by Liverpool University Press
Online ISSN: 0041-0020
Publications
Article
"The rate of conversion of land from rural to urban uses has been a central concern of the British planning system. Despite this interest, however, the factual basis of the debate on the pace of urban growth, its form and distribution has been extremely weak. The reason for this is lack of appropriate data. This paper reports research on two new data sources on land use--a digital database of the boundaries of tracts of urban land in 1981 and 1991 and the Land Use Change Statistics--to analyse recent urban growth in England and, in conjunction with current household projections, to estimate the likely extent of urbanisation in 2016. In addition to assessing the geographical distribution of this growth, the paper draws out some implications for policy analysis of the method of projecting the extent of land in urban use."
 
Article
Conventionally the census provides both academic researchers and policy-makers with the basic source of social and economic data--particularly for small geographical areas. It is perhaps the very accessibility of census data which provides the explanation of this conventional usage as the limitations of the census have been recognized for some time. These limitations can be divided into two broad (and inter-related) categories: first the shortcomings of the census itself in terms of the nature of the data collected; and secondly problems which arise in the application of the available data to specific research and policy-making problems. As we shall see later both these categories are well illustrated by the example of sources of data for internal migration. At the current time however even the accessibility of census data is greatly constrained. The cancellation of the mid-decennial census planned for 1976 means in effect that 1981 is the next occasion on which data will be collected for the census; it is unlikely that data will actually be available until 1984 or 1985. Planners other policy-makers and researchers are therefore faced with a period of almost ten years in which access to up-to-date information from the conventional source is denied to them. Not surprisingly government workers and academics have already expressed their great concern over this situation. (excerpt)
 
Article
PIP The nature of and reasons for China's urban distribution policy adopted in 1982 are examined. The influence of socialist planning ideology on urban policy is noted. Contradictions between economic reform and urban policies are identified.
 
Percentage of the population in urban areas, 2011, 2030 and 2050. Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division: World Population Prospects DEMOBASE extract. 2011. 
Article
Urban research in many countries has failed to keep up with the pace of rapidly and constantly evolving urban change. The growth of cities, the increasing complexity of their functions and the complex intra- and inter-urban linkages in this 'urban century' demand new approaches to urban analysis, which, from a systemic perspective, supersede the existing fragmentation in urban studies. In this paper we propose the concept of the urban piazza as a framework in order to address some of the inefficiencies associated with current urban analysis. By combining wealth-creating potential with smart urban mobility, ecological resilience and social buzz in this integrated and systemic framework, the aim is to set the basis for a 'New Urban World' research blueprint, which lays the foundation for a broader and more integrated research programme for strategic urban issues.
 
Article
The census is too infrequent and so other data sources for migration have to be used. The author rejects electoral registers and NHS records, but instead uses local authority housing records and the Scottish Land Register for a study of intra-urban migration in Glasgow in 1974. The 'Fractionmap' procedure is used for depicting areal differences and a number of maps are produced. The author also argues strongly for a greater use of National Grid co-ordinates in census and other population work.-A.Gilg
 
Article
"The concepts, methodological approach, assumptions and results of a long-term forecast for 88 federal planning regions in West Germany are presented and discussed. It is emphasized that population and employment projections for policy consultation purposes must be of an intermediate complexity in order to remain transparent and reconstructable. To facilitate the interpretation of the forecasting results, a typology of the planning regions along the dimension of forecasted labour market developments is presented." It is found that "rural peripheral regions with employment problems stemming mainly from demographic factors and old industrial regions with severe labour market imbalances caused by structural change are...the actual and future problem regions in West Germany."
 
Article
The author applies a surface model approach to the estimation of small-area population and household characteristics. "The representation of population-related information by means of surface concepts offers a way to overcome many of the limitations of traditional, 'fixed' zone-based methods. The approach has the potential to give planners and policy-makers greatly improved flexibility in handling and interpreting spatially referenced data. One practical area of application is the estimation of population at local levels for which the underlying concepts and methods are discussed in this article."
 
Article
The planning strategies evolved by local authorities in order to control the effects of oil-related activities have to contain assumptions about population movement. An integration/absorption strategy as is most evident in the policy of the Western Isles Island Council towards the fabrication facility at Arnish emphasises return migration and localising processes. A containment and insulation strategy as evolved in relation to the construction of the Sullam Voe oil terminal and the Kishorn concrete platform fabrication yard assumes that the work force will not develop local ambitions and expectations. Planners and local authorities may formulate policies that are to a greater or lesser extent compatible with a particular strategy although actual experiences as in the case of the construction work camp for Sullam Voe being open to locally recruited labour indicates that considerable dilution of any policy is likely to take place. In all circumstances it is important to examine whether the assumptions contained within the strategy are sustained by the expectations of those employed. Indeed if subsequent policy moves away from an original strategy it is likely that a greater discrepancy will arise between actual expectations and original assumptions. Such a discrepancy may become painfully apparent if the expectations of neither planners nor workers are generally realised as the cycle of activities proceeds. The primary purpose of this paper is to indicate the main changes in particular population groups (differentiated on the basis of motive) that have been generated as a result of oil-related activity in the Highlands and Islands. An attempt is made to indicate some of the policy implications arising from the presence of different migrant populations. (excerpt)
 
Impact of owner strategies and actions on redevelopment prospects Aberdeen Dundee Nottingham Stoke Total No % No % No % No % No %
Classification of ownershi
Legal personality of ow
Role of property development in ownership strategy Impact of strategies and actions on Central Ancillary Occasional Total
Article
Although the redevelopment of vacant land, especially for housing, has become an increasingly important component of British planning policy, urban land ownership has been downgraded as a policy issue because of its inherent complexity and potential for controversy. On the basis of research into the strategies and actions of 155 owners of vacant urban land or obsolete urban property within 80 substantial redevelopment sites, this paper reinterprets earlier notions of active and passive owner behaviour in urban redevelopment. The results suggest that brownfield redevelopment could be accelerated by a more fine-grained and participatory approach to urban land policy. This should aim to take advantage of the desire of most owners to promote redevelopment (or at least not to stand in its way) while encouraging the transfer of land away from the minority of owners who are hostile to redevelopment efforts.
 
Article
The planning system in Wales has evolved during the past five years in response to political change, policy reform and devolution. The framework for the publication of central government planning policy and related information in Wales has, partly as a result of these changes, taken on a different form to that which it has historically shared with England. A central element in the revised format for the dissemination of planning policy in Wales is the ability to distiguish clearly between planning policy and technical advice. The paper provides an account of the recent evolution of the planning framework in Wales and gives the essential context for an assessment and analysis of the Technical Advice Notes (TAN) series in order to establish its role, function and content.
 
Article
When a city expands land use of the fringes has to be converted into urban land use. Surrounding land has a fixed position and is non-urban by definition. Within Western Europe, an intriguing variety of systems for this land conversion are being applied. Cross-national exchange of planning experience is of great interest, but the specific national context and (planning) systems make it difficult to fully compare countries. Nevertheless these systems to a large extent have the some objective (i.e. urban expansion) and deal with similar entities, such as power, ownership, land value and public facilities. This paper provides a basic model that represents the essence of this conversion of land use - its entities and its optional mechanisms - with the aim of contributing to a better cross-national understanding on instruments for city expansion. In addition, based on this understanding, we review some theories that may guide possible explanations for international variation.
 
Article
This paper investigates linkages between social capital and physical capital as an approach toward capacity building. It examines the revitalisation efforts of the Los Angeles Neighborhood Initiative (LANI) communities with mixed outcomes. Various stages of capacity building in these communities can be attributed to the observed social capital and physical capital stocks. While areas with higher doses of social and physical capital built new capacities, neighbourhoods with lower stocks of social capital faced intense social divisions and factionalism. As an implication for public policy the paper concludes that investments on physical capital could sometimes become catalysts for generating or augmenting social capital.
 
Article
Metropolitan regional planning is one of the most complex of planning scales because of the inherent tensions between local and regional interests and the multitude of formal and informal organisations that represent those interests. Using the South East Queensland 2001 process as a case study, the paper uses important elements of classical and network paradigms of inter-organisational relationships to develop a framework for addressing this complexity. It concludes that an understanding of inter-organisational matters such as network structure, locus of control, authority and communications structures and conflict resolution mechanisms can help improve planning for metropolitan growth management.
 
Article
This paper critically examines the urban design of inner-city riverfront cultural and leisure precincts, both called ‘Southbank’, in two major Australian cities, Melbourne and Brisbane. It evaluates simple functional planning matters such as use, scale and connectivity, as well as examining how these are entangled in more complex organisational, behavioural and representational outcomes, through observation of the broad scope of leisure activities which occur in the two settings. The paper examines four key dimensions of leisure experience on urban riverfronts – escaping the everyday, mixing with strangers, consuming spectacle and exploring new forms of bodily activity. Particular attention is given to the tensions between attempts at careful management of activities and imagery in these leisure zones, and the messy diversity of everyday life which actually takes place in and around them.
 
Article
The Swedish government aims to mainstream the policy of equal opportunities into all policy areas, including spatial planning. This paper draws on the key findings of a research project on good planning practice, based on a survey and in-depth interviews, to investigate achievements and good examples in this area. The good examples turned out to be few and instead a number of shortcomings were found. This can be partly explained by the inherent limitations of the concept of equal opportunities. The aim of the paper is, therefore, to demonstrate why and how an alternative approach, based on a combination of feminist theory and planning theory, must and can be developed to mainstream equal opportunities into spatial planning.
 
Article
EU spatial policy upholds the need to pro-actively counterbalance the negative effects of increased inter-European competitiveness brought about by the Single Market and globalization. As global economic integration continues to create interdependencies among nations and localities, competition for scarce inward investment continues to intensify. As these economic trends continue, and as spatial planning takes on growing significance within the EU, there remains uncertainty about the role of spatial policy in the inward investment process. The market and competition orientated spatial development content of the ESDP questions the coherence and effectiveness of this spatial strategic document in tackling the EU economic development ethos. This paper addresses how spatial planning contributes to the competition for Foreign Direct Investment and provides an invaluable window onto the articulation of global and local economic and political processes, drawing conclusions on the concept of territorial cohesion, balanced competitiveness, and the implications for European spatial development.
 
Article
Urban regeneration in the Republic of Ireland takes place in the context of the rapid, 'Celtic Tiger' economic growth of the 1990s. The boom transformed Irish society and led to greater affluence for many people, along with continuing and arguably worsening inequality for those excluded from its opportunities. In particular, Ireland's small social rented sector has become the focus of the country's most concentrated poverty and social exclusion. The Ballymun regeneration programme in North Dublin aims to facilitate physical, social and economic change in order to integrate the area more closely with the more affluent surrounding suburbs. This article reviews the issues involved in restructuring such a large area of social exclusion within a rapidly changing European capital city, using a framework that disaggregates the concept of integration into three elements: market, citizenship and reciprocity. With just over half the physical refurbishment complete, progress has been made but some fundamental issues remain. The article concludes that although substantial advancement has been made with physical regeneration, progress with wider economic and social integration has been uneven and in some cases flawed.
 
Article
This paper reports on research which examined the prevalence and rationales underlying the growth in gated residential development in England. The research also set out to consider the immediate and likely future impacts of such development. Policy debates regarding socio-spatial segregation and the encouragement of social mix to promote sustainable communities have generally ignored the upper end of the housing market and clustering of affluent households which are perceived to produce few negative externalities or problems for residents. We argue that gated development appears to provide a socially problematic form of residential development which 'excludes' but nevertheless, in certain cases, appears to deliver a semi-autonomous form of neighbourhood governance. The research found around 1,000 gated developments in England at a time when the Government aims for new development to provide socially diverse neighbourhoods as the hallmark of future community sustainability. We conclude that this initial profiling of gated communities highlights the need for a debate regarding the relative social costs and benefits imposed by gating.
 
Article
Museums around the world are seeing changes in how they fundraise and manage their collections; fundraising efforts increasingly involve the private sector and museums are adopting a more entrepreneurial management approach to growth. To be internationally competitive, one growing trend for museums is to promote themselves as a brand in order to attract more visitors and private sector funding. The increasingly global recognition of a museum's brand has resulted in the expansion of many major international museums throughout the world though branches and franchises. But who is really driving this growth? Are museums opening branches worldwide as part of a development strategy? Are museums driving this expansion or are they responding to local pressures? In this paper, we will attempt to reveal the role of local authorities in the development of museums branches by comparing the history, project specific characteristics and impact on urban regeneration of three branches of the Louvre, Tate and Guggenheim museums in three different cities. In fact, creating a cultural flagship is a very commonly used tool in urban regeneration projects and many cities appear to be racing toward being competitive rather than distinct. To this end, many city planners and leaders want to host the branch or franchise of a world-renowned museum because they consider a museum brand to be more meaningful and valuable than another local cultural institution. Here, we will explore whether opening a branch of a famous museum is a winning strategy for these cities and examine to what extent a museum brand can be used as an effective tool for branding a city.
 
The Israeli government's increasing acquisition of land in the West Bank 
The confinement of Palestinian villages within the Separation Barrier 
Article
Israel’s occupation of the West Bank is literally changing before our eyes. What began as a form of military control with marginal, messianic undertones, has transformed into a full-fledged sovereign endeavour, which has two central pillars. The first relates to the Palestinian population, and aims to restrict their access to land and to development in the West bank. The second focuses on the seam between Jews and Palestinians, and may be termed the policy of separationIsrael’s occupation of the West Bank, and its effective control over the Gaza Strip, has passed the 40 year mark. Currently, it is the longest standing occupation in the world. Israel has existed over the twice the time as an occupying power than it has within internationally recognized borders. Within this significant time frame, Palestinian civil society is controlled by a foreign power not only in security related aspects that seem highly related to a situation of occupation, such as bearing arms. Increasingly, Israel has changed the measures and intensity of civilian aspects of life, such as employment, freedom to travel and planning and development. The surge of the settlement project over the past 15 years has raised the stakes insofar as Israel’s interests are concerned, leading to a change in planning policy for Palestinians and for Israelis. Through land and planning policy, Palestinians development and movement are restricted and separated from Israelis and from Jewish settlers.
 
Article
Argues that there are important limitations to the ability of the English development control system effectively to control urban design, which is seen as a complex process involving negotiation between several parties. It is contended that the greater part of the problem is the failure by planning authorities to formulate explicit objectives for the design of different parts of towns. A method of generating such objectives within a structure of design areas is proposed. The technique is tested on the town of Chelmsford, Essex, and its application to a particular locality is examined in detail. -from Author
 
Article
The term 'model' is now central to our thinking about how we understand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways in which we use 'models', linking these ideas to Abercrombie's exposition of Town and Country Planning which represented the state of the art fifty years ago. Here we focus on using models as physical representations of the city, tracing the development of symbolic models where the focus is on simulating how function generates form, to iconic models where the focus is on representing the geometry of form in both two and three dimensions. Our quest is to show how digital representation enables us to merge and manipulate form into function and vice versa, linking traditional architectural representation to patterns of land use and movement. Mathematics holds the key to simulation of many kinds and computers now enable us to move effortlessly from the material world of atoms to the ethereal world of bits and back. These new tools also provide us with powerful ways of showing how the real is able to morph into the ideal and vice versa. We argue that this digital world which parallels the material, now gives us unprecedented power to understand and explore cities in ways that Abercrombie could only speculate upon, and we conclude by anticipating how we might respond to the new challenges posed by unlimited access to these virtual worlds.
 
Article
The paper addresses the question of the acceptability to residents of policies promoting more sustainable urban forms through compaction or intensification and greater land use mixing. It does so by examining the motives, behaviour and preferences of a sample of households moving house within the owner-occupied sector in the Cardiff region of South Wales. The findings suggest that most relocating households prefer, and actively seek to move to, less sustainable detached or semi-detached housing with private gardens, often in suburban locations. Apartment living and city centre and dockland locations are rarely preferred. Access to facilities in mixed land use areas appears not to be a prominent concern for many. To reconcile these results with the apparent buoyancy of housing markets in central city and dockland locations, the characteristics and preferences of residents in these areas are examined.
 
Article
The spatial interrelationships between safety concerns, recorded crime and the functioning of the evening economy are explored within the city centres of Swansea and Cardiff. Anxiety at night is focused on places exhibiting fear-generating design and poor environmental quality, on the bus stations and multi-storey car parks, and on the 'drinking' streets where night clubs and pubs are concentrated. Anxiety partly reflects the pattern of recorded crime. The highly localised distributions of crime and fear lend support to policies of functional segregation within the city centre in revitalising the evening economy, whereby activities for an older clientele are spatially separated from the youth-oriented pubs and night clubs.
 
Article
This paper provides a critical review of the 'life' of a planning concept-the urban village. Initially it considers the process whereby the concept has become discursively fixed into something seemingly homogeneous, and located carefully in relation to both established and emerging debates about, for example, community, design and sustainability. The paper then moves on to consider the value and utility of the concept as it has been implemented and then subsequently as it became a lived experience. This process of implementing the concept has resulted in it becoming unfixed. This resulted from-an intensification in debates relating to urban policy; changes in the institution that owns the concept; tensions from the competing professional agendas; tensions between urban village design and development principles and the local circumstances; and contradictions between the concept as a product of professional discourse and the experiences and aspirations of residents.
 
Article
A study was undertaken of the application of computer visualisation to the control of design by local planning authorities in England. Several examples of major urban development and routine development control work were visualised for local councils, the images fed back into the decision-making process, and the results monitored. While the investigation of the decision-making process is still continuing, the results obtained to date demonstrate an important role for visualisation. The work undertaken is described and comment is made on both the pattern of possible use by a planning authority and the general issue of the objectivity of the images.
 
Article
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published following peer-review in Tpwn Planning Review, published by and copyright Liverpool University Press. This paper examines the social relevance of 'place shaping'. Although place shaping has entered the official planning lexicon, and now constitutes an important element of planning policy and practice, we cannot assume that ordinary people share the view that it is important or even useful. We examine this proposition by studying working-class residents' experiences of place shaping in two case study neighbourhoods that were deemed to be uncompetitive in housing market terms. 'Place shaping' ideas were used in these neighbourhoods to legitimise both the mass demolition of terraced housing and plans to develop 'exciting' new dwellingscapes that 'made a statement' to contemporary housing consumers. With reference to our empirical data, we argue that working-class residents did not relate to this approach to place shaping at all. We conclude that our research raises some important questions that planners need to consider carefully in the course of the practice of place shaping at neighbourhood level.
 
Article
Three stages have been identified in the development of the EU: the launch era; the doldrums era and the renaissance/boom era. Presently though, the EU is in a crisis. These stages serve as a framework for discussing the past, present and future for European spatial planning. Thus, during the launch era there were unsuccessful attempts to make spatial planning/regional policy part of the embryonic European project. During the doldrums era, such initiatives as were taken were channeled through the Council of Europe, leading to the adoption of the Torrelominos Charter on Spatial/Regional Planning, paralleled by continuing but fruitless efforts by the European Parliament to put regional policy on the agenda of the Community. Since the start of the renaissance/boom era, spatial planning has been an, albeit controversial part of the emergent cohesion policy of the European Union. The controversy concerned whether the Union should have a competence in the matter, or whether European spatial planning should be a matter for inter-governmental coordination. There was consensus, however, on the need for what was called a 'spatial planning approach' as formulated in the European Spatial Development Perspective (1999). Once the Lisbon Treaty covering territorial cohesion alongside with economic and social cohesion will be ratified, the competence issue will be settled, but uncertainty concerning the form which EU territorial cohesion policy will take continues. This relates to the future of cohesion policy undergoing fundamental review with a view to the period after 2013, being part of the sole searching which the EU is going through. Will cohesion policy be retained and, if so, what will the role of territorial cohesion policy in a revamped cohesion policy be? Will it barely be tolerated, as is the case now, or will territorial cohesion be, as it potentially might, a mainstay of future cohesion policy, providing it with a solid rationale? Naturally, the answer depends among others on the Commissioner for Regional Policy and his/her standing, but also on the future of the Union as such, etc., etc. However, the answer also depends on whether fundamental issues can be resolved. This requires academic reflection regarding: the nature of the EU in relation to its constituent parts, the nation-states; and the nature of space/territory and the role of spatial planning in the emergent context of the shifting target which is what the European project is.
 
Article
This paper discusses concepts of space within the planning literature, the issues they give rise to and the gaps they reveal. It then introduces the notion of 'fractals' borrowed from complexity theory and illustrates how it unconsciously appears in planning practice. It then moves on to abstract the core dynamics through which fractals can be consciously applied and illustrates their working through a reinterpretation of the People's Planning Campaign of Kerala, India. Finally it highlights the key contribution of the fractal concept and the advantages that this conceptualisation brings to planning.
 
Reasons for having a second home in England
Article
The impacts of second homes in the English countryside have concerned academics and policy makers since at least the 1960s. Often they are thought of as one of the numerous drivers of social exclusion in the countryside, and this has prompted periodic assessments of how changing policy frameworks might be used to address the 'second home problem'. Mark Shucksmith's 1983 paper - 'Second homes: a framework for policy' - was the first comprehensive attempt to link the repercussions of second home concentrations with potential policy responses. This current paper updates Shucksmith's framework, drawing on recent work for the Countryside Agency in England, and argues that both planning powers and fiscal controls should be directed at assisting communities affected by second home concentrations.
 
Article
"Reprint from Town planning review vol. 40 no. 2. July 1969" Incluye bibliografía
 
Article
The six most important concepts in London open space planning from 1925 to 1992 have been open space standards, the green belt, an interconnected park system, a park hierarchy, nature conservation and green chains. The history of the green belt is well known and is only touched upon in this article. The idea of open space standards per 1000 population was dominant from 1925 until 1976, when it was replaced by the idea of a park hierarchy, based on accessibility. Nature conservation was not considered until 1983. The park system idea was crucial to the 1944 Abercrombie plan, but was neglected until the proposals of the 1980s for green chains and ecological corridors. The article concludes with an account of two reports commissioned by the London Planning Advisory Committeee (LPAC) in the 1990s. One recommends a London-wide strategy to create a "green web' for outdoor recreation, nature conservation and non-mechanised (pedestrian, cycle and equestrian) transport. The other recommends a revised park hierarchy and a new emphasis on the visual quality and functional quality of public open space. -from Author
 
Article
This paper addresses the concept of 'build back better' and its application to reconstruction along the Sanriku coastal region, which was affected by a devastating tsunami following the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011. I argue that although the Japanese government applied build-back-better approaches (fukkõ in Japanese), there have been contradictions, challenges and contestations that have delayed the successful recovery of the affected communities. Empirical material collected from field trips to north-east coastal Japan revealed many problems that have impeded this recovery in the first five years of the rebuilding programme. The results question the usefulness of the build-back-better approach to reconstruction.
 
Article
From 18 to 22 February 2019, the 13th annual conference of the International Academic Association on Planning, Law, and Property Rights (PLPR) was held at Texas A & M University in College Station, Texas, USA. The conference was hosted by Professor Dawn Jourdan, executive associate dean and professor of landscape architecture and urban planning at the College of Architecture. During the four-day conference, 75 researchers and planning professionals from 29 different countries discussed socio-political challenges at the interface between planning, law, and property rights. In particular, participants were invited to address ongoing environmental changes and subsequent consequences for policy making and planning under the conference theme Preparing for Climate Change in the Planned and Unplanned City.
 
Top-cited authors
Patsy Healey
  • Newcastle University
Simin Davoudi
  • Newcastle University
Andreas Faludi
Lawrence W. C. Lai
  • The University of Hong Kong
Chris Webster
  • The University of Hong Kong