This study investigates 12 prespeech vocal behaviors which are taken to reflect children´s phonological, communicative and early symbolic development. It explores their development (onset, duration and extinction) and their relation to early lexical development. A structured parental questionnaire on prespeech vocalizations was developed, validated and used for the evaluation of 1005 Spanish children's early vocal development (8-30 months). In parallel, the same children's productive vocabulary was assessed using the vocabulary section of the European-Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories. Results highlight a global inverted U-shaped developmental pattern which emerges from the asynchronous development of the vocal behaviors examined, relating both their emergence and extinction to advances in linguistic development. Moreover, the protracted coexistence of prespeech vocalizations with early speech and their significant correlations with vocabulary size reveal a gradual transition into language. Overall results reinforce and extend previous findings on the development of prespeech vocalizations and establish their relevance as early indexes of linguistic development. Finally, positive evidence on the use of an assisted parental report method for reliably evaluating these developments is provided. Results are discussed within theoretical frameworks that conceive language as the emergent product of complex developmental processes.
Posttraumatic stress reactions related to the Madrid March 11, 2004, terrorist attacks were examined in a sample of Madrid residents (N = 503) 18-25 days after the attacks, using multiple diagnostic criteria and different cut-off scores. Based on the symptoms covered by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, and Keane, 1993), rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) ranged from 3.4% to 13.3%. Taking into account additional criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 200; i.e., the impact of initial reaction and problems in daily functioning as a consequence of the traumatic event), only 1.9% of respondents reported probable PTSD. These results suggest that inferences about the impact of traumatic events on the general population are strongly influenced by the definition of traumatic response. Our findings also revealed that the magnitude of posttraumatic reactions is associated with several risk factors, including living close to the attacked locations, physical proximity to the attacks when they occurred, perception of one's life being at risk, intensity of initial emotional reactions, and being a daily user of the attacked train lines. The use of different cut-off scores did not affect the pattern of risk to develop traumatic stress. The implications of these results for public health policies related to terrorist attacks are discussed.
Posttraumatic stress related to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and general psychological distress were examined in six cohorts of college students (N=5412) enrolled at an American public university between Spring 2000 and Fall 2002 some 2,500 miles from New York. Consistent with data from Schuster et al.'s (2001) national survey, which used a very low threshold criterion, our findings revealed that 44% of women and 32% of men experienced at least one symptom of posttraumatic stress 6-17 days after the attacks. In contrast to these results, depression levels showed only small differences, and self-esteem and trait anxiety showed no changes. Findings indicate that 9/11-related stress responses among distant witnesses were very mild, transitory and focused in scope, suggesting resilience with respect to broader psychological and psychopathological reactions. Findings are discussed with respect to the role of physical and psychological proximity on the reactions to traumatic events in the general population.
In this study, I investigated students' memories of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, carried out by Al Qaeda terrorists against the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington. Participants completed on two occasions (2 weeks and 8 months after the events took place) a memory questionnaire that included an assessment of the phenomenal richness of their memories. The results showed that the participants remembered very well the circumstances in which they first heard about the terrorist attacks, that they were very confident about this information, and that these memories were characterized by a high phenomenal richness. Over time, there was a decrease in all of these variables, but people's ratings of phenomenology and confidence were still very high.
We measured human frequency response functions for eleven angular frequency filters using a forced-choice procedure in a supra-threshold summation paradigm. Each of the eleven functions of 17 experimental conditions was measured 4-9 times among 12 observers. Results show that, for the arbitrarily selected filter phases, maximum summation effect occurred at test frequency for all filters. These results lead to the conclusion that there are narrow-band angular frequency filters operating in human visual system mostly through summation surrounded by inhibition at the specific test frequency ranges. Our previous suggestion (Simas and Santos, 2002), arguing that summation for the higher angular frequency filters should occur if background angular frequency contrast were set to a maximum of 5 times the test frequency threshold, was supported.
In this article, we study the psychometric properties of a short scale (TRANS-18) which was designed to detect safe behaviors (personal and vehicle-related) and psychophysiological disorders. 244 drivers participated in the study, including drivers of freight transport vehicles (regular, dangerous and special), cranes, and passenger transport (regular transport and chartered coaches), ambulances and taxis. After carrying out an exploratory factor analysis of the scale, the findings show a structure comprised of three factors related to psychophysiological disorders, and to both personal and vehicle-related safety behaviors. Furthermore, these three factors had adequate reliability and all three also showed validity with regard to burnout, fatigue and job tension. In short, this scale may be ideally suited for adequately identifying the safety behaviors and safety problems of transport drivers. Future research could use the TRANS-18 as a screening tool in combination with other instruments.
On November 16, 1989 the world was shocked by the news of the assassination of six Jesuits at the campus of the Universidad Centro Americana José Simeón Cañas (UCA) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Among those murdered by government soldiers was Ignacio Martín-Baró, a PhD in social psychology from the University of Chicago who at that time was the Vice-Rector for Academic Affairs and Vice-President of the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP). Drawing on Martín-Baró's published writings and non-published academic papers and correspondence, this article traces the evolution of the Spanish-born Jesuit who became a leading authority among Latin American social psychologists. In particular, it analyzes his project of becoming a clinical psychologist under the influence of psychoanalysis, his critical social psychology aimed to "de-ideologize" the oppressed social classes of El Salvador, and his ultimate project of a psychology of liberation for Latin America. Martín-Baró's work came to a tragic end just when it began to bear fruit, but it stands as a testimony to a lifetime committed to the human values of democracy, social justice and service to society's poorest and most neglected.
B.F. Skinner's original introductory note on page 1 of the document.
In May, 1961, a delegation of behavioral scientists visited Russia, Czechoslovakia, and Poland under sponsorship of the National Academy of Sciences and the State Department. The members were:Professor and Mrs. Donald G. Marquis, Professor Robert K. Merton, Professor and Mrs. James G. Miller, Professor and Mrs.George P.Murdock, Dr. and Mrs. Francis H. Palmer, Professor Anatol Rapoport, Dr. Henry W. Riecken, Professor and Mrs. B. F. Skinner, Dr. and Mrs. Ralph W. Tyler, Dr. Raymond W. Waggoner. The following comments were made whenever convenient on a portable dictating machine. My wife was often present as I dictated, and contributed details. A few changes have been made to put material in order, and in some cases forgetful repetitions have been deleted. Otherwise the record stands as made. It was prepared for purely personal reasons and contains trivialities, irrelevancies, first impressions subject to change, some pretty standard responses of new visitors to Russia, plus (it is hoped) a few fresh glimpses and reactions. It has been duplicated for limited circulation to members of the delegation and friends. Reproduction is not authorized.
From the very outset of scientific Psychology, psychologists have shown interest for drugs and their effects on behavior. This has given rise to numerous contributions, mostly in the form of Psychopharmacology publications. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate these contributions and compare them with other academic disciplines related to Psychopharmacology. Using the PubMed database, we retrieved information about articles from 15 journals included in the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category of the Journal Citation Reports database for a 21-year period (1987 to 2007). There were 37540 articles which about 52% were represented by 3 journals. About 70% of psychology publications were represented by 2 of these journals. Psychology departments accounted for the 11% of the published papers, which places Psychology third behind Psychiatry and Pharmacology, which contributed to 22.69 and 13% respectively. Psychology contributed to the greatest number of studies in 3 journals, second in 3 and third in 8. This report represents the first effort to explore the contribution of academic Psychology to the multidisciplinary science of psychopharmacology. Although leaders of production of psychopharmacology research were from Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Psychology departments are an important source of studies and thus of knowledge in the field of Psychopharmacology.
This paper presents an analysis of research published in the decade 1989-1998 by Spanish faculty members in the areas of statistical methods, research methodology, and psychometric theory. Database search and direct correspondence with faculty members in Departments of Methodology across Spain rendered a list of 193 papers published in these broad areas by 82 faculty members. These and other faculty members had actually published 931 papers over the decade of analysis, but 738 of them addressed topics not appropriate for description in this report. Classification and analysis of these 193 papers revealed topics that have attracted the most interest (psychophysics, item response theory, analysis of variance, sequential analysis, and meta-analysis) as well as other topics that have received less attention (scaling, factor analysis, time series, and structural models). A significant number of papers also dealt with various methodological issues (software, algorithms, instrumentation, and techniques). A substantial part of this report is devoted to describing the issues addressed across these 193 papers--most of which are written in the Spanish language and published in Spanish journals--and some representative references are given.
In this study, we identified 67 research trends that meet the criteria of this special issue. In the following pages, all the research trends will be reviewed, grouped into five categories: personal and social development, cognitive and linguistic development, developmental and educational contexts, cognition and instruction, and development and learning disabilities. A general overview of the area is obtained by dividing each category into subcategories, thus arranging the identified research trends in a four-level hierarchical structure. Taking into account this analysis, in our Conclusions section, we note the regularities with regard to the issues that have been studied the most, the predominant type of works, and, more important, the most noteworthy imbalances. We reached six conclusions: (1) Research on educational changes predominates over the study of developmental changes; (2) the study of formal education is predominant over informal education; (3) cognitive-linguistic aspects predominate over personal and social aspects; (4) application of knowledge predominates over the generation of new knowledge; (5) new educational-practice proposals predominate over the study of these educational practices; and (6) the study of change is not related to the proposals that promote change.
In this paper, we present an analysis of the research published during the 1989-1998 decade by tenured Spanish faculty members from the area of psychobiology. Database search and direct correspondence with the 110 faculty members rendered a list of 904 psychobiological papers. Classification and analysis of these papers led to the definition of at least 70 different research trends. Topics are grouped into several specific research areas: Learning and Memory; Development and Neural Plasticity; Emotion and Stress; Ethology; Neuropsychology; Sensory Processing; and Psychopharmacology. The international dissemination of this research, published in journals of high impact index, and the increasing number of papers are two noteworthy features.
The aim of this study is to analyze Spanish research published between 1989 and 1998 in clinical psychology and its most directly related psychological disciplines: personality psychology, psychopathology, differential psychology, health psychology, and psychological assessment. A search was performed in the various databases of the works published in that decade by Spanish university professors who investigate in these areas. Their localization was verified by direct correspondence with the professors, to whom was also sent a questionnaire to evaluate their research field and preferred theoretical approach. The 2,079 works located allowed me to identify 85 different research trends. These research trends are characterized by the predominance of applied studies over basic studies, of empirical research over theoretical research, and of the cognitive-behavioral approach over the rest of the theoretical orientations. In addition, various bibliometrical indicators of production, dissemination, and impact were calculated. They revealed that productivity and dissemination of Spanish research in these areas grew considerably during this 1989-98 period.
In a series of recent studies, Proffitt and his colleagues have reported that the perceived distance to a target is influenced by the energy expenditure associated with any action, such as walking or throwing, for spanning the distance to the target. In particular, Proffitt, Stefanucci, Banton, and Epstein (2003) reported that wearing a heavy backpack caused verbal reports of distance to increase. We conducted a study to determine whether three responses dependent on perceived distance (verbal report of distance, blind walking, and estimates of object size) are influenced by the backpack manipulation. In two experiments, one involving a between-participants design and the other involving a within-participants design, we found that none of the three responses were influenced by the wearing of a heavy backpack.
This paper focuses on the validation of the Spanish form of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner, Olmsted, Bohr & Garfinkel, 1982) across two studies. Participants in Study 1 were 778 females recruited from community settings (aged 12-21). Study 2 included 86 females recruited from clinical and 86 females from community settings (aged 12-35). Results from Principal and Simultaneous Component Analyses showed a unidimensional structure of the EAT-26 item scores. Reliability analyses supported the internal consistency of the scale. Study 1 also explores the ability of the EAT-26 to discriminate between subjects with Eating Disorder (ED), Symptomatic or Asymptomatic by means of ROC analyses and using results from the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses (Q-EDD; Mintz, O'Halloran, Mulholland, & Schneider, 1997) as criterion. The EAT-26 demonstrated good specificity but insufficient sensitivity to detect a full or partial ED. Study 2 explores the ability of the questionnaire to discriminate between subjects with and without ED. The EAT-26 demonstrated good specificity and moderate sensitivity to detect ED. Clinical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
This study was designed to develop a computerized test to assess gender roles. This test is presented as a decision-making task to mask its purpose. Each item displays a picture representing an activity and a brief sentence that describes it. Participants have to choose the most suitable sex to perform each activity: man or woman. The test (Gender Roles Test, GRT-36) consists of 36 items/activities. The program registers both the choices made and their response times (RTs). Responses are considered as stereotyped when the chosen sex fits stereotyped roles and non-stereotyped when the chosen sex does not fit stereotyped roles. Individual means (RTs) were computed for stereotyped and non-stereotyped responses, differentiating between domestic and work spheres. A "D" score, reflecting the strength of association between activities and sex, was calculated for each sphere and sex. The study incorporated 78 participants (69% women and 31% men) ranging from 19 to 59 years old. The results show that: (a) reading speed does not explain the variability in the RTs; (b) RTs show good internal consistency; (c) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for neutral stimuli; (d) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for non-stereotyped responses. Intended goals are supported by obtained results. Scores provided by the task facilitate both group and individual detailed analysis of gender role, differentiating the gender role assigned to men from that assigned to women, at the domestic and work spheres. Obtained data fall within the scope of the genderology and their implications are discussed.
This study longitudinally examined the production of pointing in four Spanish 1-year-old and four Spanish 2-year-old children in interactive situations with their mothers at home over the course of one year. Three aspects were analyzed: a) the functions of the pointing gesture, their accurate comprehension by the interlocutor (mother or child), and their order of emergence in the child; b) whether or not there were differences in the production of pointing according to who initiated the interaction; and c) whether maternal and child speech were related to maternal and child pointing production. The results showed that the pointing function of showing is the most frequent for both children and mothers from groups 1 and 2, and the first to emerge followed by the informing, requesting object, requesting action, and requesting cooperation functions. The accuracy with which these intentions were comprehended was found to be very high for both mother and child. Pointing production was greater when the speaker initiated the interaction than when the other person did, indicating that gestures follow the turn-taking system. Finally, the production of pointing to showing in children and mothers was found to be related to maternal and child speech, while pointing to request cooperation triggered the process of joint activity between mother and child.
Twelve cerebral palsied adolescents and young adults with complex communicative needs who used augmentative and alternative communication were studied. They were classified according to their working memory capacity (high vs. low) into two groups of 6 participants. They were also divided into two groups of 6 participants according to their high vs. low phonological skills. These groups were compared on their performance in reading tests -orthographic knowledge, a word test and a pseudoword reading test- and in the spelling of words, pseudowords and pictures' names. Statistical differences were found between high vs. low phonological skills groups, and between high and low working memory groups. High working memory capacity group scored significantly higher than low working memory group in the orthographic and word reading tests. The high phonological skills group outperformed the low phonological skills group in the word reading test and in the spelling of pseudowords and pictures' names. From a descriptive point of view, phonological skills and working memory, factors known to be highly predictive of literacy skills in people without disabilities, also hold as factors for the participants that used AAC in our study. Implications of the results are discussed.
The main goal of this research was to examine the reliability and different sources of validity evidence of the Oviedo Schizotypy Assessment Questionnaire-Abbreviated (ESQUIZO-Q-A) in nonclinical adolescents. The final sample was made up of 1,455 participants, 705 males (48.5%), with a mean age of 15.92 years (SD = 1.18). The internal consistency of the subscales ranged from .62 to .75. The analysis of its internal structure yielded a three-dimensional solution based on the dimensions: Reality Distortion, Anhedonia, and Interpersonal Disorganization. Likewise, the goodness-of-fit indices derived from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the hypothesized three-factor model were adequate. The three dimensions of the ESQUIZO-Q-A were significantly correlated with the subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The ESQUIZO-Q is a brief and simple self-report with adequate psychometric properties for the assessment of schizotypal traits in nonclinical adolescent populations. Future research should continue to explore the metric quality of the ESQUIZO-Q-A (e.g., sensitivity and specificity) and incorporate the new advances in psychological and educational assessment such as Computerized Adaptive Testing.
The aim of this research was to study the performance in a speed estimation task of a passenger travelling in a real car in different scenarios: a closed track used in previous experimental studies was compared with interurban traffic environment involving a secondary road and a highway. At the same time, the effect of sex and driving experience on speed estimation was analyzed. Thirty-six participants (18 male and 18 female, half of each group being drivers and half non-drivers) estimated the speed of the car in which they travelled as passengers. The actual speed values varied in the range of 40-100 km/h for the secondary road, 70-120 km/h for the highway condition, and 40-120 km/h for the track. The results obtained for the track in previous studies (Recarte and Nunes, 1996; Recarte, Conchillo, and Nunes, 2004, 2005) were replicated in the same condition and were also verified for the secondary road scenario. However, a different pattern of errors was found for the highway. From the viewpoint of psychophysics, the participants were more accurate on the without-traffic track than in real traffic conditions, considered as a whole. The differences found between road and highway are discussed. No effect was found for between- subject variables, sex, and driving experience.
In this study, the incidence of the degree of abstraction in solving addition and subtraction problems with the unknown in the first term and in the result is analyzed. Ninety-six students from first grade to fourth grade in Primary Education (24 students per grade) solved arithmetic problems with objects, drawings, algorithms, and verbal problems. The participants were interviewed individually and all sessions were video-taped. The results indicate a different developmental pattern in achievement for each school grade depending on the levels of abstraction. The influence of the level of abstraction was significant, especially in first graders, and even more so in second graders, that is, at the developmental stage in which they start to learn these arithmetic tasks. Direct modeling strategies are observed more frequently at the concrete and pictorial level, counting strategies occur at all levels of abstraction, whereas numerical fact strategies are found at higher levels of abstraction.
This study analyzes the prevalence and characteristics of childhood and adolescence sexual abuse suffered by a sample of university students, as well as the variables associated with the nature of abuse. Participants anonymously completed the Questionnaire on Child Sexual Abuse, in order to obtain information about experience of sexual abuse. Of a total of 2,375 students, 289 (12.2%) declared having suffered sexual abuse before the age of 18. The invasiveness, continuity, and severity of abuse was related to the location where the abuse took place (the more severe cases were committed in the homes of the victim and perpetrator) and to the circumstances of abuse (relationships with partners/at a party or while caring for a child predicted more severe abuse). The age of the victim (preschool) and an intrafamilial relationship between victim and perpetrator were also related to more invasive, continuous, and severe sexual abuse. The knowledge of characteristics of perpetrator and victim and the context in which sexual abuse occurs can help to better comprehend the nature and correlates of sexual abuse. The results of the present study may contribute to the design of programs for the prevention of sexual abuse to minors.
Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported.
This article presents a study whose objective was to identify certain personal and institutional variables that are associated with academic achievement among Spanish, secondary school students, and to analyze their influence on the progress of those students over the course of that stage of their education. In order to do this, a longitudinal, multi-level study was conducted in which a total of 965 students and 27 different schools were evaluated in Language, Math and Social Science at three different times (beginning, middle and end of the period). The results show progress in all the schools and in all areas. As for the personal, student variables, the longitudinal, HLM analyses confirmed the importance of sex and sociocultural background and, distinguishing it from other studies, also the predictive capacity of meta-cognitive abilities and learning strategies on success in school. On the institutional level, the school climate and teachers' expectations of their students were the most relevant of the variables studied. The size of the school, the percentage of students who repeat grades, and the leadership of the administration also explained a portion of the variance in some areas.