The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology

Publications
Based on extensive male trapping, information is presented on the distribution and seasonal abundance of six Bactrocera species in Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia. Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta were trapped in northern and central Thailand, B. papayae, B. carambolae and B. umbrosa were restricted to southern Thailand and Malaysia, while B. cucurbitae was widespread, although more abundant in the north. Bactrocera dorsalis, B. papayae and B. correcta exhibited unimodal patterns of population abundance, with populations peaking between June and September depending on species and locality. Bactrocera carambolae, B. cucurbitae and B. umbrosa showed no clear patterns in their population modalities, varying between regions. Based on fruit rearing work undertaken in northern and southern Thailand, information on host use patterns is also provided for the above six species, plus B. latifrons. Bactrocera umbrosa, B. latifrons and B. cucurbitae are confirmed as oligophagous on Artocarpus spp., Solanum spp. and cucurbit spp., respectively. Species of the B. dorsalis complex (B. dorsalis, B. carambolae, B. papayae) and B. correcta, although with a very wide potential host range, were predominantly reared from a small number of hosts, including Terminalia catappa, Psidium guajava, Syzygium samarangense and Averrhoa carambola. The number of flies reared from such hosts were generally in excess of the proportion of that fruit in regional samples, implying that even though the flies are polyphagous species, not all hosts are used equally.
 
Summary of occurrence data available to us for model development, projected current distributional areas (derived from trimmed raw ENM results), and projected proportional range loss under two scenarios of climate change for each nuthatch species occurring in Asia.
Model predictions of species distribution area retained (gray) and lost (black) due to climate change for two example species, Sitta tephronota (white triangles, western area) and S. frontalis (dotted squares, eastern area).  
Model predictions regarding number and percent of nuthatch species lost due to climate change, along with estimated current and future species richness for nuthatches. Shading ramps range from white (minimum) to dark gray (maximum) as follows: number of species lost 0-5, percent of species lost 0-100, and current and future species richness 0-9 species.  
We used ecological niche modeling approaches to explore climate change implications for one family of birds, the Sittidae, in Asia. Quantitative niche models based on present-day distributions for each of 13 species were projected onto future climate change scenarios. Species’ potential distributional areas tended to be predicted to retract along their fringes, and at lower elevations along mountain ranges. As observed in other studies, montane systems were relatively more robust to the horizontal effects of climate change on species’ distributions compared to flatland systems, so range contractions were focused in Southeast Asia and peninsular India.
 
The efficacy of Australian Pinnacle protein bait and Thai yeast bait to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and B. tau (Walker) infestations in angled luffa and bitter gourd was tested. Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett) was the only species found infesting flowers of angled luffa and none was found on bitter gourd. The angled luffa plot treated with Pinnacle and bitter gourd plots treated with either Pinnacle or Thai bait had considerably lower percent infested fruits when compared with the untreated plots. Yields obtained in the angled luffa plot treated with Pinnacle were 81.57% higher than in the untreated plot and in the bitter gourd plots treated with either Pinnacle or Thai bait, increased yields were 67.22% and 59.98% higher, respectively, than in the untreated plot. Bactrocera cucurbitae and B. tau were the only two species that infested fruits of both crops. Among dead fruit flies feeding on the poison baits, collected from funnel traps, B. cucurbitae and B. tau were the most common species. Other species found in the traps in angled luffa plots were B. carambolae Drew & Hancock, B. papayae Drew & Hancock, B. diversa (Coquillett), B. umbrosa (Fabricius), B. caudata (Fabricus), B. tuberculata (Bezzi), B. latifrons (Hendel) and Adrama rufiventris (Walker). In the bitter gourd plot, other species found were B. dorsalis (complex), Anomoia kraussi Hardy and Acroceratitis tomentosa Hardy in the plot treated with Pinnacle; and B. dorsalis (complex) and B. caudata in the plot treated with Thai bait. More females than males were collected in the traps in both crops.
 
Records from strandings, museum specimens, sighting databases and unpublished sightings of aerial surveys were compiled and used to review the distribution and population status of Irrawaddy dolphins, Orcaella brevirostris, in Australian waters. Stranding and museum specimen records indicate that Irrawaddy dolphins occur only in the northern half of Australia, from approximately the Brisbane River (27degrees 32'S, 152degrees 49'E) on the east coast to Broome (17degrees 57'S, 122degrees 14'E) on the west coast. Aerial surveys demonstrate that Irrawaddy dolphins occur mainly in protected, shallow, coastal waters, close to river and creek mouths, which appear to be an important habitat for the species. Irrawaddy dolphins tend to form relatively small groups of 1-10 animals with occasional aggregations of up to 14 animals. The status of Irrawaddy dolphins in Australian waters is difficult to assess, because most data have been collected opportunistically. However, the low number of sightings during aerial surveys, in comparison with observations of other sympatric marine mammals, such as Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), suggest that Irrawaddy dolphins are relatively uncommon in Australian waters, or possibly are inadequately sampled on aerial surveys.
 
Pleurocrypta macrocephalon Nierstrasz & Brender à Brandis, 1923, female: A, dorsal view; B, ventral view. C, left side of barbula; D, right maxilliped; E, right oostegite 1, external; F, same, internal; G, right pereopod 1; H, distal region of same; I, right pereopod 7; J, distal region of same. Scale bars: A-F = 1.00 mm; G, I = 0.36 mm; H, J = 0.09 mm. 
Pleurocrypta macrocephalon Nierstrasz & Brender à Brandis, 1923, male: A, dorsal view; B, right antennae; C, right pereopod 1; D, left pereopod 7. Scale bars: A = 0.40 mm; C, D = 0.20 mm; B = 0.10 mm. 
Parabopyrella bonnieri (Nierstrasz & Brender à Brandis, 1923), female: A, dorsal view; B, ventral view; C, right antennae; D, right side of barbula; E, right maxilliped; F, palp of same; G, plectron of same; H, right oostegite 1, external view; I, same, internal view; J, right pereopod 1; K, distal region of same; L, right pereopod 7; M, distal region of same; N, right pleopods. Scale bars: A, B, E, H, I = 2.20 mm; D, N = 1.00 mm; C, F, G = 0.63 mm; K, M = 0.13 mm. 
Athelges takanoshimensis Ishii, 1914: A, female in dorsal view; B, male in dorsal view; C, male in ventral view. Scale bars: A = 1.00 mm; B, C = 0.55 mm. 
Pseudostegias dulcilacuum Markham, 1982. A-H, female: A, dorsal view; B, ventral view; C, right side of barbula; D, right maxilliped; E, right oostegite 1, external view; F, same, internal view; G, right pereopod 1; H, bulbous lateral plates of pleomere 5 and pleotelson; I, possible hyperparsite removed from brood pouch. Scale bars: A, B, D-F = 2.00 mm, C, G-I = 1.00 mm. 
The fauna of parasitic isopods of the family Bopyridae in Singapore is only poorly known, consisting of only seven species in as many genera in five subfamilies. A new small collection adds four species in as many genera, two of them belonging to a subfamily not previously recorded from Singapore. These are: Pleurocrypta macrocephalon (Nierstarsz & Brender a Brandis, 1923 [incorporating Pleurocrypta yatsui (Pearse, 1930)] (subfamily Pseudioninae), infesting Petrolisthes lamarckii (Leach); Parabopryella bonnieri (Nierstarsz & Brender a Brandis, 1923 (subfamily Bopyrinae), infesting Alpheus strenuus Dana; Athelges takanoshimensis Ishii, 1914; and Pseudostegias dulcilacuum Markham, 1982 (both subfamily Athelginae), noth of the latter two species infecting Diogenes pallescens Whitelegge. A list of the 11 species now known from Singapore with their host species and citation is presented. PDF
 
Habitus diagram (top) and dorsal views of the juvenile (middle) and adult (bottom) brains from two species of shark. A to C) bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, D to F) blacktip reef shark, C. melanopterus. Alll = anterior lateral line lobe; Cb = cerebellum; Ob = olfactory bulb; Ot = optic tectum; Plll = posterior lateral line lobe; Tel = telencephalon. Scale bars = 2 cm. Habitus diagrams adapted from Compagno et al. (2005).  
The mean relative volume of four sensory brain areas [the olfactory bulbs, optic tectum, anterior lateral line lobes (ALLLs) and posterior lateral line lobes (PLLLs)] as a proportion of the total sensory brain volume, in juveniles (black) and adults (grey) of seven species of elasmobranch. In particular, note the differences in the mean size of the olfactory bulbs and the optic tectum between juveniles and adults. Error bars = standard errors.
Studies on the brains of teleost fishes have shown that the relative size of sensory brain areas reflects sensory specialisations and the relative importance of a given sensory system. Moreover, the relative size of these brain areas can change in relation to ontogenetic shifts in habitat and feeding ecology. However, although elasmobranchs (sharks, skates and rays) also exhibit ontogenetic shifts in habitat and diet, little is known about how their sensory systems and brains may adapt to these changes. In this paper, we compare the relative volumes of four sensory brain areas; the olfactory bulbs, optic tectum, anterior lateral line lobes and posterior lateral line lobes (that receive input from the olfactory epithelium, eye, electroreceptors and lateral line, respectively) in juveniles and adults of seven species of elasmobranch (six species of shark and one species of ray). The relative volume of each brain area was expressed as proportion of the total sensory brain, the combined volume of the four brain areas. Significant differences were found in the relative proportions of the sensory brain areas between juveniles and adults. In all species, the optic tectum was relatively larger in juveniles, whereas the size of the olfactory bulbs was relatively greater in adults. This paper provides the first evidence for shifts in the size of sensory brain areas in elasmobranchs and suggests that vision is relatively more important than olfaction in juvenile elasmobranchs and vice versa in adults.
 
We present an updated classification for the entire Crustacea Decapoda, listing all known families and genera organized by higher taxonomic groups and including estimates of the number of species in every genus. All taxonomic names are also linked to the verified literature in which they were described, the first compilation of its kind for the Decapoda. To arrive at this compilation, we began with the classification scheme provided by Martin & Davis (2001) for extant families, updated the higher classification and included the fossil taxa. The resultant framework was then populated with the currently valid genera and an estimate of species numbers within each genus. Our resulting classification, spanning both extant (living) and fossil taxa, is the first comprehensive estimate of taxonomic diversity within the entire Decapoda. The classification consists of 233 families of decapods containing 2,725 genera and an estimated 17,635 species (including both extant and fossil species). Of the families in our classification, 53 are exclusively fossil, 109 contain both fossil and extant species, and 71 are extant only. The current estimate for extant species is 14,756, whereas 2,979 species are known exclusively as fossils.
 
A survey of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from wild and cultivated host plants was conducted in Thailand and Malaysia between 1986 and 1994. In addition to fruit flies, host samples also yielded parasites of those flies, predominantly opiine wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae). Although used extensively in classical biological control programmes, very little is known about the host relationships of these parasites in their native environment. From the survey work, host records are given for 13 described species (viz. Diachasmimorpha albobalteata [Cameron], D. dacusii [Cameron], D. longicaudata [Ashmead], Fopius arisanus [Sonan], F. deeralensis [Fullaway], F. persulcatus [Silvestri], F. skinneri [Fullaway], F. vandenboschi [Fullaway], Opius bellus Gahan, Psvtallia flelcheri [Silvestri], P. incisi [Silvestri], P. makii [Sonan] and Utetes bianchii [Fullaway]) and three undescribed opiines. The parasitoid species are listed in relation to the fruit fly species within fruit samples, and the plant species from which the flies and wasps were reared.
 
Tail spine characteristics were examined in 46 stingray species (171 males, 252 females) with intact spines from the Northwest Pacific Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) fishing area 61 (located between 20ºN 120ºE-50ºN 150ºE). Of these, 34 species possessed tail spines, 10 did not and two species either had all their spines broken (Dasyatis navarrae) or were not examined (D. gigantea). The distribution, spine length, base length, total number of serrations per spine, the prebase/total spine length percentage ratio and the presence of a dorsal spine groove are discussed for each species. The number of spine serrations appears to be related to the specific habitat frequented by each species: 1) open water and highly-active swimming species (eight species) possessed total spine serrations exceeding 100; 2) active midwater species (12 species) possessed 70-100 total spine serrations; 3) benthopelagic species (seven species) possessed 50-70 total serrations and 4) benthic species (seven species) possessed 25-50 total spine serrations. Spine total lengths (STL) varied widely and were not correlated with disk widths (DW). For example, Aetobatis narinari, a large (300 cm DW), active species had spine lengths of 60-78 mm with 102-112 serrations while the benthic species Dasyatis ushiei (38 cm DW) had a comparable spine length of 92 mm but only 46 serrations. Likewise, the length of the serrations varied in length from minute in D. ushiei (38 cm DW), to stout in D. izuensis (32 cm DW) and long in D. bennetti (30 cm DW) although they were of similar disk widths. Some spines also had serrations on the sides of the spine base. Thus, stingray spine characteristics are good indicators of the species and its habitat preference. Spine morphologies can aid ichthyologists, paleontologists and physicians in species identification and elucidating fossil relationships. © 2007 Academia Sinica and National University of Singapore. All rights reserved.
 
Perca argentea Linnaeus, 1758 and Perca vaila Osbeck, 1770 were cited in a number of early compilations of fishes, either as valid taxa or as synonyms, but disappeared from the literature after 1804. They are demonstrated here to represent senior synonyms of the Terapon theraps (Cuvier, 1829) and Dicentrarchus punctatus (Bloch, 1792), respectively. Perca argentea and P. vaila are here invalidated under Article 23.9.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Perca indica [Gronow] Gray is shown to be a junior synonym of Terapon theraps.
 
Atergatis ocyroe (Herbst, 1801) is separated from Atergatis floridus (Linnaeus, 1767), with which it has been considered a junior synonym for many years. Atergatis ocyroe is the common species of the northern and Western Indian Ocean whereas A. floridus occurs in Southeast Asia, Australia and the western Pacific. Atergatis ocyroe can be separated from A. floridus by marked differences in the carapace colour and patterns, by the degree of swelling of the branchial carapace regions, and by the relative proportions the ischium of the third maxillipeds. In order to stabilise the taxonomy of these two species, a neotype is designated for A. floridus (Linnaeus, 1767) and a lectotype for A. ocyroe (Herbst, 1801).
 
The taxonomy of the highly poisonous Indo-West Pacific xanthid crab, Lophozozymus pictor (Fabricius, 1798) is treated. Specimens from northeastern and eastern Australia are here recognised as a new species, L. erinnyes. The two species differ not only in colouration but also in the form of the sutures between male abdominal segments 3 to 5, structure of the anterolateral lobes and male first pleopod. Taxonomic notes on L. incisus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) and L. edwardsi (Odhner, 1925) are also provided.
 
Three species of monogeneans, Mizelleus siamensis, new 'species, Thaparocleidus indicus (Kulkarni, 1969) Lim, 1996, and Thaparocleidus kao , new species, were found on Wallago attu in Thailand. M. siamensis, new species, differs from Mizelleus indicus Jain, 1957, in having a sclerotised vaginal tube and in lacking prominent spines on the dorsal patches. M. siamensis, new species, is further characterised by patches on the ventral anchors and two dactylogyrid-type seminal vesicles, similar to those found in Bychowskyella and Quadriacanthus. Thaparocleidus kao, new species, differs from other Thaparocleidus found on W. attu by having a short twisted vaginal tube and a coiled copulatory tube with a stick-like accessory piece which is expanded at the distal end.
 
The identity of the bagrid catfish Hemibagrus elongatus (Günther, 1864) is clarified, and the holotype is redescribed and figured for the first time. The supposed type locality of the species (Singapore) is disputed and the type specimen is believed to have originated from China instead. The Chinese and Vietnamese species of Hemibagrus are also reviewed, and problems with their taxonomy and nomenclature discussed. Hemibagrus guttatus (La Cepède, 1803) is regarded here as a junior subjective synonym of H. elongatus (Günther, 1864).
 
The complete larval development of Parasesarma plicatum, comprising five zoeal and a megalopa stages, was studied under laboratory conditions reared at 25 ppt salinity and 28°C ± 1. The larval stages were described and compared with that of other known species.
 
Two new species of the genus Upogebia (Decapoda: Gebiidae: Upogebiidae) from the South China Sea are described. Upogebia jiaruii, new species, most closely resembles Upogebia baweana Tirmizi & Kazmi, 1979 but differs markedly in having two smooth, strong transverse carinae on the dorsal surface of the telson. Upogebia ruiyui, new species, most closely resembles Upogebia allspachi Sakai, 2006 but differs markedly in having two transverse denticulate carinae on the dorsal surface of the telson and without sharp upper spine on the propodus of pereopod 1.
 
A new species, Myra digitata, is established for two specimens collected over a century ago on Holothuria Bank, Timor Sea, and for material from South China Sea described as M. biconica Ihle, 1918, by Chen (1989, 1996) and Chen & Sun (2002). The new species is distinguished from M. biconica in having shallower frontal notch, much longer chelipeds, ovate, rather than rounded, carapace, and rounded, less prominent lateral posterior denticles on carapace. The species is described, fully illustrated, and synonymies are discussed.
 
Lao PDR, with locations of post-1990 Small Asian Mongoose records, survey areas, and sites mentioned in the text. Filled stars: confi rmed records; open stars: provisional records. Increasing altitude is represented by increasing darkness: areas of level terrain are therefore areas of uniform shading. Dotted outlines indicate national protected areas (all surveyed to at least some extent). Survey areas outside NPA system: A, Phongsali town and surrounds; B, Upper Lao Mekong and Bokeo plain; C, Xiangkhouang plateau, Phou (= Mount) Gnouan and Phou San; D, Muang (= District) Sangthong, Vientiane municipality; E, Nam Theun Extension proposed NPA (= former Nam Chat–Nam Phan provincial protected area); F, Pakxan wetlands; G, Nakai plateau; H, Muang Vilabouli, Savannakhet province; I, western Savannakhet lowlands and Mekong; J, central Savannakhet lowlands; K, Phou Ahyon; L, Dakchung plateau; M, Salavan town and surrounds; N, Phou Kathong proposed NPA; O, Xe (= River) Namnoy catchment and Bolaven Southwest proposed NPA; P, Muang Pathoumphon, Champasak province; Q, Nam Ghong provincial protected area; R, Dong Khanthung proposed NPA. In addition various sites around Vientiane received at least moderate coverage. 
Records of Herpestes javanicus from Lao PDR.
Small Asian Mongoose Herpestes javanicus (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1818) is not much recorded through conventional (evergreen-forest-centred) wildlife surveys in South-east Asia, and available literature contains few records from Lao PDR. Collating records from the country reveals a wide distribution in the lowlands of its centre and south, and persistence in areas whence most other wild mammals (other than murids and bats) have been eradicated, including extensive farmland and suburban areas. Records from largely natural habitats are in or adjacent to deciduous biomes: the species is indeed rare in or absent from evergreen forests, hence the paucity of records during conventional survey. It evidently survives through rather evasive behaviour, and while populations may be much below carrying capacity, the paucity of records does not refl ect a cause for conservation concern. It remains unclear whether the species inhabits the extensive hilland mountain ranges of Lao PDR.
 
Map of Southeast Asia showing the approximate location of the new (Singapore and Bali) and GenBank sequences included in the study. Numbers correspond to the following locations (haplotype IDs in parentheses): ★, Singapore (Sing1-3) ; 1, Vietnam (Viet1 & 2); 2, Cambodia (Camb1 & 2); 3, Thailand (Thai1); 4, Thailand (Thai2); 5, Malaysia (Selangor1 & 2); 6, Malaysia (Johor); 7, south Sumatra, Indonesia (Sumatra1 & 2, Java1); 8, Java (Java1); 9, Kalimantan, Borneo (Borneo3); 10, Sarawak, Borneo (Borneo1); 11, Sepilok, Borneo (Borneo2); 12, Bali, Indonesia (Bali1 & 2); 13, Sibuyan, Philippines (Phil1); 14, Bangkok, Thailand (Thai3 & 4); 15, Malaysia (W. Malay); 16, Malaysia (E. Malay2); 17 Malaysia (E. Malay1);18, north Sumatra (Sumatra3-6, 9); 19, west Borneo, Indonesia (Borneo9); 20, west Borneo, Indonesia (Borneo4-7); 21, central Borneo, Indonesia (Borneo4 & 6); 22, Bangka, south Sumatra (Sumatra 7 & 8); 23, Java, Indonesia (Java2 & 3); 24, northeast Borneo, Indonesia (Borneo8); 25, Mindanao, Philippines (Phil2); 26, Timor (Timor). Several Borneo haplotypes appear in multiple locations. 
Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) have a wide geographic distribution across mainland and insular Southeast Asia. The evolutionary history of long-tailed macaques has been examined extensively through comparison of phenotypic variation and by phylogenetic analyses of molecular genetic data. Nonetheless, the complex evolutionary history of M. fascicularis throughout Southeast Asia is not fully understood. For the present study, we performed a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of M. fascicularis mitochondrial 12S/tRNA-val/16S sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships of the long-tailed macaques from Singapore. More generally, we hoped to gain a better understanding of the evolutionary history of long-tailed macaques throughout Southeast Asia. We used previously archived sequences in GenBank and new sequences from Singapore (n=34) and Bali, Indonesia (n=2) in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to co-infer evolutionary histories and divergence dates. Our results revealed two large clades, one composed of haplotypes primarily from Sundaic islands populations, and the second primarily from continental populations. These two larger clades comprise four primary regional clades. All three haplotypes from Singapore form a well-supported subclade within a larger peninsular clade. A medianjoining network of haplotypes mirrored the results from the phylogenetic analyses. We found divergence dates that were largely consistent with previous studies using complete mitochondrial genomes. Based on an assessment of phylogenetic relationships, the pattern of estimated divergence dates, and the available fossil record, we suggest that the evolutionary history of M. fascicularis likely included multiple dispersal events.
 
Altitudinal zonation of Chelipoda species on Doi Inthanon. The abundance at each elevation and date is proportional to the area of the circles; C. hubeiensis Yang & Yang (open circles); C. fl avida Brunetti (shaded circles).
Infl uence of altitude on seasonal abundance of Chelipoda spp. on Doi Inthanon. Radial plot of species richness (number of species) throughout the year. Approximate limits of the major seasons are indicated.
Nine species of Chelipoda Macquart, 1823 (Diptera: Empididae) are described from northern Thailand: C. chaiamnata, new species; C. inthawichayanona, new species; C. kameawuta, new species; C. laisoma, new species; C. manggawna, new species; C. meenamluang, new species; C. nakladam, new species; C. nakropa, new species and C. thaosuranaria, new species. One species, C. macrosceles new species is described from Vietnam and also reported from Thailand. In total, fourteen species of Chelipoda are reported from northern Thailand and an identifi cation key provided. Descriptions of C. fl avida Bru-netti, 1913; C. guangxiensis Yang & Yang, 1986; C. hubeiensis Yang & Yang, 1990 and C. menglunana Grootaert, Yang & Saigusa, 2000 are augmented. Eleven species (including seven endemics) occurred on the mountain Doi Inthanon which was identifi ed as a 'hotspot' of Chelipoda diversity. Species richness and abundance increased with altitude and seasonal infl uences on adult phenology were greatest at lower elevations. The uplifting of Doi Inthanon coincided with development of seasonal monsoon patterns and orogenesis of mountain ranges connecting with the eastern Himalaya. It is hypothesised that: (a) seasonal relaxation at higher altitudes provided moist refugia into which Chelipoda and other ombrophilous fauna migrated vertically in response to the intensifi cation of seasonality at lower elevations. Subsequent uplift-ing of Doi Inthanon's basement well above the present day surrounding area would have isolated these faunal elements and promoted speciation; (b) the mountain may have been colonised from the Himalaya via 'Palaearctic corridors' of suitable moist forest habitat along intervening mountain chains.
 
A-C, General anatomy of Pterocyclos frednaggsi Sutcharit & Panha, new species, from Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia CUMZ 4944, showing: A, right side of male with testis and external penis; B, right side of female with ovary and vaginal groove; C, left side of female with lung cavity and heart. D, E, Radula morphology of: D, Pterocyclos spaleotes, topotype specimen CUMZ 4585; E, Pterocyclos frednaggsi Sutcharit & Panha, new species, paratype CUMZ 4581.
Specimens of the operculated land snail genus Pterocyclos Benson, 1832, from Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia were investigated based on their shell characteristics. Type specimens and topotypic material were studied and compared with newly collected specimens. Two new species are described, viz. Pterocyclos diluvium Sutcharit & Panha, new species, from Tam Sumano, Patthalung, Thailand, adjacent areas in Thailand, and Malaysia, and Pterocyclos frednaggsi Sutcharit & Panha, new species, collected from Bukit Chintamani, Pahang, Malaysia, and adjacent areas in Peninsular Malaysia. Two species that hitherto were included in Pterocyclos, viz. P. blandi Benson, 1851 and P. subulatus Sykes, 1903, were retained in this genus, while two other former Pterocyclos species were re-assigned to other genera, viz. Pearsonia regelspergeri (Morgan, 1885) and Ptychopoma perrieri (Morlet, 1889). Conversely, two previously described species in other genera (Rhiostoma spaleotes Tomlin, 1932, and Cyclotus umbraticus Benthem Jutting, 1949) are here transferred to Pterocyclos, viz. P. spaleotes (Tomlin, 1932) and P. umbraticus (Benthem Jutting, 1949). To stabilise the nomenclatural status, the lectotype of Pterocyclos rupestris Benson, 1832, and Pterocyclos spaleotes are designated herein.
 
The parthenopid crab genus Cryptopodia H. Milne Edwards, 1834, is revised. Cryptopodia H. Milne Edwards, 1834, s. str. is restricted for the Indo-West Pacific taxa, and 12 species are recognised. Two new species, Cryptopodia patula and C. echinosa, are described from India. Cryptopodia laevimana Miers, 1879, is shown to be a valid species. Cryptopodia pentagona Flipse, 1930, and C. sinica Chen & Xu, 1991, are regarded as junior synonyms of C. fornicata (Fabricius, 1781), and C. pan Laurie, 1906, respectively. The two American species, C. concava Stimpson, 1871, and C. hassleri Rathbun, 1925, are redescribed and transferred to a new genus, Celatopesia. Celatopesia is distinguished from Cryptopodia in lacking a dorsal triangular depression and a lateroventral concavity for its legs, having the margins of the antennular fossae granulated, the structure of the shape of the third maxilliped, structures of the fingers and palm of the chelipeds, and male telson shape. Keys to the genera Cryptopodia and Celatopesia as well as their respective species are provided.
 
The first stage zoeas of Atergatis subdentatus (de Haan, 1835), Atergatopsis germaini A. Milne-Edwards, 1865, and Platypodia eydouxi (A. Milne-Edwards, 1865) are described for the first time, Actaeodes tomentosus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) are fully illustrated, Atergatis floridus (Linnaeus, 1767) are redescribed, and those of Platypodiella spectabilis (Herbst, 1794) are re-examined. A list of characters is tabulated for all known zosimine first stage zoeas. The zoeal evidence appears to support adult taxonomy by highlighting the difficulties in clarifying the systematics within the xanthoidean taxa, Zosiminae Alcock, 1898 and Actaeinae Alcock, 1898.
 
The southern Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir hepuensis Dai, 1991, whose taxonomic status has been subjected to some debate, is here regarded as a valid species. This taxon differs from Eriocheir sinensis and E. japonica in the form of its carapace, cheliped, ambulatory leg, abdomen, male first pleopod, female gonopore as well as its distribution. Our study shows that the genus Eriocheir s. str. contains only three species, E. japonica (de Haan, 1835) (type species), E. sinensis H. Milne Edwards, 1854, and E. hepuensis Dai, 1991, with Eriocheir leptognathus Rathbun, 1913, and Eriocheir formosa Chan, Hung & Yu, 1995, transferred to other genera. The different E. sinensis forms reported by Panning (1933, 1938) were re-examined and their taxonomy discussed.
 
The ancient lakes of the Indonesian island Sulawesi harbour two endemic species flocks of the freshwater shrimp genus Caridina (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae). One of them forms the largest radiation within the genus. Species from both lake systems evolved under similar extrinsic conditions and show some parallel patterns, e.g. the development of unusual and flamboyant colour patterns. After extensive sampling and field observations over several years, we here present the first comprehensive revision of all ancient lakes species from both lake systems. We describe eight new and synonymize one previously described species. Besides standard morphology-based species descriptions of alcohol preserved material, we also provide ecological and behavioural data as well as colour patterns of living animals whenever available. We further use a molecular phylogeny, based on the mitochondrial genes 16S and COI, to support our morphology-based species descriptions. The revision reveals that the total number of species (21) is almost twice as high as previously described. However, there is a considerably lower number of species in Lake Poso than in the Malili lakes, which might be explained by an age difference between the two species flocks or the less pronounced geographical structure of Lake Poso. The molecular phylogeny further suggests the existence of several cryptic species. Last but not least, we hint at conservation priorities, not only for the beautiful shrimps we present in this study, but also for all other organisms endemic to the ancient lakes of Sulawesi that are threatened with extinction by human impact.
 
The crabs of the genera Ceratocarcinus White, 1847, and Harrovia Adams & White, 1849, are revised. Members of both genera are obligate symbionts of crinoids. Ceratocarcinus White, 1847, now contains three species: C. longimanus White, 1847, C. frontodentata (Shen, Dai & Chen 1982), and C. trilobatus (Sakai, 1938). One species, Ceratocarcinus spinosus Miers, 1879, is referred to a new genus, Tiaramedon. Harrovia is redefined and now contains seven species: H. albolineata Adams & White, 1849, H. cognata, new species, H. elegans De Man, 1887, H. japonica Balss, 1921, A longipes Lanchester, 1900, H. ngi Chen & Xu, 1992, and H. tuberculata Haswell, 1880. Harrovia purpureus Gordon, 1934, and Harrovia egeriae Gordon, 1947, are referred to two new genera, Permanotus and Tauropus respectively.
 
The spiny crab genus Hypothalassia Gistel, 1848 (Eriphiidae) previously regarded as monotypic, is revised and two species are now recognised. The type species, Hypothalassia armata (de Haan, 1835), is redescribed and its distribution restricted to the Pacific. A new species, Hypothalassia acerba, is described from Western and South Australia, being distinguished from the type species by live colours, carapace features, ambulatory leg proportions and structure of the gonopods.
 
The Indo-West Pacific gecarcinid Discoplax hirtipes (Dana, 1851) is one of the best known land crabs in the Indo-West Pacific, with a range spanning from the eastern Indian Ocean to Hawaii. Recently, the famous blue population of "D. hirtipes" from Christmas Island was described as a new species, D. celeste Ng & Davie, 2012. A revision of the D. hirtipes species-group using morphological and genetic data from mitochondrial 16S rRNA and COI (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) shows that the species can be divided into three distinct species; with the Indian Ocean population belonging to an undescribed taxon. The redescription of the taxa in the species-group as well as characterisation of the new species from the eastern Indian Ocean forms the basis of the present paper.
 
A new species of hermit crab, Diogenes singaporensis, is described based on material from Pulau Ubin, East Johor Strait, Singapore. This new species resembles D. goniochirus Forest, 1956 in having a distal protuberance or elongated ridge each on the outer surface of the palm and the carpus of the left cheliped, but easily distinguished by the presence of a median crest on the outer surface of the palm of the left cheliped and a distal spine on the dorsal surface of the fourth segment of the antennal peduncle. Two other congeneric species D. klaasi Rahayu & Forest, 1995 and D. moosai Rahayu & Forest, 1995 are recorded for the first time from Singapore waters.
 
A, Chlorotocoides spinicauda (De Man, 1902), stn. T4, male 9.0 mm; B, Thalassocaris crinita (Dana, 1852), stn. B4, female 4.5 mm.  
The caridean shrimp family Thalassocarididae Bate, 1888, collected during the Philippine PANGLAO 2004 expedition consists of two genera and two species, namely Chlorotocoides spinicauda (De Man, 1902) and Thalassocaris crinita (Dana, 1852). In contradiction to the previously held belief that the genus Thalassocaris is pelagic, all 21 specimens of T. crinita were collected from coral reef rubble or other benthic habitats. The colouration of these two species is illustrated for the first time. A review of previous records of T. crinita is presented, which concludes that the species appears to live in benthic habitats, occasionally becoming planktonic at night.
 
Two new species of muricid gastropods, Thais pinangensis, new species, and T. rufotincta, new species, are described from Pulau Pinang and Singapore Island, respectively. They may have previously been overlooked or mistaken for T. tissoti or T. blanfordi. The latter two species are not found in the Malayan region but are probably restricted to the Indian subcontinent and east coast of Africa.
 
Two species of Protella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) are described in detail: P. gracilis Dana, 1853, based on type specimen collected from Balabac Strait, separating the Philippines and Borneo in the tropical Indo-Pacifi c and deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University; and P. amamiensis, new species, collected from Amami Islands, Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan, situated at the border of temperate and tropical regions in the northern Pacifi c. Protella amamiensis, new species, differs from P. gracilis in its 2-articulate pereopods 3 and 4, small penes, and elongated uropod 1.
 
A–B. Amphidromus (Amphidromus) mundus. A. Neotype CUMZ 4917; B. additional, topotypic material, CUMZ 4914 from Pulau Besar, Johor, Malaysia. C, D. Original specimens of Bulimus mundus var. β Pfeiffer, 1853, BMNH 19601542. E. Pfeiffer’s original handwritten label of the lot BMNH 19601542, on the smaller label attached to the bottom left of the larger label is given "Borneo?/China?/ M.C.". The acronym M.C. is identifying the material as originating from the Hugh Cuming collection, Acc. No. 1829. F. Living specimen of A. (A.) mundus (shell height about 35 mm), CUMZ 4914. G. Living snails of A. (A.) atricallosus leucoxanthus from Makham, Chanthaburi, Thailand; the lower snail is the ‘ laidlawi’ form (both have shell heights of about 45 mm). 
Genitalia, jaw and SEM radula images of A. (A.) mundus (CUMZ 4913). A. Reproductive system. B. Interior structures of penis and vaginal chamber. C. Jaw. D. Central teeth with fi rst to fi fth lateral teeth. E. Lateral teeth with tricuspid marginal transition. F. Marginal and outermost marginal teeth. Anatomical abbreviation as described in Sutcharit & Panha (2006a): ag, albumin gland; ap, appendix; at, atrium; e, epiphallus; fl , fl agellum; fo, free oviduct; gd, gametolytic duct; gs, gametolytic sac; hd, hermaphroditic duct; hg, hermaphroditic gland; o, oviduct; p, penis; pp, penial pilaster; pm, penial retractor muscle; pv, penial verge; v, vagina; vd, vas deferens; vp, vaginal pilaster. Central tooth is indicated by ‘C’ and the other numbers indicate the order of lateral and marginal teeth. 
A population of Amphidromus (Amphidromus) mundus (Pfeiffer, 1853) was recently discovered on a Malaysian island in the South China Sea. Here we investigate and describe its internal anatomy for the fi rst time, and its shell is also re-described. The small, white, chirally dimorphic shells with a refl ected lip that is not attached to the outer wall, as well as its pale brown body colour allow clear discrimination from the related species A. (A.) perversus, A. (A.) inversus albulus, and A. (A.) atricallosus. The distinctively long epiphallic caecum provides a clear discriminating character in genital anatomy. Type material could not be traced and a neotype is designated herein for nomenclatural stability.
 
Rasbora paucisqualis has been misidentified or confused with R. bankanensis since its description; evidence is presented demonstrating that R. paucisqualis and R. bankanensis are separate species, easily separable by colour patterns, vertebral counts and morphometrics. Most information in the literature attributed to R. bankanensis likely pertains to R. paucisqualis. The confusion between R. paucisqualis and R. bankanensis probably is a result of the earlier inaccessibility of type materials. Rasbora paucisqualis has not been reported from Malaysia since its description in 1935 but samples reported on herein suggest it is widely distributed in southern Malaysia. The holotype of Rasbora paucisquamis Ahl, 1935, is designated the lectotype of R. paucisqualis Ahl in Schreitmüller, 1935, an action which makes R. paucisquamis a junior objective synonym of R. paucisqualis.
 
Members of the viviparous freshwater snail genus Sulcospira Troschel, 1858 occur in lotic habitats in Southeast Asia. Three species have been reported from Java, two of which (Sulcospira sulcospira and S. pisum) may have become extinct, while S. testudinaria is fairly common. Based on recent collections, here we describe a new species, Sulcospira kawaluensis, from Tasikmalaya, West Java. Shell, embryonic shell, and radula characters of the new species clearly differ from those in S. testudinaria. Sulcospira kawaluensis new species has a rather restricted occurrence near Tasikmalaya in West Java.
 
Acrochordonichthys ischnosoma, ZRC 46408,52.4 mm SL; a. dorsal; b. lateral and c. ventral views.
Acrochordonichthys ischnosoma Bleeker, 1858, a poorly-known species of akysid catfish is redescribed from the holotype and fresh material from Sumatra. It can be distinguished from congeners in having the unique combination of the following characters: head width 18.3-21.6% SL, dorsal to adipose distance 9.0-10.1% SL, body depth at anus 9.1-10.0% SL, a third of the premaxillary toothband exposed when the mouth is open, maximum width of humeral process 13.6-18.4% its length, 39-41 vertebrae, an angular anterior margin of the adipose fin and a long, slender male genital papilla.
 
Live colouration of Exagorium fidelisi, new genus & species. Holotype, IPMB-Cr 08.1, 7.6 × 10.6 mm. 
Exagorium fidelisi, new genus & species. Holotype, IPMBCr 08.1, 7.6 × 10.6 mm. 
Exagorium fidelisi, new genus & species. Holotype, IPMB-Cr 08.1, 7.6 × 10.6 mm. a, left third maxilliped; b, posterior portion of carapace, abdomen and telson; c, left G1; d, left G2. Scales, a, c, d, 1 mm; b, 5 mm. 
Habitat of Exagorium fidelisi, new genus & species, beside Nypa fruticans forest. 
A new genus and new species of the family Camptandriidae Stimpson, 1858, are described from Lower Kinabatangan-Segama Wetlands, Sabah, Malaysia. Exagorium fidelisi, new genus & species, can be distinguished from known camptandriid genera and species by the characters of the carapace, male abdomen and male first gonopod.
 
The mangrove crab genus Camptandrium Stimpson, 1858, is revised. Three new genera, viz. Moguai, Nanusia and Takedellus, and a new species, Moguai aloutos, are described. The various genera can easily be separated by various carapace features, structures of the infraorbital "cup", male first gonopod, ischium and merus of the third maxilliped, postero-median tooth of the epistome, male abdomen, as well as presence or absence of sexual dimorphism in the chelae and dark bristles on the body.
 
New records of the clam shrimp Cyclestheria hislopi are reported for Southeast Asia, including the first records from Malaysia, where the species was found in tin mine takes, and records from Java and Cambodia.
 
Three new freshwater gobies of the genus Rhinogobius (Gill, 1859) are described in this study, namely, Rhinogobius changtinensis, R. lungwoensis and R. ponkouensis. They were collected from the Hanjiang basin, Southern China during expeditions conducted in 2002 and 2004. The three species of Rhinogobius are found in different tributaries of the basin. The three species can be distinguished from all other congeneric species by unique combinations of meristic features, body shape and specific coloration patterns. All three species are non-diadromous species, with high vertebral counts. A key to all nominal species of Rhinogobius found in the Hanjiang basin is provided.
 
Five species of Perittopus Fieber, 1861, are newly described: Perittopus asiaticus, new species, from West Malaysia, Thailand, and China (Yunnan); P. borneensis, new species, from Borneo; P. schuhi, new species, from West Java; P. sumatrensis, new species, from Sumatra; and P. webbi, new species, from West Malaysia. Notes on P. breddini Kirkaldy, 1901, and P. vicarious Breddin, 1905, are given. A key to the species of the Malay Peninsula and the Sunda Islands is presented.
 
Spawning was observed in the laboratory and documented by video for a specimen of Lobiger viridis Pease, 1863 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Sacoglossa) from Changi East, Singapore. The spawning animal shaped the egg mass with its mouth-area and the anterior rim of its foot. The head moved from side to side, presumably adding secretions, as the egg mass progressed. The egg mass was shaped as a more or less irregular, elongate spiral. It took approximately three hours to complete the first egg mass, and a second fertile egg mass was produced after 24 hours. The eggs were yellow when deposited but turned pale after several days as shelled veliger larvae developed. A single egg mass was estimated to contain more than 20,000 eggs. Preserved egg capsules were approximately 120 × 90 μm, and veligers had distinct statocysts but no eyes when they were ready to hatch. At this stage veliger shells had maximum diameters of about 106 μm.
 
Angilia mazzoldii, new species, A. anderseni, new species, and A. borneensis, new species, are described from Borneo (Indonesia: Kalimantan). New collecting data of A. orientalis Andersen (from Thailand and the Philippines) and A. bispinosa Andersen (from Thailand) are presented. The seven Oriental Angilia species are arranged in two monophyletic species groups, the A. orientalis group and the A. bispinosa group. An identification key to the Oriental species is presented.
 
The identity of the arboreal western Pacific sesarmid crab, Labuanium rotundatum (Hess, 1865) is clarified. A neotype from Tonga is selected to stabilise the taxonomy of the species, which is rediagnosed and figured. A new species from Guam, previously identified with L. rotundatum, is diagnosed and compared with congeners. Labuanium navus, new species, differs from L. rotundatum and allied taxa by a combination of carapace, cheliped, male abdomen and gonopod characters.
 
Analysis of skull morphology of Irrawaddy Dolphin Orcaella brevirostris specimens from throughout its range resulted in significant separation of specimens from Australia (including one specimen from Papua New Guinea) and those from Asian countries. Specimens from Australia were characterised by a range of nodular nasal ossicles (vs. two transversely elongate, antero-posteriorly compressed nasal bones in Asian specimens); a reduced mesethmoid plate, widely separated from the nasal ossicles by exposed frontal bones (vs. well developed mesethmoid plate, adjacent to, or contacting the nasal bones); and narrowly separated pterygoid hamuli (vs. widely separated). The Australian specimens showed a more derived cranial osteology, suggesting an origin from Asian populations - possibly during an episode of lowered sea level - with subsequent genetic isolation of the Australian populations. The results from this study indicate a taxonomic separation of Australian specimens at the subspecies or even species level, but no formal proposal is made, pending further study using both morphological and molecular characters.
 
Top-cited authors
Peter Davie
  • Queensland Museum
Daniele Guinot
  • Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle
Maurice Kottelat
Shane Ahyong
  • Australian Museum
Tin Yam Chan
  • National Taiwan Ocean University