Numerous studies show that individuals with substance use and gambling problems discount delayed and probabilistic outcomes at different rates than controls. Few studies, however, investigated the association of discounting with antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), and none evaluated whether sex impacts these relationships. Because females with ASPD exhibit different patterns of antisocial behavior than their male counterparts, they may also differ in their decision-making tendencies. This study examined the effects of ASPD and sex on discounting in pathological gamblers. Results revealed effects of ASPD, and an interaction between ASPD and sex, on probability discounting rates. None of these variables, however, were related to delay discounting. Females with ASPD highly preferred probabilistic outcomes, suggesting that female gamblers with ASPD are particularly impulsive when it comes to probabilistic rewards. Greater understanding of sex differences in ASPD might help guide the selection of more effective sex-specific prevention and treatment programs.
A novel method for initiating discrimination training with nonverbal children combines a delayed S+ procedure that requires children to refrain from responding to either of 2 physically different choice stimuli until a prompt stimulus is added onto 1 of the choices, and a delayed prompting procedure that presents the same 2-choice stimulus display, but stimuli are initially added onto both choices. After a short delay, the added stimulus on the S- is removed, and the choice of the S+ is thus prompted. If the children learn to observe and respond to the defining features of the S+ choice stimulus, then they may respond to the S+ prior to the added-stimulus removal. Implementation was successful with 8 nonverbal children who had not previously exhibited simple simultaneous discrimination, suggesting a useful methodology for initiating discrimination training with populations for whom verbal instruction is ineffective.
To evaluate whether children with and without autism could exhibit (a) functional equivalence in the course of yoked repeated-reversal training and (b) reversal learning set, 6 children, in each of two experiments, were exposed to simple discrimination contingencies with three sets of stimuli. The discriminative functions of the set members were yoked and repeatedly reversed. In Experiment 1, all the children (of preschool age) showed gains in the efficiency of reversal learning across reversal problems and behavior that suggested formation of functional equivalence. In Experiment 2, 3 nonverbal children with autism exhibited strong evidence of reversal learning set and 2 showed evidence of functional equivalence. The data suggest a possible relationship between efficiency of reversal learning and functional equivalence test outcomes. Procedural variables may prove important in assessing the potential of young or nonverbal children to classify stimuli on the basis of shared discriminative functions.
Drug abuse remains costly. Drug-related cues can evoke cue-reactivity and craving, contributing to relapse. The Pavlovian extinction-based cue-exposure therapy (CET) has not been very successful in treating drug abuse. A functional operant analysis of complex rituals involved in CET is outlined and reinterpreted as an operant heterogeneous chain maintained by observing responses, conditioned reinforcers, and discriminative stimuli. It is further noted that operant functions are not predicated on Pavlovian processes but can be influenced by them in contributing to relapse; several empirical studies from the animal and human literature highlight this view. Cue-reactivity evoked by Pavlovian processes is conceptualized as an operant establishing/motivating operation. CET may be more effective in incorporating an operant-based approach that takes into account the complexity of Pavlovian-operant interaction. Extinction of the operant chain coupled with the shaping of alternative behaviors is proposed as an integrated therapy. It is proposed that operant-based drug abuse treatments (contingency management, voucher programs, and the therapeutic work environment) might consider incorporating cue-reactivity, as establishing/motivating operations, to increase long-term success-a hybrid approach based on Pavlovian-operant interaction.
The present study compared the extent to which obese women with binge eating disorder (BED), obese women without BED, and controls discounted delayed and probabilistic money and directly consumable rewards: food, massage time, and preferred sedentary activity. Of special interest was whether the BED group differed from the other groups in terms of their discounting of all three types of directly consumable rewards or only in their discounting of food. Overall, the BED group tended to discount both delayed and probabilistic rewards of all types more steeply than the obese and control groups. Thus, rather than finding differences specific to particular types of rewards, we find that women with BED are generally more impatient when choices involve delayed rewards and more risk averse when they involve probabilistic rewards. These results suggest a temperamental difference associated with BED that cannot be accounted for by the concomitant obesity.
We evaluated formation of simple symbolic categories from initial learning of specific dictated word-picture relations through emergence of untaught or derived relations. Participants were 10 individuals with severe intellectual and language limitations. Three experimental categories were constructed, each containing 1 spoken word (Set A), 1 photograph (Set B), and 1 visual-graphic "lexigram" (Set C). Exclusion-based learning procedures were used to teach first the 3 auditory-visual relations (A-B relations) and then the 3 visual-visual relations (B-C relations) for each category. Seven participants acquired these initial relations. The untaught relations C-B and A-C were then assessed to evaluate the emergence of symbolic categories. Participants demonstrated virtually error-free performances on C-B and A-C derived relations. The study helps to define operationally a highly useful procedural path for systematic instruction in symbolic functioning for persons with intellectual and language disabilities associated with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders.
This study sought to develop methodology for assessing whether children aged 16-21 months could learn to match stimuli on the basis of physical identity in conditional discrimination procedures of the type routinely used in stimulus equivalence research with older participants. The study was conducted in a private room at a daycare center for children and toddlers. The child and the research sat together on the floor facing an apparatus with two windows. Stimuli to be discriminated were toys especially designed to attract the child's attention and maintain continued interest. On simple discrimination and discrimination reversal trials that were programmed in initial training, S+ and S- toys were displayed within the two windows. When the child touched the window containing the toy defined as S+ on a given trial, s/he was allowed to manipulate/play with that toy. Selections of the S- toy ended the trial without a play opportunity. On subsequent identity matching-to-sample trials, the child was first allowed to manipulate a sample toy. Then, S+ (matching) and S- (nonmatching) comparison toys were displayed within the windows, and the selection consequences were the same as on simple discrimination trials. The study provides evidence that preverbal children can master simple and conditional discrimination performances via such procedures, perhaps setting the stage for subsequent studies aimed at establishing procedural control of the discrimination baselines needed to assess the stimulus equivalence potential of children in this age range.
This paper summarizes a videotaped presentation (Rumbaugh, Savage-Rumbaugh, Hopkins, Washburn, & Runfeldt, 1987) of computerized training programs whereby an adult female chimpanzee, Lana (Pan troglodytes), learned to use a joystick to remove from a screen the number of boxes appropriate to the value of a randomly selected Arabic numeral 1, 2, or 3. Initial training provided a variety of cues, both numeric and otherwise, to support correct performance. Across software programs, all cues other than numeric ones were deleted. In the final test, Lana was correct on over 80% of trials in which there was no residual feedback of intratrial events and where only her memory of those events could provide the cue to indicate that she had removed boxes in accordance with the value of the target numbers and should terminate the trial. The tape is narrated and consists of video recordings of Lana's performance on each software program.
To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In three phases (baseline discounting determination for hypothetical money and cigarettes, implementation of a contingency management or control condition, and postintervention discounting determination), the procedure to reinforce reduction in cigarette smoking produced CO decreases in all subjects exposed to that procedure. Discounting decreased significantly for both cigarettes and money among the group for whom smoking reductions were reinforced, whereas the control group showed no significant change for either commodity. Reductions in smoking can lead to reductions in discounting, and increased discounting in current smokers may be a reversible effect of nicotine dependence.
Sidman (2000) has suggested that in addition to conditional and discriminative stimuli, class-consistent defined responses can also become part of an equivalence class. In the current study, this assertion was tested using a mixed-schedule procedure that allowed defined response patterns to be "presented" as samples in the absence of different occasioning stimuli. Four typically developing adults were first trained to make distinct response topographies to two visual color stimuli, and then were taught to match those color stimuli to two different form-sample stimuli in a matching task. Three separate tests were given in order to determine whether training had established two classes each comprised of a response, a color, and a form: a form-response test in which the forms were presented to test if the participants would make differential responses to them; and two response-matching tests to test if the participants would match visual stimulus comparisons to response-pattern samples. Three of the four participants showed class-consistent responding in the tests, although some participants needed additional training prior to passing the tests. In general, the data indicated that the different response patterns had entered into a class with the visual stimuli. These results add to a growing literature on the role of class-consistent responding in stimulus class formation, and provide support for the notion that differential responses themselves can become a part of an equivalence class.
When the matching-to-sample (MTS) procedure is used, different training structures imply differences in the successive discriminations required in training and test conditions. When the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli is used, however, differences in training structures do not imply such differences. This study assessed whether the go/no-go procedure with compound stimuli with different training structures would produce significant variations in emergent performances. Fourteen undergraduate students were divided into two training groups: OTM and MTO (one-to-many and many-to-one). During training, responses emitted in the presence of compounds defined as related were reinforced. Responses emitted in the presence of compounds defined as not-related were not. During tests, new compounds structurally emulated MTS equivalence tests. All participants finished training with comparable number of sessions and 13 of 14 showed emergent performances. These results suggest that differences in equivalence-test outcomes with OTM and MTO training structures in MTS procedures may be due to their different successive discrimination requirements.
Temporal discounting assessments measure the reduction in the subjective value of a reward as a function of the delay to that reward, and are correlated with behavior in social dilemma. Among the solutions proposed for defection in social dilemmas is a single individual making the decisions for the group. The present study examined the influence of group context on temporal discounting. Participants completed temporal discounting procedures when the outcomes affected only the individual and when outcomes affected a group of 10, including the individual. Though no overall difference was observed between the individual and group conditions, sex was found to be a moderating variable: Males discounted significantly more when discounting for the individual, but females discounted significantly more when discounting for the group. These results indicate that sex is an important variable when making intertemporal decisions for a group.
In compound fixed-ratio schedules, the factors controlling intercomponent pausing are not clear. One group of pigeons was trained on a multiple schedule in which ratio size of one of the two components was varied. Comparable manipulations were made for a second group trained on a mixed schedule. As the ratio was increased, the pause preceding that ratio also increased, while the pause before the other ratio decreased. Stimulus control was greater in the multiple schedule.
Presents 2 detailed descriptions of behavioral events from the memoires of J. Latude. The descriptions are analyzed in terms of their correspondence to modern psychological concepts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A digital computer and microfilm plotter were used to produce a semirandom picture similar in composition to Piet Mondrian's painting "Composition With Lines." Reproductions of both pictures were then presented to 100 Ss whose tasks were to identify the computer picture and to indicate which picture they preferred. Only 28% of the Ss were able to correctly identify the computer-generated picture, while 59% of the Ss preferred the computer-generated picture. Both percentages were statistically different (0.05 level) from selections based upon chance according to a binomial test. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews the disagreement between B. F. Skinner and E. G. Boring over the historical portions of a manuscript that Skinner wished to present as his doctoral dissertation, which was later published as "The concept of the reflex in the description of behavior" (see record
1932-00184-001). The sources of their disagreement are examined in relation to their contrasting uses of history, the meaning of the concept of reflex, the contemporary debate over behaviorism, conflicting metaphysical commitments, and the role of the institutional setting in the debate. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined major trends in interbehavioral psychology through articles published in the 33 volumes of
The Psychological Record between 1937 and 1983. Results suggest that interbehaviorism evolved over a period of history in theoretical and experimental disciplines of science. Comparisons between interbehavioral and noninterbehavioral articles reveal that interdisciplinary philosophy (historical and synthetical) was present in more volumes than experimental interbehavioral research. Comparisons between experimental and theoretical articles in interbehaviorism indicate that experimental articles concerned stimulus and response functions, multiple causation of behavior within a systems approach, reactional biography, and culturalization. Theory articles attempted to clarify technical, philosophical, or socially controversial points regarding naturalism and traditional branches of psychology. Examination of articles from
The Psychological Record and articles and books published elsewhere during the last 10 yrs indicates that systems analysis and clinical treatment abound in the research potential of interbehaviorism. Annotations of the experimental and theoretical articles with interbehavioral content are provided. (7½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents an annotated bibliography of 174 articles on avian open-field behavior (OFB) research. The bibliography includes reports on (1) descriptions of OFB; (2) OFB as an index of fear; (3) the causality and consequences of certain OFB responses and their relationship with other behavioral, physiological, or production characteristics; and (4) the potential influence of environmental novelty in studies of other behavioral constructs (e.g., aggression, spontaneous alternation, imprinting). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The 3 papers begin with "an affirmation of faith in conclusions, generalizations, laws and invariances." Then there is an advocacy of abduction as a guiding principle of scientific endeavor; "the emphasis is on the discovery of hypotheses, not their deduction from postulates." Finally, an argument is developed for conducting scientific enquiry on single cases rather than being dominated by sampling methodology. Briefly, the author contends that the study of the single case "makes science possible in the place of scientism." He concludes with a plea for the "end of the nineteenth century 'error' dogma." From Psyc Abstracts 36:02:2AD01S. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This study investigated the correlations among the “General Purpose Abbreviated Battery” of the Stanford-Binet IV: Fourth Edition, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised, the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale, and the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test. A third-grade class of 23 children (11 boys, 12 girls) took all four of the tests, and the intercorrelations of the total scores of the four tests were calculated. The Binet IV and Peabody correlation was statistically significant (p < .01) as was the correlation between Binet IV and Columbia (p < .05). The correlation between Binet IV and Goodenough-Harris was not statistically significant (p > .05).
Trained 4 groups of 10 female albino Sprague-Dawley rats to run a straight alley for food reward. During Phase I reward magnitude was either 1 or 10 food pellets, and 1/2 of the Ss were food-deprived. During this phase only the deprived Ss exhibited increasing response speed. During Phase II all Ss were tested under "food satiation" with 10 pellets as reward. Those Ss originally trained while food-deprived initially ran faster in Phase II, but with continuing trials their speed declined toward that of nondeprived Ss. Results are interpreted in terms of the theories of K. Spence and A. Amsel, which imply that the present procedure should lead to the extinction of incentive motivation in the absence of frustration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the ability of male Long-Evans rats to master oddity problems using olfaction as a modality. It was demonstrated, with 8 different olfactory stimuli, that experimental Ss (n = 11) could learn the abstract relation of oddity while controls (n = 12) could not. 69% correct responses were achieved on the 1st trial of a problem and 93% correct on the 2nd trial after 29 problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined student apathy among 112 female and 88 male Black undergraduates using the Purpose in Life Test. Comparisons of data with those of a heterogeneous university sample by K. E. Coffield (see record
1982-02060-001) showed that both groups had similar apathy levels. In applying sex–race dichotomies, however, Black males showed significantly less apathy than Black females or heterogeneous university males. Black juniors and incoming heterogeneous freshmen displayed greater apathy behaviors than did other academic classes. Potential explanations are offered for the differential behavior noted. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Instances of cheating on study guide assignments were observed for 245 college students. Mean cheating rate was 50.8% (i.e., the typical student cheated on about half the questions). Cheating tended to increase across the semester and was associated with lower grades on exams. The tendency to cheat varied across the semester, suggesting that transient setting factors were major determinants of cheating on assignments. Admission of cheating was increased by reinforcement, but this increase did not result in a change in rates of cheating. A positive correlation was found between cheating and admission of cheating, except when there were penalties for admissions. Neither an honor pledge nor values counseling diminished cheating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
330 physically disabled adults (mean age 38.5 yrs), undergoing the 1st wk of a course of industrial rehabilitation, were administered an acceptance of loss scale (ALS), the Raven Progressive Matrices (RPM), and the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI). On completing 5 wks, Ss were readministered the ALS. The difference between Ss' 1st and 2nd scores was used to determine gain or loss in ALS, and each S's mean score was calculated. Ss were grouped in terms of the nature of their disability into visible, hidden, or sensory/mental and then were classified on the basis of their ALS mean score into good, average, and poor accepters of loss. The mean score of the 3 groups on the MPI and RPM were compared within the 3 disability categories. ANOVA revealed personality factors as the only significant source of variance; the nature of disability was not significant. The more intelligent, extraverted, and less neurotic Ss were more likely to accept the disability. Mean gain in ALS was highest among the poor accepters of loss, showing the industrial rehabilitation program's beneficial effect on adjustment. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Four White Carneaux pigeons were exposed to a delayed-matching-to-sample procedure in which food or a flash of the feeder light followed correct responses. When these consequences were correlated with a particular sample stimulus (e.g., food followed matching responses to red and a flash of the feeder light followed matching responses to green), accuracy was significantly higher than when consequences were not correlated with sample stimuli. The sample stimulus correlated with food engendered a much higher rate of responding than the stimulus correlated with the light flash. The difference in response rates during the 2 types of trials may have acquired discriminative properties that enhanced accuracy in the correlated condition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
43 university students completed a multiple-choice test consisting of 32 questions with 4 alternative answers each. Ss' confidence in the correctness of their chosen responses was assessed by their self-rating on a scale of 0 to 100 the degree of confidence for the answer chosen. Ss' scores were the number of correct answers and the average confidence level across questions. Overconfident Ss received significantly lower grades as compared with Ss who were not overconfident. The cognitive mechanisms that may be responsible for the influence of overconfidence on performance in multiple-choice tests are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
IN AN EFFORT TO DETERMINE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AND ETHNIC GROUP MEMBERSHIP IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, 2 GROUPS, 69 SS IN EACH, WERE MATCHED FOR INTELLIGENCE. 1 GROUP WAS COMPOSED OF MEXICAN-AMERICANS, AND THE OTHER OF ANGLO-AMERICANS. AFTER GIVING BOTH GROUPS NEED ACHIEVEMENT TESTS, IT WAS FOUND THAT, WITH THESE SAMPLES MATCHED FOR INTELLIGENCE, THERE WAS NO STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MEAN NEED TO ACHIEVE OF ANGLO-AMERICAN AND MEXICAN-AMERICAN 8TH-GRADE STUDENTS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
An auditory stimulus has always been present in any experiments to date dealing with neurotic pattern. Experiments are reported by the writers to show that such a behavior pattern as described by Maier depends upon the intensity and frequency of auditory stimulation. When intensity is controlled, the most effective frequencies producing seizures are supersonic. Either acoustic conditions in experiments dealing with conflict must be better controlled, or the concept itself must be reinterpreted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Trained 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats to escape shock in a runway, with shock present on each acquisition trial for half the Ss and on 50% of trials for the other Ss. During extinction, Ss were punished in the goalbox on 0, 10, 50, or 100% of the trials. Results indicate little effect of percentage of shocked acquisition trials on either acquisition or extinction performance. Percentage of punished extinction trials did affect extinction performance, with suppression of response measures (relative to nonpunished controls) found in Ss punished on 50 or 100% of the extinction trials and facilitation for Ss punished on 10% of the trials. Results are inconsistent with either 2-factor or discrimination theories of self-punitive behavior and consistent with a stimulus-directive interpretation of this phenomenon. (21 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compared 9 male Long-Evans hooded rats with 18 nonestrus females in acquisition and extinction of an avoidance response. No differential extinction rates were found, although terminal performance differences were present in acquisition. Females, which during acquisition were not in estrus, were divided into estrus and nonestrus groups in extinction. No differences were significant during early trials, but both performance and rate changes were noted thereafter, the nonestrus Ss being superior to estrus Ss on both measures. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of the estrus variable on male-female comparative studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Rates of acquisition of a simple running response are compared under 100% and 50% schedules of reinforcement. 46 male hooded rats were given 90 trials in a block runway during 15 consecutive days. The Ss were divided equally into a 100% reinforcement group and a random 50% reinforcement group. Analyses of both evocation speed and running speed indicated the 100% group responded more quickly during the first 24 trials. Later the curves converged and during the final trials the 50% group significantly exceeded the 100% group. An interpretation in terms of an anticipatory frustration response concept was discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conducted 3 experiments to evaluate the effects of training method, English vs non-English syntax, and number of training items on the learning of 2-word miniature linguistic systems. 100 university students were exposed to nonoverlap (diagonal) or overlap (edgewise or stepwise) training conditions in 3 experiments. There were no significant differences in the initial rate of learning among the 3 conditions. Overlap training, however, provided more extensive generalization to untrained items than did nonoverlap training. An analysis of errors revealed that object words were produced correctly more often than modifiers, regardless of syntax and training condition. It is suggested that careful selection of training items and frequent monitoring of generalization can enhance the efficiency of intervention programs focusing on lexical and syntactic development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the relationship between prerequisite behaviors and the 1st steps of a verbal acquisition program, using 4 retarded nonverbal children (aged 6–9 yrs). Ss were selected on the basis of low level or absence of target behaviors (nonvocal verbal behavior and vocal imitation) and failure to reach the acquisition criterion on prerequisite behavior. The effects of acquisition and maintenance of prerequisite interactions, such as attending behavior, nonverbal imitative behavior, and disruptive behavior, on the learning of nonvocal verbal behavior and vocal imitation were evaluated. Results show that the acquisition of prerequisite interactions led to superior performance and fewer trials to reach criteria in this language intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
An increase in muscular potentials is reported in all of the muscle groups tested during the imaging of such tasks as squeezing a hand dynamometer, typing, singing, and playing a wind instrument. "There is no good evidence of localization to the muscle groups commonly thought to be involved in such performances. While such action potentials seem to be necessarily concomitant, as shown by the report of the unsuccessful subjects and the control groups, they are not localized in any particular part of the body, nor are they exclusively peculiar to imaging, since other workers have shown that action potentials accompany other implicit activities. The distribution of these potentials seems to indicate that during the revival of vestigial responses one can expect to be present any muscular activity that accompanied the original response." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A visual preference test of visual acuity was administered to 21 infants ranging in age from 2 to 21 weeks. The test consisted of a graded series of striped patterns, 6-inch squares of vertical black and white stripes varying in width. The group of Ss under 2 months of age showed no significant differential preference for any size pattern. On the other hand, the infants between 2 and 5 months showed a preference for both the 1/8 in. and 1/16 in. stripes to the very fine pattern, 1/64 in. width stripes. The use of the preference test as a research tool to investigate pattern and spatial vision in infants 6 months of age or younger is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
PAIRS OF RATS WITH A HISTORY OF SHOCKS RECEIVED INDIVIDUALLY IN SEPARATE CHAMBERS, WITHOUT OPPORTUNITY TO ENGAGE IN AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, EXHIBIT THE SAME PROBABILITY OF FIGHTING IN RESPONSE TO SHOCK AT 71 DAYS OF AGE AS DO PAIRS OF RATS WITH AN EQUALLY LONG HISTORY OF SHOCK-ELICITED AGGRESSION. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
INVESTIGATED THE ADAPTATION LEVEL OR CONTRAST AND CONTEXT EFFECTS AS CONCEIVED BY HELSON ON SELF-REPORT QUESTIONNAIRES USING THE ADDICTION RESEARCH CENTER INVENTORY, MMPI, AND CPI ON OVERLAPPING ITEMS. THE ABSENCE OF CONTRAST OR CONTEXT EFFECTS SUGGESTS THAT THE POINT OF REFERENCE OR DETERMINANT FOR A RESPONSE TO A SELF-REPORT OR PERSONALITY QUESTION FOR A GROUP IS DETERMINED BY THE ITEM ITSELF AND IS UNAFFECTED BY ADJACENT ITEMS OR BY ITEMS AS A WHOLE. SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES WERE FOUND FOR A CONTRAST TENDENCY, INDEXED BY SCORING REVERSALS OF RESPONSES TO ADJACENT ITEMS, IRRESPECTIVE OF THE SELECTION OF ADJACENT ITEMS, BUT THE GENERALITY OF THE REVERSAL TENDENCY, AS EVALUATED BY CORRELATIONS ACROSS TESTS, WAS A FUNCTION OF THE DEGREE OF DISSIMILARITY OF ADJACENT ITEMS. THE REVERSAL TENDENCY BASED ON A CHANGE OF RESPONSE TO DISSIMILAR ITEMS ACCOUNTS FOR AS MUCH VARIATION ACROSS TESTS AS SOCIAL DESIRABILITY OR RESPONSE SET. THESE TENDENCIES APPEAR TO BE OVERESTIMATED IN EACH TEST, SINCE THEY ACCOUNT FOR MUCH MORE VARIATION WITHIN THAN ACROSS TESTS. (19 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Compared strike-induced and visually-induced chemosensory searching in 10 elapids. Ss were 5 tiger snakes (
Notechis scutatus), 2 taipans (
Oxyuranus scutellatus), 2 Indian cobras (
Naja naja), and 1 death adder (
Acanthophis antarcticus). Two members of a viperid species (rhinoceros vipers [
Bitis nasicornis]) were also observed. Results indicate that visual and other cues arising from rodents in the no-strike condition stimulated some degree of chemosensory searching in elapids but not in the rhinoceros vipers and that most of the elapids were capable of both styles of predation. It is concluded that long-term-captive elapids retain their ability to exhibit sustained interest in chemical information following the delivery of a predatory strike. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reinforced the key pecking of a male White Carneaux pigeon under fixed-ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement. During postreinforcement pauses, the S was observed to peck on a bolt head in a hole in the panel. This behavior was recorded and appeared to be adjunctive. Bolt pecking probability was a function of FR size, was excessive in frequency, and occurred immediately after a reinforcement. When bolt pecking was made the operant response under FR schedules, performance was atypical of that usually seen under such schedules. Under requirements ranging from FR 85-650, postreinforcement pauses were absent while responding appeared at a steady rate from 1 reinforcement to the next. When reinforcement was presented independently of responding, rate of bolt pecking decreased and was confined to periods immediately following reinforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Four male albino rats were trained on a continuous escape-adjusting avoidance schedule. When the S failed to avoid, continuous pulsed grid shock was presented. A leverpress terminated shock and produced a 10-sec avoidance component. Each additional response added another 10-sec to the shock-off avoidance period. The upper limit was 110 sec produced by 10 responses. One of 10 different auditory warning stimuli (WS) provided feedback as to where the S was in the avoidance interval. Later sessions provided an FI 5 sec, 10 sec, VR 5 sec, or fixed time 5-sec escape schedule. Each escape schedule maintained response rates comparable to those produced in appetitive studies. Data produced during the shock off intervals reveal that avoidance was improved by the intermittent escape schedules. Furthermore, each S shifted its distribution of avoidance responses to intervals and WS distal to shock when intermittent escape schedules were in effect. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
For 3 (Exp 1) or 4 (Exp 2) rhesus monkeys, po pentobarbital (PB) solutions were concurrently available with water from separate drinking spouts during daily 3-hr sessions under FR (Exp 1) and signaled differential-reinforcement-of-low-rates (DRL; Exp 2) schedules. Results show a positive relationship between reinforcer magnitude (amoung of PB) and relative reinforcing effects. These findings were consistent across both the FR (time-based) and DRL (response-based) schedules. Behavior maintained by greater drug amounts persisted to a greater degree, relative to baseline, as access to drug was constrained by the imposition of progressively larger response requirements or longer time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conducted 2 experiments with retarded residents of a short-term institution. In Exp I, 3 groups of 5 Ss were assigned to self-record the frequency of 1 of 3 target behaviors: talking, face touching, or object touching. Mean ages of the groups were 28.8, 23.8, and 18.2 yrs, respectively. Trained observers simultaneously recorded the frequency of the behaviors during 4 conditions: baseline, self-recording, reinforcement, and return-to-baseline. Self-recording increased the frequency of a positively evaluated behavior (talking) but less consistently reduced the frequency of a negatively evaluated behavior (face touching). Reinforcement increased talking and object touching and less consistently decreased face touching. Reinforcement also increased the relatively good agreement between the self-recorders and the observers. In Exp II, observers recorded the frequency of conversation in the dining room, participation in lounge activities, and tidiness of the bedrooms of 12 18–44 yr old Ss during 6 conditions: existent token economy, improved token economies 1 and 2, baselines 1 and 2, and self-recording. Self-recording was more effective in increasing the frequency of the 3 desirable target behaviors than was the token economy. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
36 undergraduates were assigned randomly either to take a short analogies test or to observe the test from the next room through a 1-way vision mirror. A stooge was employed to get the O to participate actively. Results indicate that Ss from whom no response was required and, therefore, no pressure or stress was involved, performed significantly better than Ss who were required to take the test, and who were told that the outcome would influence their school grade. This latter situation created at least mild stress and simulated a true-life situation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Evaluated the effects of punishment applied to 40 male hooded rats during a learned escape response, using a drop-start or a gate-lift-start procedure with various dependent measures. Absolute level of responding was enhanced for all Ss by the drop-start procedure. Punishment provided greater relative persistence on certain measures but not on those measures appropriate to tests of the vicious circle hypothesis. It is argued that literature concerned with punishment effects on adient responding is more uniform than is generally assumed. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Trained 3 male hooded Lister rats on a fixed-interval schedule where each interval had an equal probability of being terminated by reinforcement or by an auditory stimulus. In testing, the concentration of the milk reinforcer and the intensity of the sound were varied. The durations of both the postreinforcement and the poststimulus pauses were found to be increasing functions of reinforcer magnitude and stimulus intensity, respectively. It is suggested that the effect of changes in the reinforcer magnitude upon the duration of the postreinforcement pause reflects the enhancement or impairment of the discriminative function of the reinforcer in the same way that the discriminative function of any stimulus may be affected by changes in its intensity. (24 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Difficulties in defining and manipulating aggression have resulted in many highly contrived and relatively meaningless studies. Based on a belief that "real" people in the "real" life situation would be capable of reasonable communication about this matter, the present study took the form of a questionnaire survey of 522 male and 411 female adults (18 yrs and older) concerning the behavioral characteristics they use to describe aggressive and nonaggressive males and females. They were also asked to state what typical situational conditions provoked aggression. Ss generally were in agreement about what the word aggression stands for, and aggression was seen to be a dichotomous construct having a good–bad dimension. It was also found that males typically claimed stronger aggressive feelings in interpersonal types of situations; females considered themselves to be more aggressive (than males) in intrapsychic events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The 1st experiment in the present series demonstrated that exposure to inescapable shock decreased aggression and increased defensive behaviors (learned helplessness effects) that dominant male rats showed toward colony intruders. A 2nd study indicated that inescapable shock potentiated the defensive behavior and the number of bites received by isolated rats tested as intruders in aggressive colonies. A session of escapable shock prevented or reversed the potentiation of intruder defeat if it preceded or followed inescapable shock, respectively. A 3rd series of experiments demonstrated that inescapable shock disrupted the subsequent defensive burying of a shocked prod and increased freezing. The odor of stressed conspecifics also reduced burying and increased freezing, particularly for Ss that had previously experienced inescapable shock. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Made time-out (to) from social reinforcement (5-min isolation) contingent upon each occurrence of aggressive behavior against an 11-mo-old boy by his 26-mo-old sister. Aggressive behaviors (a) occurred at a relatively high rate during a 10-day base-line period, (b) were reduced to essentially a 0 rate by the to contingency during the 1st 10-day experimental period, (c) recovered during a 10-day reversal period, and (d) were reduced again by contingent to during a 2nd 10-day experimental period. Incidental behavioral changes observed during the 2 experimental periods included increased cooperative play with the brother, increased affectional approach to the parents and brother, and decreased oppositional behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)