The Prison Journal

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 0032-8855
Publications
Article
Nearly 1.4 million men are incarcerated in federal and state prisons in the United States. These men are disproportionately affected by HIV in comparison with the at-large male population. The elevated prevalence of HIV infection in U.S. prisons has raised concerns over the potential for intraprison HIV transmission due to rape and other forms of sexual victimization. However, the number of men who acquire HIV after being raped in U.S. prisons is not known. We developed a mathematical model of HIV transmission to estimate the likelihood that an incarcerated man would become infected as a result of prison rape and to provide preliminary estimates of the number of prison rape victims who acquire HIV. Our results suggest that between 43 and 93 currently incarcerated men already have or will acquire HIV as a result of being raped in prison.
 
Article
Since the mid-1980s, cigarette-smoking policies have become increasingly restrictive in jails and prisons across the United States. Cigarette black markets of various form and scale often emerge in jails and prisons where tobacco is prohibited or banned. Case studies of 16 jails and prisons were undertaken to understand the effects of cigarette bans versus restrictions on inmate culture and prison economies. This study describes how bans can transform largely benign cigarette "gray markets," where cigarettes are used as a currency, into more problematic black markets, where cigarettes are a highly priced commodity. Analysis points to several structural factors that affected the development of cigarette black markets in the visited facilities: the architectural design, inmate movement inside and outside, officer involvement in smuggling cigarettes to inmates, and officer vigilance in enforcing the smoking policy. Although these factors affect the influx of other types of contraband into correctional facilities, such as illegal drugs, this study argues that the demand and availability of cigarettes creates a unique kind of black market.
 
Article
Data were obtained on four dimensions of criminal activity (frequency, variety, severity, and income) from male and female prisoners (N = 200) with preincarceration heroin dependence who participated in a randomized clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment. The article examines the above-mentioned dimensions of crime and their relationships with demographic characteristics, substance use, legitimate employment, drug treatment episodes, and psychological problems. Results largely show several important similarities to results on previous prison inmate cohorts with histories of heroin addiction, although the present sample may have more of a tendency toward violent crime than earlier cohorts of heroin-dependent offenders. This study's findings may have implications for the design of appropriate treatment interventions for prisoners with preincarceration heroin dependence that address not only substance use but also criminal activity.
 
Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve Note: GSS = Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Short Screener version 1.0; MHSF = Mental Health Screening Form; MINI = Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview- Modified.  
Article
This article describes the development of an instrument to screen male and female offenders for co-occurring substance use and mental disorders. This phase developed and pilot tested (N = 100) the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJDATS) Co-occurring Disorders Screening Instrument for Mental Disorders (CODSI-MD), a 6-item instrument derived from three standard mental health screeners. The overall accuracy of the CODSI-MD (81%) compared favorably with the three standard instruments. A second 3-item instrument, developed to screen for severe mental disorders (the CODSI-SMD), had an overall accuracy of 82%. The results of this pilot study must be viewed cautiously, pending validation of the findings with a larger sample.
 
Article
Findings from the National Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey are examined to describe types of services provided by three types of prisons: those that serve a cross-section of offenders, those that specialize in serving offenders with special psychosocial and medical needs, and those that specialize in serving legal status or gender specific populations. Information is presented on the prevalence and type of specialized prisons and services provided to offenders as reported by wardens and other facility directors drawn from a nationally representative sample of prisons. Additional analyses explore organizational factors that differentiate prisons that serve specialized populations including staffing, training, other resources, leadership, and climate for change and innovation. Implications for expanding and improving services for special populations in correctional settings and the values of specialized prisons are discussed.
 
Article
Research on sex in prison during the late 1980s and early 1990s was relatively rare in the published literature, despite important policy and practice considerations that provided a clear need for better understandings of such issues. The research that did appear during the period focused on one or two dominant themes and almost always focused on male inmates: consequences of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and efforts to document the incidence of sex among inmates. The marginality of such research is also seen in the fact that most prison sex research in the period was produced by young scholars and individuals at small or nonacademic institutions. The need for more and broader scope research on prison sex is discussed.
 
Article
Traditionally, research on the tremendous variation in the use of incarceration across time and space has focused on the issue of whether imprisoning more offenders reduces crime. More recently, research has begun to explore the collateral consequences of mass incarceration for the families and communities of those imprisoned. The current study adds to this burgeoning literature by examining the impact of incarceration rates on child poverty rates. Using a panel design for North Carolina county data, 1995-2007, we use instrumental variable techniques to disentangle the effect of incarceration on poverty from the effect of poverty on incarceration. The results indicate that increases in incarceration are associated with increases in child poverty rates. The impact of adult incarceration on child poverty appears especially pronounced in counties with a high proportion of non-white residents.
 
Article
Behavioral traits associated with adolescent risk taking may be correlated with maturational events occurring in the brain. Adolescent brains are less developed than previously believed, particularly in prefrontal cortex, a region implicated in moderating behavior related to drug use. One indictor used to assess frontal lobe functioning is the Tower of Hanoi. The authors compared substance-involved adolescents with a control group of resilient youth on their Tower of Hanoi performance and detected significantly different error patterns across the two groups. Resilient youths made fewer moves and spent more time per move; their substance-involved counterparts made more moves and spent less time per move, a strategy that could be construed as impulsive.
 
Article
A significant proportion of Australian female inmates are drug addicts and women who have experienced violence as children and/or as adults. Ironically, the three rules (“don’t talk,” “Don’t trust,” and “Don’t feel”) that many therefore grew up with ironically are perpetuated within the prison institutional culture and structure. Many women are placed inappropriately in maximum security facilities that, due perhaps to the small population size relative to men, lack adequate employment, education, and rehabilitation. Comparison of results from empirical research conducted in the early 1990s with recent data reveals that although there have been some positive steps implemented, they have not greatly affected the dysfunctional women’s prison culture. The prisons for the most part continue to ignore the specific needs of women (and victims of violence). Thus, the tragic generational cycle of violence (crime-prison-violence-crime-prison-violence) persists.
 
Article
The increasing role of police, courts, and corrections in dealing with the mentally ill represents a significant challenge facing local justice systems. This article considers the impact of mentally ill and substance-abusing offenders in Santa Fe, New Mexico, by comparing a random sample of individuals detained on protective custody and mental health holds (n = 338) to a random sample of defendants arrested on criminal charges (n = 153). Results indicate that police encounter individuals with co-occurring disorders on a daily basis and that individuals detained on holds are much more likely than are those arrested to generate additional police contacts during a 1-year follow-up period. Individuals with co-occurring disorders also represent a serious financial burden on the local system, particularly in terms of confinement costs. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for criminal justice policy and practice.
 
Article
The purpose of this article is to review current empirical research on the effectiveness of drug treatment programs, particularly those for prisoners, parolees, and probationers. The authors reviewed empirical research published after the year 2000 that they classified as Level 3 or higher on the Maryland Scale. Participants in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), therapeutic communities, and drug courts had lower rates of drug use and crime than comparable individuals who did not receive treatment. Several different types of pharmacological treatments were associated with a reduced frequency of drug use. Those who received contingency management tended to use drugs less frequently, particularly if they also received cognitive-behavioral therapy. Finally, researchers reported that drug use and crime were lower among individuals whose treatment was followed by an aftercare program. Effective treatment programs tend to (a) focus on high-risk offenders, (b) provide strong inducements to receive treatment, (c) include several different types of interventions simultaneously, (d) provide intensive treatment, and (e) include an aftercare component.
 
Article
Substance abuse is increasingly common in prison inmates. This article presents findings on substance abuse and service needs of male and female inmate parents in Arizona, with a particular focus on gender and ethnic differences across inmates. A sample of 838 incarcerated fathers and 1,441 mothers completed anonymous questionnaires regarding traumatic and stressful events experienced as children and/or adults, including addiction. Exposure to childhood and adult traumatic events, especially child abuse, was related to self-reported alcohol and drug problems for both males and females. Mothers reported significantly more postrelease service needs than fathers. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.
 
Comparison of Demographics for Study Groups (N = 506)
Comparison of Arrest Rates by Study Group (N = 506)
Summary of Logistic Regressions Predicting Arrest
Article
Substance abuse is common among probationers, and treatment programs have become an integral part of community corrections. The current study presents findings from a modified therapeutic community (TC) serving drug abusing probationers in a large metropolitan area. Findings show that treatment dropouts were more likely to be rearrested for a serious felony within 2 years of leaving the TC program than were treatment graduates and probationers from an untreated comparison group. Also, a significantly smaller proportion of graduates were rearrested during the 2nd year after release compared to those who drop out of treatment or who do not receive treatment. Logistic regression analysis that adjusted for pre-existing group differences suggests there was a small impact of the TC program on recidivism, with treatment graduates only slightly less likely to be arrested within 2 years of leaving the program.
 
Article
This study examined the correlates of loss of parental rights and attitudes toward parenting among a sample of substance-abusingwomen offenders (N= 483). One third of the sample had lost parental rights to a child; these mothers were younger, but had more children, were less likely to have ever worked or been married, initiated regular drug use at a younger age, and were more likely to have been in foster care or adopted themselves and to have engaged in sex work. Higher self-efficacy, decision making ability, social conformity, and childhood problems were associated with less risky parental attitudes, whereas depression, lower education, and non-White ethnicity were associated with greater risk. Services that address the psychosocial needs of women offenders may increase the likelihood of successful family reunification following incarceration.
 
Article
A modified version of the Andersen and Newman model of health services use was used to examine how male drug-abusing offenders use health services during their lifetimes. Hierarchical regression models were employed to determine the extent to which (a) sociodemographic information, (b) drug use and criminal history, and (c) illness-level factors were predictive of the use of these services. In general, these models explained a moderate level of the variance in services use, with illness-level factors accounting for the majority of variance. Implications for health services in criminal justice settings are discussed.
 
(continued) 
Pearson's r Correlation Matrix 
OLS Regression Results With Job Stress and Job Satisfaction as Dependent Variables 
Article
Job stress and job satisfaction have both received a considerable amount of attention among studies of organizations in general, and correctional organizations are no exception. Although many work-related factors have been used to explain these two concepts, several important areas have been excluded. The current study builds on existing research by examining job stress and job satisfaction and how they are affected by American Correctional Association (ACA) standards, relations with coworkers, and prison policies. Using survey data collected from a large county correctional system in Orlando, Florida, the findings suggest that ACA views, relations with coworkers, and institutional policies all have significant effects on job stress and satisfaction of correctional staff. The authors also find that these three work environment variables have a far greater magnitude of effects than do the personal characteristics of employees.
 
Article
As the federal courts have established the right of inmates to seek postconviction relief, prisons systems have struggled with a variety of strategies to come into compliance. Using data from a national survey of prisons, this study describes court access strategies employed by state correctional systems and examines how prison contextual characteristics, such as security level, population size, and the court ruling in Lewis v. Casey (1996) affect their use. Results indicate that strategies are influenced by size, security level and demand for legal services, and offer evidence of the adverse effects of the Lewis decision on prison law libraries.
 
Article
In July 2006, the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections began delivering a 2-hour training session titled “Reinforcing Positive Behavior” (RPB). Findings from an attitude survey showed that the training was effective for changing staff attitudes and awareness about inmate treatment and rehabilitative programs. Specific findings revealed that correctional officers, when compared with treatment staff, were less concerned about showing inmates respect and also minimized the impact of their own actions on inmate behavior and rehabilitation efforts. Policy implications and recommendations for improving the RPB training and for furthering data collection efforts during basic orientation and inside the state institutions will be discussed.
 
Article
This article examines instructor training for The Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program®, an organization that brings “outside” college students into prison, joining incarcerated men and women who become “inside students” for an undergraduate course. Ethnographic data revealed a purposeful stigma reversal for a group of men serving life sentences and a concomitant shift in moral career for instructor trainees. Through structured encounters with these men, trainees come to see, speak, and behave in ways that subvert conventional understandings of the stigma imposed on those in prison. The alteration of self and perspective experienced during the training drives participants to incorporate this activist ethos into their own teaching.
 
Sample Description Based on Self-Reported Data (N = 74) 
Coping Techniques: Definition, Categories, and Prevalence 
Article
Although female offenders are the fastest growing population in prison today, relatively few studies focus on their unique experiences as mothers. In this study, the authors utilize 74 semistructured interviews with mothers before trial and during incarceration to document coping strategies employed to deal with potential or actual separation from their children. From the study data, seven strategies emerge: being a good mother, mothering from prison, role redefinition, disassociation from prisoner identity, self-transformation, planning and preparation, and self-blame. The findings show that mothers used multiple strategies and tended to employ emotion-focused and adaptive coping techniques. The policy implications are discussed.
 
Article
This article reviews the current trends and impact of mass incarceration on communities of color, with a focus on criminal justice policy and practice contributors to racial disparity. The impact of these disproportionate incarceration rates on public safety, offenders, and communities are discussed. Recommendations for criminal justice and other policy reforms to reduce unwarranted racial disparities are offered.
 
Combined Prior Adjustment and Major and Minor Prison Misconduct Negative Binomial Regression Models (N = 1,005) 
Prior Adjustment and Major and Minor Prison Misconduct Negative Binomial Regression Models Among Males (n = 831) 
Prior Adjustment and Major and Minor Prison Misconduct Negative Binomial Regression Models Among Females (n = 174) 
The General Prior Adjustment Effect: Pseudo R 2 Increases When Negative Binomial Models Include Prior Adjustment
Article
In the United States, inmates maintain high rates of recidivism when released from correctional institutions. Although a large body of research addresses indicators of risk for recidivism after release, less is known about the stability of institutional misconduct across periods of incarceration. A limited amount of research has explored the relationship between inmate disciplinary reports incurred during prior terms of incarceration and subsequent institutional misconduct. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the Arizona Department of Corrections, the current study found that both male and female inmates who have incurred disciplinary reports during prior terms of incarceration participated in violent and nonviolent institutional misconduct during subsequent terms of incarceration. Implications for theory and research are explored.
 
Article
Using a triangulated research design, this research examines the mental health of life without parole (LWOP) inmates. A bivariate analysis of the mental health of two groups of LWOP inmates was conducted, new (n = 72) and veteran (n = 46). New LWOP inmates were defined as those who had served less than the mean number of years of the sample (10.5 years) while veteran LWOP inmates had served greater than the mean time served. Results indicate that the initial stages of incarceration are particularly stressful as a higher prevalence of new LWOP inmates reported mental health disorder than veteran LWOP inmates. Significant differences exist between the two groups in several areas. In-depth interviews with veteran LWOP inmates (n = 25) are further indicative of an inverse relationship between mental disorder and length of incarceration.
 
The Effect of Two-Level Variables on Suicide Ideation
The Effect of Two-Level Variables on Suicide Attempts
Article
Although living in prison is difficult for all inmates, anecdotal evidence and a small number of qualitative studies on women's prisons suggest that females have greater social support needs while incarcerated. This claim is important for a more complete understanding of adjustment to prisons. In particular, extra and intrainstitutional social support mechanisms may reduce the inmate-perceived stresses associated with imprisonment and yield fewer official rule infractions. Using a multilevel analysis, the authors explore ties between social support mechanisms and reported rules infractions of a nationally representative sample of male and female state prison inmates. Findings suggest that female inmates experienced more social support than did their male counterparts. Some of the included social support mechanisms seem to affect inmates'adjustment to prison, and the effect of marital status on misconduct varies by gender. The implications of these findings for understanding prison life and for prison administrators are also examined.
 
Article
This article reviews state tort remedies assessed against correctional personnel for inappropriate and/or inadequate health care administered to prisoners. It reviews medical malpractice and negligence law generally and then applies these legal precepts to jail and prison health care legal actions. Through an inductive process, the cases from various state courts are divided into four categories: administration of inadequate or inappropriate medication, performance of inappropriate medical procedures, inappropriate diagnosis of serious medical conditions, and undertreatment of serious medical problems. The article concludes by calling for more research on health care within correctional settings.
 
Article
In 2009, two Idaho prisoners with gender identity disorders (GIDs) settled lawsuits against the Department of Corrections for failing to treat properly their conditions. Prisoners in other states have also sued prison officials for failing to treat their GIDs. Initially, the courts held that prisoners with GIDs did not have a serious mental disorder and thus were not entitled to treatment. However, later courts have held that a GID is a serious medical problem, which implicates the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that requires treatment for prisoners’ serious medical problems. No court, however, has ordered sex-reassignment surgery for any transsexual prisoner, despite holding that GID is a serious medical problem. This issue presents an interesting dilemma for the law and has implications for prison mental health professionals and prison administrators. The authors elaborate on these issues and discuss policy implications.
 
Article
Abuse and trauma are common in the histories of prison inmates. This article presents the results of research on the trauma histories and stressful life events experienced by 2,279 male and female inmate parents in Arizona, with a particular focus on gender and ethnic differences across inmates. A sample of 838 incarcerated fathers and 1,441 mothers completed anonymous questionnaires regarding traumatic and stressful events experienced as children and/or adults. High rates of exposure to childhood and adult traumatic events, especially child abuse, were found for both males and females and across ethnic groups.
 
Linear Probability/OLS Effects of Youth in Adult Prisons on Services, Results by Multiple Imputation
Types of Education Program Received in the Juvenile and Adult Systems 
Article
Few studies have compared correctional service experiences of youth in adult prisons and juvenile facilities. This study compared 47 youth in juvenile facilities and 49 youth in adult prisons in Michigan. Controlling for offence history, socioeconomic background, and demographic characteristics, juvenile placement was found to be associated with more positive responses for counseling, medical services, and staff quality. Experiences with the quantity of education and work programs were similar, although the quality of education and work might have differed. Poor correctional services in adult prisons might be a reason for less effective rehabilitation, leading to lower deterrence.
 
Article
This article presents the findings of an exploratory study of parole release and parole failure as seen through the eyes of inmates who have been returned to prison following parole revocation. The small sample of revoked inmates was limited to parolees of a young adult offender (YAO) program. The YAO program was designed for young men who were (a) under the age of 18 at the time of conviction, (b) waived to the adult system, and (c) sentenced to a term of imprisonment in an adult prison. This research project used qualitative interviews to explore perceptions about parole supervision and revocation. The men described their experiences and thoughts about parole from the perspective of parole failure. The authors believe the insights of the men can inform discussions about reentry and efforts to enhance parole services for recently released inmates.
 
Article
Perceptions of job advancement opportunities were examined for a large correctional agency that is an equal opportunity employer. The attitudinal data were taken from the 2001 administration of the Prison Social Climate Survey by the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Multilevel models were employed that permitted the simultaneous examination of individual- and institutional-level covariates. A sample of 4,037 staff members working at 98 different prisons provided the data. Consistent with prior research, Whites and men believed that minorities and women had greater opportunities for job advancement. The results demonstrated that the gap in equality of opportunities varied significantly from prison to prison, suggesting that the work environment or context does matter. Nonetheless, the gap in how job opportunities were evaluated between men and women and between Blacks and Whites did not vary significantly across prisons, suggesting that the work context had no effect on these differences.!
 
Article
Questions about the abilities and appropriateness of female correctional officers working in adult men’s correctional institutions have been asked since women first entered men’s prisons. Although some scholars argue that women should not, or cannot, work effectively in such settings, others have shown that there are few differences in quality of work or productivity. Building on this line of research, the present study assesses self-reported perceptions of differences in aggressive responses to instances of inmate challenges and misbehavior. Findings indicate that there are no differences in men’s and women’s responses, and only three variables (job title, height, and having minor children) predict any differences in staff responses. In addition, although female correctional officers report a higher degree of job-related stress than do males, job stress is not related to likelihood of aggressive responses. Findings are discussed in relation to historical and contextual differences between the present study and previous research.
 
Article
AIDS was first identified among prison inmates in 1983. In 2001, the rate of confirmed cases of HIV infection was four times greater among federal and state prison inmates than in the general population. This study used extensive interviews to assess Illinois prison inmates’ sexual and drug-use practices, their knowledge about HIV riskreduction techniques, and their beliefs regarding their own HIV-risk status and their ability to avoid HIV infection. Respondents were classified into risk groups based on their sexual and drug-use behaviors prior to incarceration. Compared to those in the low-risk group, respondents in the high-risk group were more likely to have used or sold drugs and to have lower self-efficacy and perceived-risk scores. Respondents in the moderate-risk group were more likely than those in the low-risk group to be young, to have sold drugs, and to have lower self-efficacy scores. The implications of these differences for HIV-prevention programs tailored by risk profile are discussed.
 
Article
Previous research has revealed gender and racial differences in offenders’ perceptions of the severity of prison compared to alternative sanctions. This research extends that literature by examining the relative impact of demographic, correctional experience, and attitudinal indicators on the amount of probation, community service, and boot camp that male and female prison inmates will endure to avoid 1 year of actual imprisonment. Results highlight differences in perceptions of the relative severity of alternative sanctions among prisoners and identify factors that contribute to these differences. Implications for correctional policy and practice are discussed.
 
Article
A specially constructed Native American Identity Questionnaire was distributed to women imprisoned in the Ohio Reformatory for Women (ORW) in Marysville, Ohio. More than 40% of the women responding to the questionnaire consider themselves to be, at least in part, Native American. These data conflict with official ORW demographic statistics, which drastically underestimate the number of Native Americans within the institution. Possible consequences of the underestimation of Native Americans in the official statistics are discussed.
 
Article
Project Greenlight (GL) was an innovative and intensive prison-based intervention delivered to inmates during the 8-week period immediately prior to their release from prison. Using a relatively rigorous research design, evaluators reported significant negative effects associated with the treatment at one year after release. We reassess the GL intervention over a longer follow-up period and focus on differences by risk level. Findings indicate that although the bulk of the negative effects dissipate compared with one control group, significant negative effects remain when compared with a second. More importantly, however, we find that program effects are differentially distributed by risk level in a counterintuitive direction.
 
Article
Research on prisoner reentry has largely neglected the perspective of formerly incarcerated persons concerning the stigma and discrimination they face in society. The purpose of this study is to address this gap by examining whether formerly incarcerated persons perceive themselves to be discriminated against due to their membership in 10 disadvantaged groups, and if these perceptions are related to self-esteem. The findings indicate the vast majority of men and women feel discriminated against for one reason, with most indicating multiple reasons. Moreover, the findings provide support for past research indicating that perceptions of discrimination are negatively related to self-esteem.
 
Descriptive Information on Courses and Students.
Participation Rates Time 1 and Time 2(# completed surveys/number of students in the course = Participation Rates). 
Article
Self-efficacy in academic settings is an established correlate of educational accomplishments with relevance beyond the classroom. It is a socially created propensity to view oneself as capable of responding to a range of life contingencies. We measure shifts in self-efficacy within prison-based courses that are modeled after the Inside–Out Prison Exchange Program. Courses include college students (outside) and people who are incarcerated (inside) learning together in a prison classroom. Inside students report lower levels of self-efficacy at Time 1 and an increase in self-efficacy by Time 2. Outside student levels of self-efficacy remain the same across time.
 
Article
There are few existing studies that address sexual misconduct of women offenders toward other women prisoners. This qualitative study examined themes of sexual coercion and sexual assault among women offenders that surfaced in letters sent by one woman offender from prison during a period of 5 years. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) female apathy toward sexual coercion and sexual assault, (b) the femme as the sexual aggressor, (c) insight into one female rape situation, and (d) institutional factors contributing to sexual coercion. To prevent incidences of sexual assault by other offenders, policy suggestions specific to the study included a staff focus on identifying and consistently curbing sexual coercion and installing monitored cameras in restriction dorms.
 
Article
The application of radio frequency identification device (RFID) technology to prevent inmate misconduct in a women’s prison in Cleveland, Ohio was evaluated. An interrupted time series design was employed to analyze administrative data. Interviews were conducted with 89 inmates and 21 correctional and investigative staff. A process evaluation found that the advanced applications of the RFID system theorized to prevent inmate misconduct were not initiated. The resulting study thus evaluates RFID when employed at its most basic level as a perimeter control device and aid in investigations. Results indicate that RFID did not deter inmate misconduct.
 
Article
Local jails present unique challenges for the criminal justice researcher. The authors analyzed survey responses and existing documentation from 138 county jail administrators in Texas to determine relationships between select input variables and the incidence of inmate assaults on staff and other inmates. Logistic regression was used to examine the effects of importation model and managerial model variables on inmate assaults. The logistic model of inmate-on-inmate assaults was significant, whereas that of inmate-on-staff was not. The importation model approach was supported by a strong relationship between proportion of maximum security inmates and inmate assaults and by the relationship between inmates in metropolitan as opposed to non-metropolitan jails and inmate assaults. Findings indicated a weaker relationship between two managerial model variables. No discernible relationships were found between the degree of rehabilitative philosophy expressed by the administrator, the ethnic breakdown of staff, or the type of facility structure and inmate assaults.
 
Article
The relationships between dual psychiatric and substance use disorders and assaults among U.S. federal prisoners were examined using logistic regression. Dually disordered inmates were more likely to be assaulted than nondually disordered inmates but both groups were equally likely to assault others. Assault victimization and perpetration were strongly correlated, and assault victimization and perpetration were associated with being assaulted before this incarceration and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses. Dually disordered inmates may be “importing” into prison some vulnerability to being assaulted. Effectively screening for and treating inmates’ trauma-related disorders (e.g., PTSD), and providing inmates specialized dual disorders treatments are two study implications.
 
Article
The culture of an organization shapes much that occurs in that environment. Leaders who are oblivious of their organizational culture are less likely to succeed. Organization members who do not understand the culture may be vulnerable to its more negative influences. Assessing the key attributes of an organizational culture in an agency is a tricky but important enterprise. In this research, we pre-tested an instrument that could be used, in tandem with others, to assess the organizational culture of a criminal justice agency’s (in this case a jail). We focused on the perceptions of the ‘lower level’ workers in this organization.
 
Delinquency Referrals for Primary Sampling Units: Texas, FY 2000 a
Percentage of Juvenile Referrals with Selected Demographics and Risk by Jurisdiction Type Rural Suburban Urban
Frequency and Percentage of Statewide Referrals on Need Measures Need Factor Frequency Percent
Article
Researchers emphasize the importance of risk and criminogenic needs in developing intervention strategies for juvenile offenders. Yet, few jurisdictions collect information about the risk/needs profile of known youthful offenders or whether their needs are being addressed. This study estimated the prevalence of mental health, substance abuse, educational, and family-related needs for youths referred to seven juvenile probation departments in Texas, which represent 21% of referrals statewide. Analyses indicate that the most prevalent needs are problems associated with parental supervision, school behavior, school attendance, parental/family problems, disposition/self-image, and substance abuse. Additional analyses suggest that substantial gaps exist between the number of juveniles needing and receiving programs and services. It is concluded that such information is absolutely essential if policy makers are to formulate appropriate and adequate intervention strategies for court-involved youth.
 
Article
The nucleus of any correctional organization is its correctional staff. There are expected in-role behaviors and duties of the staff, but extra-role behaviors (referred to as organizational citizenship behavior) also are important for correctional organizations. However, there has been little research on correctional staff organizational citizenship behavior. Based on social exchange theory, organizational justice should be important in shaping the organizational citizenship behavior of correctional staff. Distributive and procedural justice are two salient dimensions of organizational justice. Survey data from staff at a private prison indicated that procedural justice had a significant positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior, but distributive justice had a nonsignificant association.
 
Article
Vita. Thesis (Ph. D)--Sam Houston State University, 1989. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 252-276). Microfiche. s
 
Article
The purposes of this article are to determine (a) employer attitudes toward hiring ex-offenders and (b) how these attitudes are affected by the level of training the ex-offender received while incarcerated, government incentives to hire, type of offense committed, and the relationship of the crime to the job to be filled. Eighty-three Houston and Dallas employers were surveyed on their attitudes toward hiring ex-offenders. In general, although the initial willingness to hire ex-offenders was low among employers, other findings indicate that the level of education, government incentives, and the relationship of the crime to the job increase employer willingness to hire an ex-offender. The type of offense, however, when disclosed, appears to have a negative effect on employers' willingness to hire, especially toward those with violent and sexual crimes as well as crimes against children. Limitations and policy applications of the findings are also discussed.
 
Article
Parole officers are responsible for supervising offenders conditionally released from prisons into communities. This structural arrangement creates a power relationship, with officers’ views providing the foundation for various bases of power and possibly influencing their exercise of discretionary power. This study is an examination of parole officers’ perceptions of their bases of power and whether those perceptions influenced officers’ use of their power to revoke offenders’ parole. Findings revealed that officers identified legitimate and reward power as the primary means by which they gain compliance; however, only legitimate power and expert power were linked to officers’ use of power.
 
Article
Research indicates that juveniles in adult prisons are more disruptive than adults. This study extends current understanding by examining their misconduct after they reach adulthood. Bivariate analyses revealed that adults initially incarcerated as juveniles (n = 173) were significantly more likely than adults initially incarcerated as adults (n = 10,950) to have committed all types of misconduct. However, these findings were largely unconfirmed at the multivariate level. A significant difference existed between the two groups in only one regression model. Findings suggest that in regard to the nature of misconduct, inmates who were initially incarcerated as juveniles become indistinguishable over time from other inmates.
 
Article
The authors examined HIV risk behaviors and the role of social networks among a subpopulation at-risk-for HIV, drug-involved probationers. Offenders volunteered to participate in a randomized clinical trial devoted to testing models of access to treatment. Results indicate HIV positive persons in social networks did not deter this sample from participating in HIV risk behaviors. Because positive associates did not influence HIV risk behaviors, engagement in these behaviors may not be a function of their network per se. Therefore, efforts to curtail HIV risk among probationers may be better directed toward the individual, and not the self-reported, associates.
 
Top-cited authors
Harry K Wexler
  • New York University
Michael Prendergast
  • University College Cork
Kevin Knight
  • Texas Christian University
Gerald Melnick
  • National Development and Research Institutes, Inc.
D. Dwayne Simpson
  • Texas Christian University