The Physical Educator

Published by Sagamore Publishing, LLC
Online ISSN: 0031-8981
Publications
Researchers investigated the extent of change occurring in undergraduate enrollments, faculty assignments, and departmental names in physical education and related areas from 1980-90 at Southwestern institutions. Questionnaires indicated a shift in undergraduate enrollment from physical education/teacher education to exercise science/fitness management occurred without a proportional shift in faculty assignments. (SM)
 
Using data from the Chronicle of Higher Education, this study categorized job opportunities in higher education related to kinesiology/physical education and tallied opportunities within each category from 1988-92. Results indicated that a trend toward positions with a broader focus is likely to continue with increasing financial constraints and changing faculty hiring practices. (SM)
 
This study assessed college students' perceptions of the academic rigor of the physical education curriculum using a questionnaire administered to entire classes of students. Results indicated that academic year (freshman/sophomore or junior/senior) made a significant difference in perception. Freshman/sophomore students considered the curriculum less challenging than junior/senior students. (SM)
 
The purpose of this study was to examine elementary school students' accounts of optimal challenge. Twenty-seven children (aged 7-9 years) participated in semi-structured interviews during which they were shown a video-recording of their participation in a physical education class and invited to describe their experiences of optimally challenging activities. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and initially subjected to an inductive coding procedure. Data were then more interpretively analyzed to explore relationships between identified categories and explain the process of optimal challenge in physical education. Findings revealed that optimally challenging experiences were facilitated by (a) the provision of opportunities to modify the challenge level of the activity and (b) possessing enough skill or ability. Optimally challenging experiences were associated with feelings of positive affect (i.e., fun, enjoyment, and motivation to continue engaging in the activity). Findings are discussed with reference to the extant optimal challenge literature and future research directions are considered. (Contains 1 figure, 1 table and 1 footnote.)
 
Study examined the effects of three grading systems on college physical education students' outcome measures in table tennis using skill tests, written tests, game play variables, class attendance, student behaviors, and attitudes toward the systems. Positive effects of the three grading systems were demonstrated on most process and outcome measures. (SM)
 
Physical education must change its image of being "jack of all trades, master of none" and create an appropriate name and consensual taxonomy of knowledge for its work. There is an urgent need for proven professional competency in developmental physical activity based on a consensual body of knowledge. (SM)
 
Provides middle school physical educators with new ideas for improving physical-fitness objectives in their physical-education curriculum, describing and presenting examples of novel and challenging warmup and physical-fitness activities. The activities focus on using colorful visual materials and popular music to enhance student motivation. Activities may be modified or rearranged to accommodate the needs of specific classes. (SM)
 
Discusses the paucity of African Americans as administrators and educational leaders in college and university health, physical education, and recreation departments; suggests some barriers to ethnic diversity at such levels and proposes several strategies to open more leadership positions to African Americans. (MDM)
 
Reports a study of two-year college athletic administrators who evaluated the effectiveness of seven employment strategies and provided recommendations for increasing numbers of female coaches. Subjects perceived active involvement by administrators, increased opportunities for practical experience, and recruiting female athletes interested in coaching as the most effective procedures. (SM)
 
Job announcements often work to either encourage or discourage prospective applicants. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if gender bias existed within the job announcements for interscholastic athletic administrators. The study's results revealed that over a two-year period there were 301 advertisements for positions in the state analyzed. Of these positions, 220 (73%) required the applicant to coach a boys' sport, predominately football (94%). Sixty-eight percent of the announcements required the person to serve as the head football coach. In the state examined for this study, the head football coach is the exclusive domain of men as there are no women in that position. Thus, if the majority of the announcements required a person to hold the dual role of athletic administrator and head football coach, evidence of a systematic gender bias was present in the majority of the announcements. Hegemonic masculinity is sustained through such systemic practices.
 
Reports a study that compared three measures for determining percent body fat in mentally retarded adults (multiple skinfolds and circumference measurements, Infrared Interactance, and Bioelectrical Impedance). Results indicated the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer and Infrared Interactance Analyzer produced values for percent body fat that were acceptable for field testing such subjects. (SM)
 
A survey was sent to 106 African American doctoral recipients in sport and exercise science disciplines. Of these, 74, or 69.8% responded. Data analysis indicated that most respondents were extrinsically motivated to enroll. Persistence was influenced by institutional factors like financial aid and academic support services. (SM)
 
Most colleges and universities provide physical fitness classes plus courses teaching basic concepts of healthy living. Such courses empower students to learn physical fitness assessment, make wise lifetime physical fitness decisions, and design customized exercise programs. The paper examines types of cardiorespiratory fitness testing, explaining the educational merits of testing. (SM)
 
Results of a 1991 national survey are reported that determined (1) how many state education agencies provide physical education curriculum materials, and (2) what types of curriculum materials are provided. Results show that nearly all states have developed some curriculum literature, but only half provide curriculum guides for physical education teachers. (GLR)
 
This article discusses the liability of teachers, administrators, and school systems for actions by substitutes, paraprofessionals, student teachers, and new teachers, examining who is responsible if an individual is negligent. Case examples are provided. Four principles for states where there are no applicable immunity statutes are presented. (SM)
 
The two types of programs investigated were required basic activity-based physical education and required conceptually-based physical education, both in small Christian colleges. Surveys indicated that real differences between the groups were small in respect to knowledge, attitudes, and habits. (SM)
 
Reflective physical education (PE) teachers should use developmentally appropriate pedagogy (DAP) to include students with diverse skill levels in their PE classes. DAP is a prerequisite to successful inclusion. This paper explains the importance of breaking down skills, age appropriateness, individual appropriateness, and interactive teaching in inclusive PE, and it discusses collaborative teacher/student relationships. (SM)
 
Examines the causes and nature of teacher-coach role conflict and discusses its impact on regular students and student-athletes at four-year colleges. Recent research suggests that it is difficult for student athletes to receive a quality education and that teacher-coaches are often indifferent to academic achievement. (MDM)
 
Reports a study that examined the consumer needs in higher education from 1991-94 in the discipline of physical education and athletics. Using data from the Chronicle of Higher Education (1991-94), the study examined and categorized types of positions advertised. Requests for exercise physiologists ranked first, followed by pedagogy, kinesiology/biomechanics, and generalist. (SM)
 
This study examined the ratings by female and male athletic administrators and coaches of the importance of various job attainment factors. Results indicated that previous work experience was the most critical factor, followed by appropriate training, personal traits, and professionally recognized qualifications. (SM)
 
This study examined the attitudes of future physical educators toward teaching students with disabilities. Physical educators and other enrolled students (n = 704) from 40 colleges and universities across 21 states nationwide, were participants. The Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities-III (Rizzo, 1993) instrument was used for data collection. Attitude differences were examined as a function of participants' gender, ethnic status, course work preparation, academic major, and experience teaching individuals with disabilities. Also, examined were participants' perceived comfort levels toward teaching students with sensory and physical disabilities. GLM Factorial analysis of variance procedures revealed that females exhibited significantly higher attitude scores than males toward teaching students with disabilities. In addition, participants with experience teaching individuals with disabilities exhibited higher attitude scores than those with no such experiences. Moreover, female participants with teaching experiences exhibited significantly higher attitude scores than females and males with no such experiences, and males with experience teaching individuals with disabilities. Further analyses by gender indicated that females' perceived comfort level was significantly higher, that is, with less ambivalence, than for males toward teaching students with physical disabilities. No gender difference was found toward teaching pupils with sensory impairments. Participants' ethnic status, academic major, and course work preparation were onsignificant factors with respect to overall attitude scores toward teaching students with disabilities. In contrast, however, course work preparation was found significant regarding participants' perceived comfort level teaching students with sensory and physical disabilities.
 
Reports a study that systematically identified the knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of certified physical educators in the area of multicultural education. Surveys of 348 teachers indicated that respondents had high knowledge levels and positive attitudes toward multicultural education. Teachers ages 31-40 years had significantly more multicultural experiences than younger teachers. (SM)
 
Reports a study of the effects of short-term fitness education on low-fit female college students' knowledge and attitudes. Group A received handouts and lectures. Group B received handouts only. Pre- and posttesting indicated lectures were more effective than handouts. Both groups demonstrated significantly higher knowledge about health and fitness than control subjects. (SM)
 
Surveys of culturally diverse physical education (PE) graduate students from various specialization areas examined the importance of mentoring. Results indicated that adapted PE students felt supported by well-organized mentoring, but students from other PE areas had no similar programmatic mentoring structures available. Those with mentors said they provided guidance, counseling, encouragement, caring, and cultural awareness. (SM)
 
Current information indicates colleges and universities are experiencing decreased enrollments in basic instruction programs for physical activity. One factor responsible for this phenomenon is many universities' decision to eliminate required participation in physical education courses in order to graduate with a college degree. Another factor may be the potential for the students' perceptions of the quality of the program to affect participant retention. At a large Midwestern university, a sample of 300 students enrolled in a basic instruction program for physical activity was surveyed to determine perceptions of program quality and to determine whether different student segments responded differently to various aspects of the service experience. Findings from this study indicate perceived quality is a strong predictor of satisfaction and that satisfied students are likely to return to the program for additional courses. Course content was the most important predictor of satisfaction followed by instructor quality. Quality perceptions differed according to gender and motive for taking the course. Male students were more critical of the course and instructor. Female students were easier to please when it came to course content and the instructor, but more critical of the facility. Students indicating they were taking the course for each of the three motives--skill acquisition, health improvement, and social opportunities--rated one or more of the targets of quality higher than those students who were less motivated to take the course for any of the three aforementioned reasons. (Contains 2 tables.)
 
Kounin (1970) defined three aspects of teachers' roles and relationships with students: as instructor, manager, and person. Within each of those roles, the physical educator can learn and practice specific skills to increase effectiveness in the classroom. Self-assessment using Kounin's model can provide valuable insight into personal effectiveness. (SM)
 
In this study researchers conducted exercise testing, collected data on demographics and physical activity, analyzed data by gender and major, and compared results with data on nonphysical education majors. The paper presents the results by category. (SM)
 
This study analyzed the undergraduate physical education (PE) teacher education certification requirements within institutions offering doctoral degrees in PE. Researchers examined curricular materials from 29 institutions (course requirements, credit hours, and program purpose) and determined that there were more similarities than differences among the participating PE teacher certification programs. (SM)
 
Examines the effects of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, which mandates the inclusion of children with disaabilities in regular physical education programs to the maximum extent appropriate. Discusses the challenges that physical educators will face and the preparations they can make to proceed smoothly with inclusion. (MDM)
 
Presents Flow Theory as a theoretical model to help those who work with children in physical activity environments better understand how to motivate children to become and remain physically active. Explains why children participate in and drop out of physical activities, what Flow Theory is, how to tap into flow experiences, and implications for children's physical activity environments. (SM)
 
Presents nine video activities for use in physical education. Teachers can use video to get to know students, provide otherwise unavailable information, document funding needs, familiarize newcomers with the school, and train students. Student applications include individualized or group feedback, video research, video commercials or skits, and school sports orientation videotapes. (SM)
 
Study examined job satisfaction among male and female college coaches of women's teams. Coaches completed the Job Description Index and the Job in General Index to measure their job satisfaction and general feelings toward their jobs. Results indicated that both sexes had similar perceptions toward their jobs. (SM)
 
Discusses the relationship between motor skill and speech-language development and delays, the roles of physical education specialists and speech-language pathologists in teaching children in inclusive settings, the collaborative consultation that must occur between the two professionals, and a model training program that emphasizes such collaboration. (SM)
 
Presents a first-hand account of an experience in team teaching a methods course in physical education teacher education, focusing on the conceptualization and implementation of reflective teaching in physical education. The paper offers data from preservice teachers' journals and observations and recollections of in-class discussions. (SM)
 
This study investigated the impact of Montana's initiative to combine health and physical education into one secondary course, noting instructors' preparation to teach health education. Surveys of secondary teachers in Montana's Health Enhancement curriculum (which combined health and physical education outcomes) revealed minimal support for Health Enhancement in theory or practice. (SM)
 
To prepare undergraduates for careers in physical education it is recommended that physical activity courses develop varied knowledge bases related to the teaching of physical activity and that they integrate information across knowledge bases. The article discusses the history, current status, and future of the issue. (SM)
 
Investigated the effects of multimedia-based instruction versus lecture-based instruction on teaching cognitive components of manipulative skills to physical education majors. Comparison of control, multimedia, and lecture group students' pretests and posttests indicated that though there were no significant differences in scores between the multimedia and lecture groups, intervention group scores were significantly higher than control group scores. (SM)
 
Culturally responsive teaching requires physical educators to examine their programs and teaching practices in four areas: developing positive attitudes, developing positive learning climates, providing curriculum that respects cultural values, and involving families. Physical educators also need ongoing dialog and professional development about diversity. (SM)
 
This study compared fitness outcomes of regular physical education (PE) programs to special PE programs that implemented a curricular module. Fifth and seventh graders who were exposed to the fitness module did not make significantly greater gains in selected fitness scores than students who participated in regular PE programs. (SM)
 
Discusses why individuals with disabilities participate in sport, introducing the broad array of sport opportunities available to them. A four-level continuum of sport opportunities for individuals with disabilities is described, providing examples of implementation at each level. Questions, challenges, and suggestions for program organizers are presented. (SM)
 
Examined how graduate physical education teaching assistants (GTAs) acquired teaching skills. Participants completed questionnaires that investigated acquisition of teaching skills. One GTA received a behavioral teacher training intervention after experiencing difficulty with teaching. Her students completed a social validation questionnaire. Results noted the lack of formal teacher training for GTAs and the benefits of the behavioral approach to teacher improvement. (SM)
 
Survey examined practices in colleges and universities to prepare physical education teachers. Over half recommended or required field-based coaching. Equal numbers of peer teaching experiences occurred in skill and pedagogy courses. Pre-student teaching field experiences generally occurred in urban sites. Students teachers received approximately five site visits from university supervisors. (SM)
 
Investigated whether being a good model of physical activity and fitness would influence employability within the physical education (PE) profession. Surveys of individuals who hired PE teachers indicated that being 10-20 pounds overweight was detrimental when seeking employment as a public school PE teacher during both initial screening and final phases of hiring. (SM)
 
Describes a study that examined undergraduate physical education teacher education majors' levels of reflectivity. During one semester, students wrote about reflective teaching following various reading assignments, teaching experiences, and classroom observations. Analysis of the writing assignments for levels of reflectivity indicated that students' initial low levels of reflectivity did not improve significantly over time. (SM)
 
This paper presents survey results from 70 physical education departments in Washington State high schools on their current student fitness strategies and how they rated each strategy. Also included are brief discussions on recent innovative strategies and recommendations based on survey findings. (GLR)
 
Examined the effect of specialized teaching strategies to increase amounts of time spent in the training zone on middle school physical education students. Students' heart monitor data were compared with data from an earlier study without the teaching strategies. More students from the second study were within the training zone. (SM)
 
Reports a study of physical educators' perceptions of the effects of block scheduling on their classes and on the teachers who were using it. Surveys indicated that physical educators who used block scheduling were universally positive about it because it provided an opportunity to truly meet the physical education objectives. (SM)
 
This study examined the effects of four preservice teacher education courses (two in multicultural education, a field experience, and student teaching in urban areas) on preservice teachers' perceptions of their multicultural knowledge and attitudes. Findings indicated that subjects' perceptions of multicultural knowledge and attitudes were effectively enhanced by the discipline-specific courses and integrated classroom approaches. (SM)
 
Assessed the health-related physical-fitness knowledge of preservice and inservice physical education teachers and graduate students in physical education and exercise physiology. Survey results indicated that exercise-physiology graduate students surpassed all others in knowledge. Though preservice teachers had relatively poor knowledge levels, their knowledge progressively increased with experience in the preservice program. (SM)
 
Discussion of research on student teaching experiences and the process of producing effective physical educators examines: origins of student teaching in teacher education, cooperating teacher/supervisor interactions with student teachers, content of teacher-student interactions, reasons for participating in the process, and ways to enhance the effectiveness of student teaching. (SM)
 
Top-cited authors
Dean A Dudley
  • Macquarie University
Mark Byra
  • University of Wyoming
Jepkorir Rose Chepyator-Thomson
  • University of Georgia
Mike P Ernst
  • California State University, Dominguez Hills
Steven Aicinena
  • University of Texas of the Permian Basin