The paper is focused on exploring the factors that facilitate parent involvement in their child’s education and school life. A sample of 670 Romanian school principals from the Cross-National Survey of School Principals in South East Europe (SEE) countries 2008 was used. Two-step linear regressions were run in order to predict parent participation in school meetings, parent engagement in school activities and parent influence in school governance, as reported by school principals. The results indicated that the level of parents’ organizations influence on school governance, school administration, and teaching methods is as important as the school background (size, location, budget, principal’s experience, and shares of vulnerable children).
Within the last decade the most significant development of European Union in the education field has been the Bologna Process. The reference point of the Process is European Qualifications Framework on an international level, and national qualifications framework on a national level. We handle the Bologna term of “sectoral qualifications” in two different meanings. The first is related to hierarchy of field of education from programme to broad field in the UNESCO approach. The second is sectoral standards which determined by needs of economic sectors. This paper is devoted to develop field architecture of scientific family of programme qualifications. In this work, while the field qualifications have been developed in Turkey, international standard classifications of education, occupations and industries have been taken into account; and moreover, qualifications have been developed from the vertically and horizontally hierarchical point of view, and chronological perspective. In this work, it is suggested that EQF-LLL and NQF can also be applied to all types of field qualifications.
The study assessed whether students who contracted COVID-19 and did not fall ill differed in coping strategies. The study comprised 111 participants, including 55.9% who were infected and 44.1% who were not. It consisted of online (49.5%) and blended mode learners (50.5%) aged 19 to 31. We used the Brief COPE Inventory to assess ways of coping with stress. Among online students, 65.5% fell ill, while less than half of blended mode learners got sick. Students who contracted COVID-19 were more likely to use maladaptive coping strategies, and respondents who did not become ill were more likely to use adaptive strategies.
The aim of this study is to examine how ethics influence students’ cognitive and affective-based trust during COVID-19 pandemic and explore their information seeking activity when faced with limitations learning process. The sample consists of 610 participants through a survey study with Structural Equation Modeling to test the research hypotheses. We found both ethics has positive and significant effect to trust (e.g., cognitive- and affective-based trust), which subsequently positively effects on information seeking among students’ toward Facebook as a tool to promote their activities, The recent study’s has contributed to the academic field shows that Facebook is a tool for communication and interaction with others by seeking information, which ethics and trusts an essential exogenous factor. In practical area, education stakeholders’ should address and identify their students’ to improve their learning performance. Also, it should focus on enhancing the contents and processes of its students’ interactions to foster communication and value propositions in creating unique and valuable experiences.
The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 caused uncertainty about our health, jobs, and the education system. For teachers, changes in workplaces and the breakdown of interpersonal relationships during the pandemic caused even greater stress levels in what is already known to be a stressful job. We wanted to find out if a positive or negative attitude towards online work influenced levels of stress and mental well-being, perceived difficulties at work, subjective evaluation of received support, and effectiveness of remote work during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 in Poland. Data was collected using a questionnaire, the PSS 10 scale and another scale based on GHQ12 and GH30. Nearly one-third of the respondents indicated positive aspects of online education. Those who could see the positive aspects of online education showed themselves better adapted to the new form of working and had higher results in all four scales that we researched. They handled online tools, used synchronous methods, conducted educational activities more often, and felt competent during online work. Supporting the effectiveness of educators by improving the competencies that they need for this new form of working is vital with regard to the changes within the school institution.
Objective: The study aims to determine whether educationally active women present signs of transformative learning in their own experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic. The focus of the study is the relationship between experiencing transformative learning in a pandemic and the sense of loneliness, received social support, sense of life satisfaction and age. Methods: The study was conducted among 258 educationally active women – part-time students, as well as students of the Universities of the Third Age. Age of the surveyed women: from 19 to 87 years. Data were collected using the online test method. A statistical significance of differences was tested with the U Mann-Whitney test and the two proportion z-test. Results: Most of the surveyed women manifested elements of transformative learning in their experience of the pandemic. Those scoring high on the Transformative Learning in a Pandemic Situation scale have had their life satisfaction decrease to a greater extent than those scoring low. The group scoring high on the Transformative Learning in a Pandemic Situation scale is characterised by a higher sense of loneliness. No relationship was found between perceived manifestations of transformative learning and age, social support, place of residence and education. Discussion: The transformative potential of learning can be seen in a pandemic situation. The obtained data provide arguments supporting the supposition that the feeling of loneliness, influencing the lowering of satisfaction from life, is a factor triggering learning and leading to the change of habits of thinking and acting of educationally active women.
Emergency following the COVID-19 pandemic has forced educational institutions in over 190 countries to close, and teachers worldwide worked hard to adapt their curriculum to an online format and face multiple related challenges. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic had on teachers’ performance and verify whether this change may have been justified by individual resilience, self-compassion and awe levels. The respondents perceived a significant drop in performance following the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic across all investigated subscales. Preliminary data obtained in this study indicate that this drop may be explained by a link between performance and Awe, Resilience and Self-Compassion.
The main aim of this paper is to raise reflection on the conditions of respect for the right to education in the unexpected, pandemic time and after. The right to education is presented as the main agent of personal and social well-being, respect for human dignity, and the power of changing the world. The main question that organizes the structure of this paper concerns the conditions of respecting the right to education in Poland during remote education forced by a pandemic. Attention is focused on conditions, such as the place of living, possibilities for parents with different levels of education to support students, and access to broadband Internet. The discussion highlights the role of imag-ination as a factor of change in education and ways of respect for the right to education.
Learning in unknown circumstances is a great challenge for young people, particularly those who lack the ability to regulate their emotions. This text presents the results of research on the image of the life of students in higher grades of primary school, measured by the sense of self-efficacy and the sense of helplessness. The research was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic among 303 students. It was found that (1) students rather express their belief in their own effectiveness (agency), and, at the same time, (2) half of the students indicated the feeling of helplessness; (3) helplessness is significantly higher among girls; (4) in the case of girls, there is a clear and strong negative relation between the sense of effectiveness and the helplessness.
The work is dedicated to the young Polish emigrants from the Kujawsko -Pomorskie region who emigrated to the UK in the years 1999-2007. The survey sample was representative for the group of people aged 19-30. The article presents the analysis of selected data. Inter-variable correlations point unambiguously to the different character of motivation amongst the male and female emigrants. Except for the women characterised by intercultural attitudes, involved in bilingual relationships, the female emigrants are generally prone to return to the country, taking conservative attitudes towards tradition, language and culture of the mother country. The men more o en express willingness to remain abroad, their assimilation with the target country is quicker and more permanent in nature; their decision to leave the country is determined by ' financial aspects, promotion at work and unemployment in the country of their origin. The women holding university degrees were willing to undertake professional studies in the UK, their aim being to improve their qualifications and language competences with a view of returning to Poland. The young Polish emigrants see themselves as Europeans rather than emigrants. They are willing to return to the country, yet attach major importance to financial and professional aspects, which were given priority until 2007.
Web 2.0 provides resources and tools that make the learning process social and collaborative as they connect students witheach other and help to move from the instructor-centred methods of teaching to more contextual learning and problem-solving techniques (J.West and M.West, 2009). The aim of the paper is to introduce findings on the project of implementing Web 2.0 resources for collaborative work in the National Research University Higher School of Economics. The main objectives of the project were to 1) single out Internet resources aimed at collaboration to suit the purposes of educational programme; 2) determine how much collaborative learning background students have and their attitudes to online and face-to-face collaboration; 3) analyse the students’ involvement in collaborative learning activities; 4) research the influence of web-related technologies on willingness to collaborate. The main methods used in the research were questionnaire, interview and observation as well as analyses of students’ work. The results revealed a positive attitude to Web 2.0 among the majority of the students. The offered Internet resources (Tricider.com, MeetingWords.com, TodaysMeet.com) improved communication and collaboration outside of the classroom, which is vital as increasingly less time is being allocated for studying a foreign language. Besides, Web 2.0 resources make it easier for teachers to evaluate each student’s contribution to task achievement and ensure fair assessment of each student’s work.
In England over the period 2004-2010 there was significant change in the education and training for those working with children and young people to meet policy objectives. This article aims to briefly outline some of the impacts for 'associate professionals' who were working in educational settings during this period, and to discuss how these changes may influence their professional status in the longer term. In addition, the article seeks to draw attention to the ways in which policy can reinforce or undermine workforce professionalism, and the variable resources that professions may have to manage these processes. The intention is to provide an insight into processes in one European country that may be of interest to other countries where reform to the organisation of care and education for children may be in development, for example through the development of pre-school infrastructure to meet policy and labour market objectives (i.e. 'Program MALUCH' in Poland), as outlined by the Polish Ministerstwo Pracy i Polityki Społecznej (2011).
The aim of this study is to present the results of analyses of PhD dissertations defended abroad and in the Czech Republic in the years 2006-2012 in the field of foreign language didactics. Building on a body of previous work, methodological background for a meta-analysis of the topics of PhD dissertations defended in selected countries abroad as well as for an analysis of PhD dissertations defended in the Czech Republic is presented. The results are then discussed and compared. We conclude that the range of topics addressed in the Czech dissertations does not significantly differ from the state of art abroad, although some areas, such as language learners, seem to be under-researched in the Czech Republic.
Both in developing and developed nations an incorrect diet is a source of health problems. Inadequate nutrition contributes to chronic, non-infectious illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases, some types of malignant cancer and diabetes type 2 (Kuszewski et al., 2007). Due to the dramatic increase in the number of chronic, non-infectious illnesses, implementation of preventive measures became an important challenge for upgrading public health. Improving the population’s diet and food quality, as well as decreasing the amount of obesity, were defined as operational objectives of the National Health Programme for the years 2007-2015 in Poland (operational objective 3). The activities undertaken nationwide are based on the Global strategy on diet, physical activity and health, developed by the WHO and adopted at the 57th meeting of the World Health Assembly (WHO, 2004). The primary goal of the study was to verify the achievement of operational objective 3 of the National Health Programme for 2007-2015, which referred to the improvement of food and its quality as well as the reduction of obesity.
This study entered ultrasound, education, and nanometer into search engines in English, Chinese (traditional, and simplified), Japanese, Korean, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, and Russian on two internet search engines to find differences in the searching results between 2007 and 2009. e search for the three words stood for well-developed technology, educational resources, and developing science, respectively. e results showed that there were large differences in the numbers of hits. Furthermore, the numbers of educational websites are increasing in the world. e results pointed out that most countries steadily increase the educational resources. rough the multilingual content of websites and translation tools, the educational resources are increasing rapidly.
The article contains some information, opinions and conclusions connected with preconditions for e. ective teaching. The survey, which is partly presented, involved 24 countries and was carried out among 90 thousand teachers (the stress is put here on the "Polish perspective"). The teachers and schools were described by over 50 factors (independent variables), comprising: Profiles of teachers and schools, teachers' professional development, teaching practices and teachers' beliefs and attitudes, teacher appraisal and school leadership. The two variables were regarded as preconditions for a teacher's professional success (they were classified as dependent variables). It was concluded that the classroom climate and the teachers' sense of self-efficacy were the key variables. In Poland and in most countries - the model of the sense of self-efficacy was dominated by variables on teacher beliefs about instruction and teaching practice. The second model (classroom climate) - both in Poland and in most other countries there were equally strong contributions of variables from the "Practices and beliefs" and "Socio-economic conditions" blocks.
This book in an accessible manner examines education disciplines in one handy volume. It provides well prepared study activities and extra notes to texts, figures and journals of particular education disciplines. In chapter one Barry Dufour presents an introduction to the history of education. Next chapter reveals the political, economic and social context for changes in contemporary education. The third chapter considers the fundamental philosophical ideas beginning with Greek philosophers and taking us forward in time to today by looking at the influential educational ideas (Dufour, Curtis, 2011). Chapter four depicts the most significant areas of the economics of education. The main sociological perspectives in education are presented in chapter five. Next chapter presents behavior, learning and intelligence as parts of the psychology of education. Comparative education through the prism of research is presented in the last chapter.
The research aimed to determine significant relationships between selected dimensions of professional life and the work of part-time teachers in a sample of respondents in the Republic of Serbia. In testing the model on a sample from the TALIS 2013 (Teaching and Learning International Survey), which consisted of dimensions of professional development (general and specific), barriers to professional development, evaluation and job satisfaction, showed statistically significant relationships between feedback, specific needs of professional development, and less significant links between the general needs of professional development and the barriers to this development with job satisfaction. Quantitative methods were followed to report the results of the cross-sectional study. Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was utilised to assess the quantitative data. Research with this sample of surveyed teachers has not been done so far.
The aim of the presented research study is to identify elementary and secondary school teachers’ leadership behaviours in terms of Kouzes and Posner’s conception in relation to teachers’ self-esteem. The study is of a quantitative, correlational design using the following research tools: Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSS). The research sample consists of 213 elementary and secondary school teachers from Middle Slovakia. The main findings of the empirical analysis include weak, statistically significant relationships between LPI variables and self-esteem. Our findings indicate a weak relationship between teachers’ leadership behaviours and their self-esteem.
Students’ free option power of learning is an important part of students’ power of learning. It emphasizes respect for students’ learning rights and freedom, so that students have a certain freedom of learning choice. In the theory and practice of Chinese higher education, undergraduates’ free option power of learning has long been weakened and restricted by various factors. This study provides an understanding of the current situation of undergraduates’ free option power of learning through 20 interviews with undergraduates from a university in Central China in a pilot project, whose purpose was to provide students with freedom in selecting higher education options. The interviews address three areas where students were given the option to select: learning content, (b) learning processes, and (c) learning environments. Discussion follows on the problems experienced by Chinese undergraduates’ in the free option power of learning project. Lastly, as China hopes to expand this project beyond the pilot, we advance recommendations to promote effective implementation of the free option power of learning of Chinese undergraduates, such as: (a) establishing sound laws to ensure the effective implementation of the power of students; (b) empowering undergraduates to have more choice to choose and change their majors; (c) carrying out the flexible program duration to let students have free choice of getting credits; and (d) establishing a sound and perfect transfer mechanism to let students have more choice of universities.
In this article I make a critical analysis of educational policy in Poland during the 28 years of the political transformation. In the transition period in Poland, from 1989 to 2017, education did not become a source of ongoing changes in the country. Further formations of political power, selected through elections, instead of decentralizing the school system, allegedly led to the creation of new models of school in a corset of centralism. To make matters worse, the prime ministers of the following governments from different political parties, taking into account their own or party interests, created the ministry of national education (or their decision-making power apparatus) who had disturbed communicational relationships with the public. In this article, I explain the reasons for the betrayal of elites in the context of fundamental assumptions of the “Solidarity” movement in the years of 1980-1989. As a result, Polish society abandoned the deliberative and participatory democracy. I look at how education, as a science and practice of education, fits into democratization of the Polish state and society. What is of key importance is the perception of education as a common good, as environments and entities, institutions or management practices which participate in a democratic society.
This study aims to explore the effect of chemical element symbols in students' identification of 2D chemical structural formulas. A chemical conceptual questionnaire, event-related potential experiments and interviews were administered to fifty university students in this study. The results revealed that high achieving students perfprmed different brain activities and strategies to identify 2D figures (without chemical elements symbols inside) and 2D chemical structural formulas. However, low achieving students ignored the existence of chemical element symbols and performed similar brain activities and strategies when identifying 2D figures and chemical structural formulas. This paper discusses implications for new education.
The paper presents 5C (Creation, Cooperation, Context, Creativity and Communication) business case study solving methodology. This methodology is applicable to various real life business problems and it focuses on completely practical structure. It has been developed through the learning by doing practice of Industrial Engineering and Management students at the University of Novi Sad, Republic of Serbia, during many national and international student business case study competitions for many years. Together with their mentors, students improved their own study program and accepted this useful concept as their basic tool when preparing for tasks and problems they are facing.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of students' teams - achievement divisions, team assisted individualization and traditional instruction on students' conflict resolution and empathic tendencies. 240 5 th grade students from three different schools participated in the study. To investigate the effect of different teaching approaches on 5 th grade elementary school students' conflict resolutions and empathic tendencies, conflict resolution (CRS) and empathic tendencies scales (ETS) were applied to the groups as pre - and post-tests. Students who experienced students' teams - achievement divisions and team assisted individualization showed significantly higher mean scores in the dimension of problem solving in post-CRS and for post-ETS and low scores in the dimension of aggression in post-CRS than students who experienced traditional instruction.
The paper discovers the presence of abduction in teachers’ activities and emphasises the role of trichotomous systems (abduction, deduction, induction) in discovering human reality. The paper focuses on the presence of abduction in education sciences research, and its main goal is to detect abduction in teaching activities and classroom interaction. Abduction is a type of reasoning requiring philosophical, logical, and psychological background, distinct from induction and deduction, and it contributes to a viewpoint in social research that strives to make research in human reality easier to understand. The qualitative study involved explores the presence of abduction in teachers’ communication based on unstructured observation. The observation was carried out in a primary school. The objects of observation were the Geography, Art, and PE classes of the same teacher. The data of the class observation were recorded verbatim. The records were processed using an inductive, data-driven method after the classes. The reliability of the process was ensured by intracoding. The results of the observations reflect the presence of abduction in classroom interaction. The results showed that abduction appeared in the Geography, Art, and PE classes observed, and every class witnessed right and wrong abductive conclusions. The paper is relevant to anybody interested in the appearance of abduction in education sciences research and aims at completing the arsenal of tools available for analysing teachers’ activities.
Empathy is one of the basic factors of teachers' didactic efficiency and the edu-cational actions undertaken by them. It includes not only the knowledge about the needs and the correct development of the child/pupil but also their ability to perceive inter-subjectively the child's/pupil's world and express their own behav-iours reflecting understanding and sympathising. Thus, the search for the answer to the question what relations between the teacher's constant individual features and empathetic abilities are, seems to be vital. This attempt has been made on the basis of the constant individual personality traits concept put forward by Professor Jolanta Wilsz, the frame of which is constituted by the autonomous systems theory. The basic factors, such as analysis adaptation, retrieval, preference, ability to communicate ideas, tolerance and vulnerability have been applied in the research for the individual didactic efficiency analysis of the surveyed teachers. The research results undeniably complement the knowledge about teachers with reference to the diagnosis of their vocational aptitude.