The purpose of this study was to examine whether low frequency (<100 kHz), low intensity (<100 mW/cm(2), spatial peak temporal peak) ultrasound can be an effective treatment of venous stasis ulcers, which affect 500 000 patients annually costing over $1 billion per year. Twenty subjects were treated with either 20 or 100 kHz ultrasound for between 15 and 45 min per session for a maximum of four treatments. Healing was monitored by changes in wound area. Additionally, two in vitro studies were conducted using fibroblasts exposed to 20 kHz ultrasound to confirm the ultrasound's effects on proliferation and cellular metabolism. Subjects receiving 20 kHz ultrasound for 15 min showed statistically faster (p < 0.03) rate of wound closure. All five of these subjects fully healed by the fourth treatment session. The in vitro results indicated that 20 kHz ultrasound at 100 mW/cm(2) caused an average of 32% increased metabolism (p < 0.05) and 40% increased cell proliferation (p < 0.01) after 24 h when compared to the control, non-treated cells. Although statistically limited, this work supports the notion that low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasound is beneficial for treating venous ulcers.
Structural energy density and structural power flow have long been used as metrics in the active control of vibrating structures. The greater portion of this previous work has focused on frequency-domain methods which incorporate assumptions about the relative contributions of near-field and far-field energy components. This paper describes the implementation of filtered-x-based time-domain control schemes which utilize 9- and 13-accelerometer arrays to estimate and control structural energy density and structural power flow, respectively. Experiments were performed on a clamped steel plate excited and controlled by various combinations of loudspeakers and electrodynamic shakers in a frequency range from 25 to 100 Hz. Analog circuitry was used to estimate spatial derivatives and reduce channel count. The development of control laws incorporating the effects of the analog circuitry is presented. Control attentuation results are given, sensor placement is discussed, and implementation challenges are addressed. [This work is supported by NSF Grant 0826554.].
Several types of various active field control (AFC) applications are discussed, while referring to representative projects for each application. (1) Realization of acoustics in a huge hall to classical music program, E.g., Tokyo International Forum: This venue is a multi-purpose hall with approximately 5000 seats. AFC achieves "loudness" and "reverberance" equivalent to those of a hall with 2500 seats or fewer. (2) Compensation of acoustics on stage without rigid shell using the electro-acoustic method. E.g., High school auditoriums: In these renovation projects, AFC achieves "acoustical support" for performer on stage and "uniformity" throughout the auditorium from the stage to the audience area, etc. (3) Improvement of the acoustics under the balcony in auditoria. E.g., Experiments on a full-scale model and the school auditorium. The system is a non-regenerative system, and the loudspeakers, located at positions corresponding to measurement points across the balcony, recreate the reflecting sound from above the balcony area, which otherwise fail to reach to the listeners under the balcony. The results of the experiment show that the system is significantly better for all tests to the use of no system and that the system is superior to a standard PA (delay system).
Secondary calibration of microphones at infrasonic frequencies by comparison to a reference pressure transducer in a piston-driven chamber is straightforward as long as the two transducers can be located much closer than a wavelength or a correction for their separation can be determined accurately. If the response of the reference transducer is flat to zero frequency, the reference can be calibrated statically. For comparison calibration, the uncertainty is dominated by the uncertainty in the reference. In this investigation, a calibration chamber that is normally used for comparison calibration has been analyzed for primary calibration. In the primary mode, the calibration depends on chamber dimensions, piston displacement, temperature, barometric pressure, leak rate, and a thermo-viscous acoustic model. The primary and secondary calibrations are performed simultaneously; however, the two calibration modes produce almost entirely independent response estimates of both magnitude and phase. The calibrations extend well below the nominal low-frequency roll-off of the microphone and allow identification of the characteristics of the pressure-equalization leak. In addition to the linear analysis, the effects of nonlinearity and convection are explored.
Attenuation and compensated backscatter from suspensions of random distributions of polystyrene beads in agarose are reported across a broad, continuous range of frequencies including frequencies which are currently of interest in the emerging fields of acoustic backscatter microscopy and intravascular imaging. Data are reported over the range of ka from 0.06 to 4, where k is the magnitude of the ultrasonic wave vector and a is the radius of the beads. The attenuation coefficient exhibits a linear dependence on frequency for ka < < 1 and more complex behaviour at larger values of ka. The measured frequency dependence of the compensated backscatter was consistent with the frequency dependence of the differential backscatter cross section for a single polystyrene sphere throughout the range of ka investigated.
Analysis of the spectral content of long-range reverberation yields two observations. First, there is a remarkably similar scale, O(0.1)m, between three diverse continental shelf regions. This is surprising given general understanding of the complexity and diversity of geologic processes. Second, there is strong evidence that the scale is associated with heterogeneities within the sediment. Thus, sediment volume scattering, not interface scattering, controls long-range reverberation from a few hundred Hertz to several kilohertz. This is also unexpected given that at long-ranges the vertical grazing angles are less than the critical angle, and hence, the penetration of the acoustic field into the sub-bottom is expected to be modest. The consistency of the scale, O(0.1)m, suggests an underlying feature or mechanism that is consistent across many ostensibly diverse geological settings. Neither the feature nor mechanism is known at this time. Several hypotheses will be presented. [Work supported by ONR Ocean Acoustics.].
The underwater hearing sensitivities of two 1-year-old female harbor seals were quantified in a pool built for acoustic research, using a behavioral psychoacoustic technique. The animals were trained to respond when they detected an acoustic signal and not to respond when they did not (go/no-go response). Pure tones (0.125-0.25 kHz) and narrowband frequency modulated (tonal) signals (center frequencies 0.5-100 kHz) of 900 ms duration were tested. Thresholds at each frequency were measured using the up-down staircase method and defined as the stimulus level resulting in a 50% detection rate. The audiograms of the two seals did not differ statistically: both plots showed the typical mammalian U-shape, but with a wide and flat bottom. Maximum sensitivity (54 dB re 1 microPa, rms) occurred at 1 kHz. The frequency range of best hearing (within 10 dB of maximum sensitivity) was from 0.5 to 40 kHz (6(1/3) octaves). Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed below 1 and above 40 kHz. Thresholds below 4 kHz were lower than those previously described for harbor seals, which demonstrates the importance of using quiet facilities, built specifically for acoustic research, for hearing studies in marine mammals. The results suggest that under unmasked conditions many anthropogenic noise sources and sounds from conspecifics are audible to harbor seals at greater ranges than formerly believed.
Our goal was to evaluate the frequency dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient in cancellous bone. Estimates were obtained in immersion, using a substitution method in the through-transmit mode, by scanning 14 human bone specimens (calcaneus). Measurements were performed with three pairs of focused transducers with a center frequency of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.25 MHz, respectively in order to cover an extended frequency bandwidth (0.2-1.7 MHz). When the experimental attenuation coefficient values were modeled with a nonlinear power fit alpha(f)=alpha0 +alpha(I)f(n), the attenuation coefficient was found to increase as f(1.09+/-0.3) over the measurement bandwidth. However, a substantial variation of the exponent n (0.4-2.2) within specimens and also between specimens was observed. The acoustical parameters were compared to bone mineral density. A highly significant relationship was noted between alpha1 and BMD (r2= 0.75, p< 10(-4)). No correlation was found between n and BMD. Several attenuation mechanisms are discussed as well as the potential impact these results may have in in vivo quantitative measurements.
The underwater hearing sensitivities of two 2-year-old female harbor seals were quantified in a pool built for acoustic research by using a behavioral psycho-acoustic technique. The animals were trained only to respond when they detected an acoustic signal ("go/no-go" response). Detection thresholds were obtained for pure tone signals (frequencies: 0.2-40 kHz; durations: 0.5-5000 ms, depending on the frequency; 59 frequency-duration combinations). Detection thresholds were quantified by varying the signal amplitude by the 1-up, 1-down staircase method, and were defined as the stimulus levels, resulting in a 50% detection rate. The hearing thresholds of the two seals were similar for all frequencies except for 40 kHz, for which the thresholds differed by, on average, 3.7 dB. There was an inverse relationship between the time constant (tau), derived from an exponential model of temporal integration, and the frequency [log(tau)=2.86-0.94 log(f);tau in ms and f in kHz]. Similarly, the thresholds increased when the pulse was shorter than approximately 780 cycles (independent of the frequency). For pulses shorter than the integration time, the thresholds increased by 9-16 dB per decade reduction in the duration or number of cycles in the pulse. The results of this study suggest that most published hearing thresholds <or=1 kHz for harbor seals are probably not absolute, as they were derived from signals with durations shorter than the time constants for those frequencies.
The frequency-dependent attenuation and backscatter coefficients were measured in 25 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples from 0.2 to 1.2 MHz. When the average attenuation coefficient was fitted to a nonlinear power law α(f)=α(0)+α(1)f(n), the exponent n was found to be 1.65. In contrast, the average backscatter coefficient was fitted to a power law η(f)=η(1)f(n) and the exponent n was measured as 3.25. The apparent bone density was significantly correlated with the parameter α(1) (0.2-0.7 MHz: r = 0.852, 0.6-1.2 MHz: r = 0.832) as well as the backscatter coefficient (0.5 MHz: r = 0.751, 1.0 MHz: r = 0.808).
Discomfort caused by low frequency lateral and roll oscillations is often predicted from lateral acceleration in the plane of the seat, irrespective of whether it comes from horizontal motion or a component of gravity arising from roll. This study investigated discomfort from lateral and roll oscillation and whether acceleration in the plane of a seat predicts discomfort. Twelve subjects, sitting with and without backrest, used magnitude estimation to judge sinusoidal oscillations in the roll and lateral axes at ten frequencies between 0.2 and 1.6 Hz at magnitudes between 0.063 and 0.63 m s(-2) root mean square. The rate of growth of vibration discomfort with increasing magnitude reduced with increasing frequency, so the frequency-dependence of discomfort varied with magnitude. Acceleration in the plane of the seat predicted discomfort from both lateral and roll oscillation at frequencies less than 0.4 Hz. At higher frequencies, acceleration produced by roll oscillation resulted in greater discomfort than the same acceleration produced by lateral oscillation. At frequencies greater than 0.4 Hz, a full height backrest increased discomfort with both lateral and roll oscillation. The prediction of discomfort caused by low frequency lateral and roll oscillation requires that both components are measured and assessed according to their separate effects.
The underwater hearing sensitivities of two 1.5-year-old female harbor seals were quantified in a quiet pool built specifically for acoustic research, by using a behavioral psychoacoustic technique. The animals were trained to respond when they detected an acoustic signal and not to respond when they did not ("go/no-go" response). Fourteen narrowband noise signals (1/3-octave bands but with some energy in adjacent bands), at 1/3-octave center frequencies of 0.2-80 kHz, and of 900 ms duration, were tested. Thresholds at each frequency were measured using the up-down staircase method and defined as the stimulus level resulting in a 50% detection rate. Between 0.5 and 40 kHz, the thresholds corresponded to a 1/3-octave band noise level of approximately 60 dB re 1 microPa (SD+/-3.0 dB). At lower frequencies, the thresholds increased to 66 dB re 1 microPa and at 80 kHz the thresholds rose to 114 dB re 1 microPa. The 1/3-octave noise band thresholds of the two seals did not differ from each other, or from the narrowband frequency-modulated tone thresholds at the same frequencies obtained a few months before for the same animals. These hearing threshold values can be used to calculate detection ranges of underwater calls and anthropogenic noises by harbor seals.
The underwater hearing sensitivity of a young male harbor porpoise for tonal signals of various signal durations was quantified by using a behavioral psychophysical technique. The animal was trained to respond only when it detected an acoustic signal. Fifty percent detection thresholds were obtained for tonal signals (15 frequencies between 0.25-160 kHz, durations 0.5-5000 ms depending on the frequency; 134 frequency-duration combinations in total). Detection thresholds were quantified by varying signal amplitude by the 1-up 1-down staircase method. The hearing thresholds increased when the signal duration fell below the time constant of integration. The time constants, derived from an exponential model of integration [Plomp and Bouman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 31, 749-758 (1959)], varied from 629 ms at 2 kHz to 39 ms at 64 kHz. The integration times of the porpoises were similar to those of other mammals including humans, even though the porpoise is a marine mammal and a hearing specialist. The results enable more accurate estimations of the distances at which porpoises can detect short-duration environmental tonal signals. The audiogram thresholds presented by Kastelein et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 334-344 (2002)], after correction for the frequency bandwidth of the FM signals, are similar to the results of the present study for signals of 1500 ms duration. Harbor porpoise hearing is more sensitive between 2 and 10 kHz, and less sensitive above 10 kHz, than formerly believed.
Difference limens for level (delta L in dB = 20 log [(p + delta p)/p], where p is pressure) were measured as a function of level for tones at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 kHz. At each frequency, test levels encompassed the range from near threshold to 95 dB SPL in steps of 10 dB or smaller. The stimulus duration was 500 ms and the interstimulus interval was 250 ms. An adaptive two-alternative forced-choice procedure with feedback was used. Results for six normal listeners show individual differences among listeners, but the general trends seen in the average data clearly are present in the individual data and show the following. First, the delta Ls at all but the highest frequencies are generally smaller at high levels than at low levels. Second, the delta Ls at equal SPLs are largely independent of frequency up to about 4 kHz, but increase with frequency above 4 kHz. Third, at 8 and 10 kHz, the delta Ls are clearly nonmonotonic functions of level, showing consistent deterioration in the mid-level delta Ls relative to the low- and high-level delta Ls. The present data are discussed qualitatively in terms of current models of level discrimination.
As new generation of aircraft engine with lower blade passing frequency appeared in the 1990's, the fan tones radiated from the inlets had become one of the dominant source of sound. Efforts have then been made to develop active noise control. Encouraging results have been obtained but the physical limitation of the fan tones reduction have not been clearly determined, owing mainly to the complexity of the experimental rigs. This paper present an experimental investigation of the control of multimodal tonal noise propagated in circular duct in presence of a mean flow (M</=0.3). A laboratory wind tunnel has been implemented for this purpose. Two limiting factors for the sound reduction are underlined: (i) the degradation of the secondary transfer matrix conditioning as the number of propagating modes increases in the duct and (ii) the degradation of the hypothesis of the time-invariance of the system to control as the flow velocity is increased. The effect of those limiting factors on the control efficiency are evaluated.
The frequency-dependent phase velocity and attenuation coefficient for the fast longitudinal wave in a water-saturated sandy sediment were measured over the frequency range from 0.3 to 1.0 MHz. The experimental data of phase velocity exhibited the significant negative dispersion, with the mean rate of decline of 120 +/- 20 m/s/MHz. The Biot model predicted the approximately nondispersive phase velocity and the grain-shearing (GS) model exhibited the slightly positive dispersion. In contrast, the predictions of the multiple scattering models for the negative dispersion in the glass-grain composite were in general agreement with the experimental data for the water-saturated sandy sediment measured here. The experimental data of attenuation coefficient was found to increase nonlinearly with frequency from 0.3 to 1.0 MHz. However, both the Biot and the GS models yielded the attenuation coefficient increasing almost linearly with frequency. The total attenuation coefficient given by the algebraic sum of absorption and scattering components showed a reasonable agreement with the experimental data for overall frequencies. This study suggests that the scattering is the principal mechanism responsible for the variations of phase velocity and attenuation coefficient with frequency in water-saturated sandy sediments at high frequencies.
A psychoacoustic behavioral technique was used to determine the critical ratios (CRs) of two harbor porpoises for tonal signals with frequencies between 0.315 and 150 kHz, in random Gaussian white noise. The masked 50% detection hearing thresholds were measured using a "go/no-go" response paradigm and an up-down staircase psychometric method. CRs were determined at one masking noise level for each test frequency and were similar in both animals. For signals between 0.315 and 4 kHz, the CRs were relatively constant at around 18 dB. Between 4 and 150 kHz the CR increased gradually from 18 to 39 dB ( approximately 3.3 dB/octave). Generally harbor porpoises can detect tonal signals in Gaussian white noise slightly better than most odontocetes tested so far. By combining the mean CRs found in the present study with the spectrum level of the background noise levels at sea, the basic audiogram, and the directivity index, the detection threshold levels of harbor porpoises for tonal signals in various sea states can be calculated.
The paper is focused on experiments on human cancellous bones filled with different fluids with the goal of evaluating their contribution to velocity dispersion, absorption, and scattering mechanisms. The specimens were measured first filled with marrow and subsequently, after marrow removal, with water and alcohol. No significant influence of the fluids was evidenced on the attenuation coefficient. Given the absence of impact of viscosity of the saturating fluid, the authors hypothesized that the source of attenuation is associated with viscoelastic absorption in the solid trabeculae and with scattering. Alteration of scattering obtained by changing the acoustic impedance mismatch between the fluid (alcohol vs water) and the trabeculae was reflected neither in the attenuation nor in its slope. This led the authors to suggest that longitudinal-to-shear scattering together with absorption in the solid phase are candidates as main sources for the attenuation. The differences in velocity values indicate that the elastic properties of the fluid are main determinants of the phase velocity. This finding is particularly significant in the context of /in vivo/ measurements, because it demonstrates that the subject-dependent properties of marrow may partly explain the inter-subject variability of speed of sound values.
Previous in situ investigations of seagrass have revealed acoustic phenomena that depend on plant density, tissue gas content, and free bubbles produced by photosynthetic activity, but corresponding predictive models that could be used to optimize acoustic remote sensing, shallow water sonar, and mine hunting applications have not appeared. To begin to address this deficiency, low frequency (0.5-2.5 kHz) acoustic laboratory experiments were conducted on three freshly collected Texas Gulf Coast seagrass species. A one-dimensional acoustic resonator technique was used to assess the biomass and effective acoustic properties of the leaves and rhizomes of Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Independent biomass and gas content estimates were obtained via microscopic cross-section imagery. The acoustic results were compared to model predictions based on Wood's equation for a two-phase medium. The effective sound speed in the plant-filled resonator was strongly dependent on plant biomass, but the Wood's equation model (based on tissue gas content alone) could not predict the effective sound speed for the low irradiance conditions of the experiment, in which no free bubbles were generated by photosynthesis. The results corroborate previously published results obtained in situ for another seagrass species, Posidonia oceanica.
The aim of this research is to extend previous studies of the time-frequency features of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) using information about the properties of the signals at low frequencies. Responses to 0.5 kHz tone bursts were compared to OAEs that were evoked by click stimuli and by 1, 2, and 4 kHz tone burst stimuli. The OAEs were measured using 20 and 30 ms intervals between stimuli. The analysis revealed no differences in the time-frequency properties of 1, 2, and 4 kHz bursts measured using these two different acquisition windows. However, at 0.5 kHz the latency of the response was affected significantly if a shorter time window was used. This was caused by the fact that the response reached a maximum after an average time of 15.4 ms, and lasted a few milliseconds longer. Therefore, for this particular stimulus, the use of a 30 ms time window seems more appropriate. In addition, as an example of the possible application of low-frequency OAEs, signals were measured in patients suffering from partial deafness, characterized by steep audiograms with normal thresholds up to 0.5 kHz and almost total deafness above this frequency. Although no response to clicks was observed in these subjects, the use of 0.5 kHz tone bursts did produce OAEs.
Correlations between acoustic properties and bone density were investigated in the 12 defatted bovine cancellous bone specimens in vitro. Speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) were measured in three different frequency bandwidths from 0.5 to 2 MHz using three matched pairs of transducers with the center frequencies of 1, 2.25, and 3.5 MHz. The relative orientation between ultrasonic beam and bone specimen was the mediolateral (ML) direction of the bovine tibia. SOS shows significant linear positive correlation with apparent density for all three pairs of transducers. However, BUA shows relatively weak correlation with apparent density. SOS and BUA are only weakly correlated with each other. The linear combination of SOS and BUA in a multiple regression model leads to a significant improvement in predicting apparent density. The correlations among SOS, BUA, and bone density can be effectively and clearly represented in the three-dimensional space by the multiple regression model. These results suggest that the frequency range up to 1.5 MHz and the multiple regression model in the three-dimensional space can be useful in the osteoporosis diagnosis.
In order to evaluate properly the acoustic propagation characteristics in shallow water environments, it is well established that appropriate knowledge of the acoustic properties of the seabottom is required. In the last decade, full-field geoacoustic inversion techniques have been demonstrated to provide adequate methodologies to assess those properties. However, several of the developed techniques may suffer a lack of adequacy to the design of low-frequency active sonar systems (LFAS) for which the assessment of seabottom characteristics are drawn. For instance most matched-field inversion techniques demonstrated so far use acoustical signals at much lower frequencies than those of the sonar. Furthermore, some of the techniques may be difficult to be handled in an "operationally relevant context" since they are based on relatively complex designed systems such as highly instrumented vertical line arrays spanning the whole water column. In this paper, we investigate the potential of medium-frequency acoustical signals (0.8-1.6 kHz) received at several ranges on a field of drifting sparse arrays, eventually reduced to a couple of hydrophones, for spatially-coherent geoacoustic inversion purposes. The experimental datasets of the Maritime Rapid Environmental Assessment MREABP'07 sea trial south of Elba Island in the Mediterranean Sea are used to support this study.
A system for the measurement of auditory function from 8000--20 000 Hz is described. This system introduces advances in: (a) maximum power output, (b) signal fidelity, and (c) transducer characteristics. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the clinical information gained from the measurement of high-frequency auditory sensitivity, which is not readily apparent in conventional threshold assessment.
High-frequency (8 to 20 kHz) hearing sensitivity was compared in thirty-six, 20 to 29-year-old military veterans with histories of steady-state or impulsive noise exposure. Threshold shifts were prominent for the steady-state noise subjects from 13 to 20 kHz. Mean thresholds from 8 through 12 kHz were maximally 20 dB poorer than a sample of young adult normals. Audiometric configurations for this group were generally smooth and symmetrical above 8000 Hz. For the impulsive noise group, substantial shifts in sensitivity were seen from 2 to 20 kHz and the high-frequency audiometric configurations were often jagged and/or asymmetrical. The variability of subjects in this group was greater than that seen in the steady-state noise exposed sample. Several case studies are presented to illustrate these characteristics. Measurement of auditory sensitivity from 8 to 20 kHz extends the mapping of basal cochlear function, providing information which often is not predictable from conventional audiometric measurement. This additional information provides for more comprehensive inter- and intra-subject comparison of the degree and extent of threshold changes present.
Tonpilz transducers are fabricated from 001 fiber-textured 0.72Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-0.28PbTiO(3) (PMN-28PT) ceramics, obtained by the templated grain growth process, and PMN-28PT ceramic and Bridgman grown single crystals of the same composition. In-water characterization of single element transducers shows higher source levels, higher in-water coupling, and more usable bandwidth for the 81 vol % textured PMN-28PT device than for the ceramic PMN-28PT element. The 81 vol % textured PMN-28PT tonpilz element measured under large signals shows linearity in sound pressure levels up to 0.23 MV/m drive field but undergoes a phase transition due to a lowered transition temperature from the SrTiO(3) template particles. Although the textured ceramic performs well in this application, it could be further improved with compositional tailoring to raise the transition temperature and better processing to improve the texture quality. With these improvements textured piezoelectric ceramics will be viable options for medical ultrasound, actuators, and sonar applications because of their ease of processing, compositional homogeneity, and potentially lower cost than single crystal.
Spectral evolution equations are used to perform analytical and numerical studies of nonlinear surface acoustic waves in the (001) plane of a variety of nonpiezoelectric cubic crystals. The basic theory underlying the model equations is outlined, and quasilinear solutions of the equations are presented. Expressions are also developed for a characteristic length scale for nonlinear distortion and a nonlinearity coefficient. A time-domain equation corresponding to the spectral equations is derived. Numerical calculations based on measured second- and third-order elastic constants taken from the literature are performed to predict the evolution of initially monofrequency surface waves. Nonlinearity matrix elements that indicate the coupling strength of harmonic interactions are shown to provide a useful tool for characterizing waveform distortion. The formation of compression or rarefaction shocks can be strongly dependent on the direction of propagation, and harmonic generation is suppressed or increased in certain directions.
Recent advances in ultrasound-related technologies have had a significant impact on enhancing image quality as well as offering new approaches for quantitative ultrasonic imaging and therapeutic applications. The presentations associated with this session will provide an overview of advances in ultrasound image formation, the development of using nanoparticles for therapeutic ultrasound applications, as well as approaches for assessing the intrinsic viscoelastic properties of tissue and methods for monitoring tissue response to therapy.
1.Develop a general understanding of new technologies associated with enhanced ultrasound image formation and volume imaging.2.Develop an understanding of new ultrasound-based technologies for quantitative assessment of intrinsic tissue properties.3.Develop an understanding of novel approaches for ultrasound-mediated non-invasive therapeutic applications.Dr. Rao is an employee of Siemens Ultrasound.
As acoustical consultants, we are frequently asked by our clients to measure the sound isolating performance of constructions in the field. While it is often preferable to report "system-level" performance ratings such as Noise Isolation Class, there are compelling benefits both to us and to our clients to measuring and reporting "specimen-level" performance ratings such as Apparent Sound Transmission Class, defined by ASTM E336-05 (and E413-04). The accuracy of such ratings depends on accurate assessment of the amount of acoustical absorption present in receiving spaces at the time of testing, arrived at by means of reverberation time measurements and physical measurement of receiving spaces. When a receiving space is irregular in shape, one may feel pressed to use creative judgment to estimate its effective volume, and such judgments can have large impacts on the reported results. We will discuss the challenges of measuring apparent transmission loss in the field, and the compelling reasons to conduct these measurements despite the challenges.
This paper presents an application to validate an acoustic signal characterization scheme for ocean acoustic tomography and geoacoustic inversions proposed by Taroudakis, Tzagkarakis, and Tsakalides [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119, 1396-1405 (2006)] using data from an experiment at sea. The data were collected during the Shallow water '06 (SW06) experiment off the New Jersey Continental Shelf and the inversion results (sea-bed geoacoustic parameters and source range) are compared with those reported from the same data by Bonnel and Chapman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130(2), EL101-EL107 (2011)]. The comparison and the signal reconstruction using estimated values of the model parameters are satisfactory indicating that the new signal characterization method is useful for practical applications of acoustical oceanography.
In given paper fluctuations of intensity of sound signals, radiated by the midfrequency source (RV Knorr) during approximately 5 h were studied. Broadband signals (2-8 KHz) were received by four single hydrophones fixed at the bottom (SHRUs) placed at different distances from the source (from 4 to 12 km). These four acoustic tracks have different directions relative direction of propagation of the train of intensive internal waves (the corresponding angles in horizontal plane are from approximately 5 to approximately 15 deg). Time-frequency diagrams were constructed using frequency filtering of the spectrum of broadband signals with sliding narrow window. Temporal dependences of intensities of received signals within frequency window were constructed for period 14:00 until 19:00 GMT for experiment carried out on 13 August. During this time train of internal solitons was registered, propagating toward the coast. Mentioned time-frequency diagrams demonstrate specific features of influence of internal waves on the temporal variations of the sound intensities at four SHRUs. More exactly variations of predominating frequency in spectra correspond to variations of positions of the solitons at the acoustic tracks. Results of experimental data are compared with theoretical estimations. [Work was supported by RFBR and CRDF.].
Acoustic bottom-interacting measurements from the Shallow Water '06 experiment experiment (frequency range 1-20 kHz) are presented. These are co-located with coring and stratigraphic studies showing a thin (approximately 20 cm) higher sound speed layer overlaying a thicker (approximately 20 m) lower sound speed layer ending at a high-impedance reflector (R reflector). Reflections from the R reflector and analysis of the bottom reflection coefficient magnitude for the upper two sediment layers confirm both these features. Geoacoustic parameters are estimated, dispersion effects addressed, and forward modeling using the parabolic wave equation undertaken. The reflection coefficient measurements suggest a nonlinear attenuation law for the thin layer of sandy sediments.
Knowledge of sediment sound speed is crucial for predicting sound propagation. During the Shallow Water '06 experiment, in situ sediment sound speed was measured using the Sediment Acoustic-speed Measurement System (SAMS). SAMS consists of ten fixed sources and one receiver that can reach a maximal sediment depth of 3 m. Measurements were made in the frequency range 2-35 kHz. Signal arrival times and propagation distances were recorded, from which sediment sound speed was determined. Preliminary results from three deployments show that SAMS was capable of determining sediment sound speed with uncertainties less than 1.6%. Little dispersion in sediment sound speed was observed.
Act 0627 of April 7, 2006, was an important progress regarding national regulations on environmental noise and noise emissions. However, during the first years of its validity, doubts about its interpretation and application have been raised. In response to this issue, the Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development has signed a contract with the University of Medellin for the development of a detailed protocol that would allow the unambiguous and rigorous implementation of the Act. The protocol was submitted to the Ministry in January 2010. It includes detailed guidelines for organizing and carrying out measurements of noise levels (including the selection of points to consider), processing and interpretation of measurement results, minimum content of the reports delivered as a result of the measurements, performing acoustic maps, and guidelines for the preparation of plans for noise abatement.
MREA/BP'07 sea trials were an interdisciplinary experimental effort that aimed at addressing novel concepts of Maritime Rapid Environmental Assessment in shallow waters. Southeast of Elba island in Mediterranean sea, several standard and advanced techniques of environmental characterization covering the fields of underwater acoustics, physical oceanography and geophysics were combined within a coherent scheme of data acquisition, processing and assimilation. Broadband (0.2-1.6 kHz) active and passive sounds propagated over ranges on the order of 1 km have been used to extract information about the ocean and subbottom environments. This paper compares the results of different inversion methods: 1) global optimization and sequential Bayesian filtering applied to matched-field (MFP) and model-based matched filter (MBMF) processed multitone and frequency-modulated data, respectively, and 2) local feature analysis of striations extracted from interference data due to ship noise. The approaches only require a compact and sparse hydrophone array which is easily deployable from small vessels giving similar estimates of the bottom geoacoustic properties for assimilation into hybrid MREA schemes.
We present spatial and temporal variability of the acoustic field in Dabob Bay during the PLUSNet'07 (Persistent Littoral Undersea Surveillance Network) Exercise. The study uses a 4D (3D in space plus 1D in time) data-assimilative numerical ocean model to provide inputs to an acoustic propagation model. The Havard-Ocean-Prediction-System with in-situ CTD measurement assimilation provided output forecasts with a 300-m and 1-to-5-m resolution in the horizontal and vertical direction, for a 3-h interval within a 15-day period. This environmental data as the input to acoustic modeling allowed prediction and study of the (semi-)diurnal temporal variations of the acoustic field, as well as the varying spatial structures of the field. Using the one-way coupled-normal-mode code, along- and across-sections in the Dabob Bay acoustic field structures at 100, 400, and 900 Hz were forecasts and studied for various source depths. Interesting propagation effects such as the acoustic transmission-loss fluctuations with respect to the source depth and frequency as a result of the regional ocean variability, wind forcing, and tidal effects are discussed. The novelty of this work lies in the accuracy of the acoustic transmission-loss prediction in the littoral region by physically coupling the real-time ocean prediction system to acoustic modeling. This work also offers a potential extension to a 4D acoustic modeling.
Shell Exploration and Production Company and ConocoPhillips Alaska have commissioned a multi-year acoustic study of marine mammal vocalization activity and ambient sound levels in the Alaskan Chukchi Sea. A large acoustic dataset, collected between July 2007 and October 2009, has been analyzed and has provided a wealth of information about the seasonal soundscape of the Chukchi Sea. This paper presents the ambient noise results throughout the acquisition time period. The analysis investigates the contributions made to ambient levels by shipping, marine mammals, seismic activity, and ice. We will show how short term weather conditions can strongly affect the noise levels measured on bottom-moored recorders. Certain mammal vocalizations such as bearded seal trills and bowhead moans can dominate ambient noise levels over large time periods.
The most recent subbottom profilers present good performances in term of signal to noise ratio, resolution and penetration. These devices can thus be used to infer quantitatively the geoacoustic parameters of the seafloor. We have previously developed inversion methods which aim to estimate absorption, reflection, penetration, impedance contrast and micro-roughness in sediments from the SBP 120 subbottom profiler, manufactured by Kongsberg. These methods have been tested against real data and geoacoustic parameters derived from the SBP 120 are fully coherent with in situ measurements, which tends to confirm the possibility of seafloor characterization with subbottom profilers. In this work, the inversion methods are applied to a set of data acquired on the Malta Plateau during BASE'07 experiment. Geoacoustic parameters results are presented and discussed. They are in good agreement with the a priori knowledge of sediment properties in the area.
One of the objectives of the Philippine Sea 09 (PhilSea09) was to examine the multipath structure of RAP propagation at the seafloor. For a source near the surface, a receiver at the seafloor, and ranges approaching one-half a CZ, one expects a direct path, seafloor reflected and refracted paths plus water column multiples. These were measured using the bottom elements of the SIO deep vertical line array. Similarly, for both a source and a receiver at the surface and at CZ ranges, these same paths propagate back to the surface. These were also measured with the PSU FORA (five octave research array). The experiment was part of an NPAL Group effort. [Work supported by ONR Ocean Acoustics.].
Psychophysical two-tone suppression was measured in three normal-hearing young adults using the pulsation-threshold technique. The primary objective was to study the effect of L1 on psychophysical two-tone suppression for f2/f1 greater than 1.0. Measurements were obtained at low and mid frequencies and for input levels ranging from 40 through 85 dB SPL. For f1 = 1000 or 2000 Hz, suppression increased initially with L1 and then decreased for L1 greater than or equal to 55 to 70 dB SPL. For f1 = 500 Hz, however, suppression increased monotonically throughout the range of L1 values examined. These findings are explained by assuming that for f1 greater than or equal to 1000 Hz the nonlinear mechanism responsible for two-tone suppression is very susceptible to reversible dysfunction produced by the presentation of high-intensity stimuli.
Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, is a hearing specialist, and several studies have demonstrated strong responses to man-made noise, for example, from an approaching vessel. To avoid negative impacts from naval sonar operations, a set of studies of reaction patters of herring to low-frequency (1.0-1.5 kHz) naval sonar signals has been undertaken. This paper presents herring reactions to sonar signals and other stimuli when kept in captivity under detailed acoustic and video monitoring. Throughout the experiment, spanning three seasons of a year, the fish did not react significantly to sonar signals from a passing frigate, at received root-mean-square sound-pressure level (SPL) up to 168 dB re 1 μPa. In contrast, the fish did exhibit a significant diving reaction when exposed to other sounds, with a much lower SPL, e.g., from a two-stroke engine. This shows that the experimental setup is sensitive to herring reactions when occurring. The lack of herring reaction to sonar signals is consistent with earlier in situ behavioral studies. The complexity of the behavioral reactions in captivity underline the need for better understanding of the causal relationship between stimuli and reaction patterns of fish.
The Shallow Water Experiment 2006 was conducted off the coast of New Jersey in the summer of 2006. Defence Research and Development Canada-Atlantic performed a series of experiments designed to validate the use of rapid environmental assessment tools and methods to improve active sonar performance predictions. The sensitivity of acoustic propagation to a varying or uncertain environment is determined by examining the relative change of acoustic pressure caused by environmental variability, using the method described recently [Dosso et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 42 (2007)]. The variability of the modeled environmental parameters is based on measured and estimated oceanographic and geoacoustic properties. The resulting sensitivity is compared to measured transmission loss data at 1.2 kHz.
Cell-based therapies can benefit from noninvasive and marker-free monitoring techniques for living cells. For this purpose a phase-sensitive scanning acoustic microscope operating at a frequency of 1.2 GHz was combined with a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope. The system is equipped with a live-support system for the long-term observation of living cells. Confocal acoustic imaging with phase and magnitude contrast and confocal laser scanning microscopy can be performed simultaneously. Both techniques are used in reflection from opposing sides of the object. Time-lapsed acoustic microscope images of ovine mesenchymal stem cells are presented. For this purpose, a pseudo-3D representation is generated by encoding the unwrapped phase in the height and the magnitude in the brightness. In the case of highly reflective substrates and sufficiently low reflection from the interface between the cells and the surrounding fluid the echo from the top of the cells can be neglected and the phase contrast image can be transformed to a time-of-flight image. In the same approximation the magnitude image provides information about the gradual extinction of the echo signal due to absorption in the cells. The two images can be combined to generate a new form of contrast representing the product of the absorption coefficient and the velocity of sound inside the observed cells.
Helicopter long range active sonar (HELRAS), a "dipping" sonar system used by lowering transducer and receiver arrays into water from helicopters, produces signals within the functional hearing range of many marine animals, including the harbor porpoise. The distance at which the signals can be heard is unknown, and depends, among other factors, on the hearing sensitivity of the species to these particular signals. Therefore, the hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise for HELRAS signals were quantified by means of a psychophysical technique. Detection thresholds were obtained for five 1.25 s simulated HELRAS signals, varying in their harmonic content and amplitude envelopes. The 50% hearing thresholds for the different signals were similar: 76 dB re 1 μPa (broadband sound pressure level, averaged over the signal duration). The detection thresholds were similar to those found in the same porpoise for tonal signals in the 1-2 kHz range measured in a previous study. Harmonic distortion, which occurred in three of the five signals, had little influence on their audibility. The results of this study, combined with information on the source level of the signal, the propagation conditions and ambient noise levels, allow the calculation of accurate estimates of the distances at which porpoises can detect HELRAS signals.
Small caliber firearms (rifles, pistols and shotguns) are commonly used at outdoor firing ranges for training in shooting skills, job qualification and for recreation. Firearm noise from fifty-four weapons was measured at an outdoor range in the near field (6 meters and closer) of the weapons using a radial array of 18 microphones centered on the shooter's head. Each weapon was fired five times and the microphone array was sampled at 200 kHz with at least 16-bit resolution. Peak sound pressure levels and damage risk criteria (e.g. MIL-STD 1474D, 8-hour Equivalent A-weighted Level (LAeq8), and Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans (AHAAH)) were computed for each microphone and compared across weapon type, caliber and load. The acoustic propagation from the muzzle to the microphone was modeled using a simple image source over a reflecting plane. The impedance of the ground was estimated from the observed data and was used to compare the measured waveforms with the estimated waveforms. These data will be used to model the exposures for multiple shooters and observers standing at or behind the firing line.
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Two broadband active acoustic systems, in concert with traditional narrowband systems and nets, were used to study distributions of fish in three regions within the Gulf of Maine. The long-range multi-beam broadband system detected fish out to 15 km range and the downward-looking short-range broadband system detected fish throughout the water column close behind the ship. The multi-year (2007-2011) study revealed distinct spatial patterns of fish and corresponding echo statistics in each region-diffusely distributed, sparsely distributed compact patches, and long (continuous) shoals. The broadband capabilities of the sonar systems (each spanning 1.5-6 + kHz) uniquely allow observations of resonance phenomena of the local swimbladder-bearing fish. The observed resonances were consistent with the fish species, sizes, and depths that were concurrently sampled in each area from a second research vessel. Spectral peak analysis also interestingly revealed the presence of distinct modes, which may be useful indicators of mixed-species and/or mixed-sized (e.g., juvenile and adult) assemblages of fish. [Work supported by Office of Naval Research.].
Harbor porpoises may suffer hearing loss when exposed to intense sounds. After exposure to a 1.5 kHz continuous tone without harmonics at a mean received sound pressure level of 154 dB re 1 μPa for 60 min (cumulative sound exposure level: 190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s), the temporary hearing threshold shift (TTS) of a porpoise was quantified at 1.5, 2, 4, 6.5, 8, 16, 32, 63, and 125 kHz with a psychoacoustic technique. Significant TTS only occurred at 1.5 and 2 kHz. Mean TTS (1-4 min after sound exposure stopped) was ∼14 dB at 1.5 kHz and ∼11 dB at 2 kHz, and recovery occurred within 96 min. Control hearing tests before and after a 60 min low ambient noise exposure showed that normal variation in TTS was limited (standard deviation: ±1.0 dB). Ecological effects of TTS depend not only on the magnitude of the TTS, its duration (depending on the exposure duration), and the recovery time after the exposure stopped, but also on the hearing frequency affected by the fatiguing noise. The hearing thresholds of harbor porpoises for the frequencies of their echolocation signals are not affected by intense low frequency sounds, therefore these sounds are unlikely to affect foraging efficiency.
Vibro-acoustography is an ultrasound-based imaging modality that maps the acoustic response of an object induced by acoustic radiation force. The method employs two ultrasound beams with frequencies separated by a small difference, typically in the kilohertz range. Using a 1.75D array transducer, which has multiple rows of elements, offers an advantage over linear array transducers because it allows for focusing in the elevation direction. We have performed simulations of different arrangements for the apertures assigned to the two ultrasound frequencies and evaluated resolution and sidelobe levels for different arrangements. However, the large size of the elements produces grating lobes in the transmitted fields. We will describe metrics for evaluating grating lobe levels compared to the main lobe of the transmitted field as a quantitative approach to optimize aperture design. We present experimental measurements of the transmitted field and compare with simulation results. Finally, we present imaging results from phantom experiments. This beamforming study is directed toward improving vibro-acoustography image formation using a General Electric Vivid 7 scanner for breast and thyroid imaging. [Mayo Clinic and two of the authors have potential financial interest related to devices or technology referenced above. Work supported by NIH Grant No. R21CA121579 and AIUM Award No. AIUM-EER#1.].
Data from 15 modern studies are used to characterize the deviations from Weber's law for intensity discrimination of 100 Hz tone pulses. The results show that Weber's law is satisfied in the region 10-40 dB SL, that resolution decreases with decreasing intensity below 10 dB SL and increases with increasing intensity above 40 dB SL, and that resolution at 90 dB SL is roughly 2.5 times better than at 40 dB SL.
Audiograms were obtained on eight binaural chinchillas trained on a shuttlebox avoidance procedure. Four of the animals were exposed to three successive levels of an octave band of noise centered at 63 Hz: 100 dB SPL (74 dBA), 110 dB SPL (84 dBA), and 120 dB SPL (94 dBA). The other four animals were also exposed to three successive levels of an octave band of noise centered at 1000 Hz: 75 dB SPL (75 dBA), 85 dB SPL (85 dBA), and 95 dB SPL (95 dBA). All exposure durations were 75 h. Little threshold shift (TS) resulted from the lower two exposure levels of the 63-Hz noise band. At the 120-dB exposure level, maximum TS of 43 dB occurred at 2000 Hz. Permanent threshold shifts (PTSs) of 16 dB at 2000 Hz and 11 dB at 1400 Hz were found. Exposure to the three levels of the 1000-Hz noise band produced TSs of 20, 45, and 61 dB at 1400 Hz. The 95-dB exposure level resulted in PTSs of 6 dB at 1400 Hz and 9 dB AT 2000 Hz. The major results were (1) high-frequency hearing loss to a low-frequency noise and (2) that noise bands matched within 1 dBA were not equally hazardous as dictated by damage-risk criteria. The 63-Hz noise band produced nearly twice as much PTS as the 1000-Hz noise band.
The threshold of a 1000‐Hz sinusoidal signal masked by two or four tones placed symmetrically around the signal was investigated as a function of the frequency difference (ΔF) between consecutive maskers as well as masker level. The results concur with previous evidence that (1) the masked threshold decreases linearly as ΔF increases for a two‐tone masker, and (2) the difference between masked thresholds is much greater than would be predicted on the basis of a simple summation of masking power or intensity. For small ΔF, the size of the difference (6–8.5 dB) did not vary greatly as level changed. At larger frequency separations, the highest levels produced more difference than lower levels. It was concluded that the difference between two‐ and four‐tone masking was (1) dependent upon the level of the maskers and the frequency separation between the maskers, and (2) independent of the masking contributed by the individual maskers.