The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 1053-2498
Publications
Clinical Characteristics
(Right) A coronary fistula to the right ventricle is seen at the site of a significant stenosis of distal LAD on the coronary angiogram. (Left) The stenosis was not detected at multislice computed tomography. 
Medication
(Right) Significant stenosis of the ostium of the first diagonal is seen on the coronary angiogram. (Left) The stenosis was considered not significant by multislice computed tomography. 
Diagnostic Accuracy of Multislice Computed Tomography Compared with Coronary Angiography for Detecting Heart Transplant Vasculopathy (Stenosis 4 50%)
Article
This study assessed if invasive coronary angiogram (CA) could be replaced by multislice (64- or 256-row) computed tomography (MSCT) to systematically rule out coronary allograft vasculopathy in heart transplant patients. Electrocardiogram-gated contrast-enhanced MSCT (64-row for the first 25 patients and 256-row for the others) was compared with CA. MSCT parameters, adapted to the patient's weight, included 120 kV, 800 mAs, 0.625-mm slice thickness, and 0.42/0.27-second rotation time. The primary end point was the negative predictive value (NPV) of MSCT for the detection of significant (>50%) coronary stenosis. Secondary end points were the comparison of X-ray (mSv) and iodine contrast agent (ml) exposures. The study prospectively included 102 patients (mean age, 53±14 years). Transplantation occurred 6±5 years before inclusion. At CA, 41.8% had stenosis≤50% and 8% had stenosis>50%. Among the 1,308 angiographic coronary segments≥1.5 mm, 1,250 (95.6%) were evaluable by MSCT. The NPV of MSCT was 96.6% by patient analysis and 99.7% by segment analysis. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 45.5%. The total volume of contrast agent was 139±43 vs 91±12 vs 56±19 ml (p<0.05) with 64-row MSCT, 256-row MSCT, and CA, respectively. The effective radiation dose was higher using retrospective gating (17.8±5.5 mSv, p<0.05), but similar with prospective gating (6.2±1.9 mSv, p = 0.571) compared with CA (6.0±3.5 mSv). Newer generations of MSCT (64- or 256-row) have a good NPV and may represent an alternative to invasive CA to rule out significant (>50%) coronary vasculopathy in heart transplant patients, despite a low PPV.
 
Article
Rapid increase of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) early after reperfusion remains a major issue in clinical lung transplantation. A potent vasoconstrictor peptide, endothelin- plays an important role in various pulmonary pathophysiologic conditions and might induce increased PVR. We investigated the expression and influence of endothelin-1, and the effects of an ETA and ETB nonselective endothelin receptor antagonist, TAK-044, at reperfusion after cold preservation in a canine lung transplantation model. Left single lung allotransplantation procedures were performed in three groups of animals. In group I (n=5) lungs were preserved for 12 hours; in group II (n=5) lungs were preserved for 18 hours; and in group III (n=6) lungs were also preserved for 18 hours, and TAK-044 (5 mg/kg) was administered just before reperfusion. All donor lungs were flushed and preserved with low-potassium dextran glucose solution at 4 degrees C. Six hours after reperfusion, arterial oxygen tension (mm Hg, inspired oxygen fraction=1.0) was 512.9+/-34.7 in group I, 152.4+/-46.7 in group II, and 509.6+/-29.0 in group III; PVR index (dyne x sec x cm(-5) x m2) was 1130+/-142 in group I, 1820+/-142 in group II, and 1287+/-191 in group III. Plasma endothelin-1 level was elevated significantly, and endothelin-1-like immunoreactivity was found in a variety of pulmonary vascular tissue and was seen less with immunohistochemical evaluation in group II in bronchial tissue. Conclusions: These results suggest that endothelin-1 is expressed as a result of ischemia-reperfusion injury and may worsen early graft function. TAK-044 is beneficial in protecting the graft from high pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary edema during the early posttransplantation stage.
 
Article
INTERMACS has analyzed the first 1000-plus patients with primary implantation of LVADs during a transitional period from pulsatile technology to continuous flow pumps. The shift toward implantation of axial flow technology since its approval by FDA is dramatic. This trend has been accompanied by continued fluctuation in the designation of primary device strategy as BTT, BTC, and DT. Inferences from this database regarding expected midterm survival with device therapy must be interpreted with this understanding. When continuous flow technology is routinely available for long-term DT, and as multiple continuous flow pumps are approved, INTERMACS offers a unique opportunity to compare and contrast these technologies in the setting of evolving indications, changing patient profiles, and refinement of device strategy in the developing landscape of mechanical circulatory support.
 
Article
Fiber-optic bronchoscopy with multiple transbronchial lung biopsies (TBB) is the gold standard of evaluation of the pulmonary allograft post-lung transplantation (LT). However, controversy exists regarding the need for surveillance procedures and number of biopsy specimens required for satisfactory yield. The potential morbidity in obtaining multiple TBB specimens remains poorly described. We report the largest series of TBB in LT recipients to date, highlighting the occurrence of acute rejection and infection for surveillance and diagnostic procedures. The safety of TBB is analyzed and a biopsy schedule proposed. Prospective analysis of 1,235 TBB in 230 LT recipients performed at St Vincent's Hospital from January 1995 to June 2000. Eight hundred thirty-six (67.7%) TBB were performed as surveillance and 399 (32.3%) for a clinical indication. No significant acute rejection (AR) or infection was disclosed in 53.3% of procedures. The Lung Rejection Study Group requirement of at least five pieces of evaluable lung parenchyma was achieved in 98.2% of procedures. The average number of evaluable fragments per procedure was 6.4, whereas only 3 TBB (0.24%) contained no lung parenchyma and 44 (3.6%) no bronchial wall. Histologic features of AR, lymphocytic bronchiolitis or infection were found in 18.9% of surveillance and 86.4% of clinical TBBs. The yield of surveillance procedures between 4 and 12 months was just 1.1% for cytomegalovirus and 6.1% for AR. The overall complication rate was 6.35% with no deaths recorded. Taking 10 to 12 TBB specimens has a high diagnostic yield and rarely fails to provide adequate tissue. The role of surveillance procedures post-lung transplantation remains controversial.
 
Article
Previous studies from our project found that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) enhanced the functional recovery of animal hearts after hypothermic preservation, and that rat cardiac myocytes take up FBP at 3 degrees C. In this study we tested the effects of FBP, as well as other compounds related to glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation, on the hypothermic preservation of myocytes. Isolated myocytes were incubated in ischemic suspensions at 3 degrees C, and aliquots examined over 72 hours for retention of rod-shaped morphology. In some experiments adenine nucleotide levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). FBP at 1 to 10 mmol/liter markedly reduced the death rate (65% reduction at 5 mmol/liter). Glucose at 2 to 10 mmol/liter was less beneficial (20% reduction). Insulin increased the death rate by about 25% when present alone, and it did not enhance the beneficial effects of FBP or glucose. Dichloroacetate (DCA), which stimulates pyruvate dehydrogenase, had little effect at 0.5 to 10 mmol/liter. Glucose and DCA did not increase the beneficial effects of FBP. After 6 to 24 hours of hypothermia, FBP- and glucose-treated cells had 25% to 50% higher ATP levels and 10% to 20% higher ATP:ADP ratios than untreated cells. Effects of FBP on preservation of morphology were much greater than effects on ATP levels. The results suggest that the effects of FBP and glucose were through glycolytic ATP production rather than through sugar oxidation via pyruvate dehydrogenase. The divergence in effects on preservation and effects on ATP suggests a role for a sub-cellular compartment of ATP in preservation.
 
Article
In this study, we evaluated the effects of fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) on high-energy phosphate metabolism during 18-hour hypothermic rabbit-heart preservation. Under general anesthesia and artificial ventilation, hearts from 42 adult New Zealand white rabbits were harvested, flushed, and preserved in St. Thomas solution at 4(o)C for 18 hours. In the study group (n = 15), FDP (5 mmol/liter) was added to the St. Thomas solution, whereas in the control group (n = 17), fructose (5 mmol/liter) was added. Another 10 hearts did not undergo hypothermic storage, but were used as the normal group for high-energy phosphate concentration comparison. After 18 hours of hypothermic preservation, myocardial high-energy phosphate content decreased in both preservation groups. In the study group, left ventricular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was 33% of that in the normal hearts, but in the control group, ATP decreased to 14% of normal. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) content, energy charge, and ATP-to-ADP ratio showed similar decreases. The high-energy phosphate profile (content in the atria and ventricles and the ratio of ATP to ADP to AMP) was maintained in the study group but not in the control group. High-energy phosphate metabolites such as inosine monophosphate (IMP), inosine, and hypoxanthine increased in both preservation groups, but the increase was more prominent in the control group. Adding FDP to St. Thomas solution attenuated the depletion of high-energy phosphate concentration in the preserved hearts. This difference was especially prominent in the left and right ventricles. The protective effect of FDP during hypothermic heart preservation deserves further study.
 
Article
Fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) has been shown to protect tissue during hypoxia under various ischemic conditions, including isolated heart perfusion. We tested the hypothesis that adding FDP to St. Thomas solution can extend hypothermic heart preservation time. Sixteen adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Under general anesthesia, the hearts were removed and preserved at 4 degrees C in St. Thomas solution (30 ml/kg) for 12 hours. FDP (5 mM) was added to the St. Thomas solution in the study group (n = 8), whereas no FDP was used in the control group (n = 10). The hearts were reperfused after 12 hours of preservation using a working heart model. In the study group, cardiac output ranged from 13.00 +/- 2.34 to 17.66 +/- 1.71 ml/min, maximum aortic flow was 3.40 +/- 1.99 to 9.26 +/- 1.72 ml/min, left ventricular stroke volume ranged from 0.074 +/- 0.014 to 0.092 +/- 0.009 ml, left ventricular stroke work ranged from 6.22 +/- 0.39 to 7.95 +/- 0.44 ml/mmHg, and maximum left ventricular generated power was 14.38 +/- 2.94 to 20.16 +/- 2.49 Joules/min. All of these parameters were higher than those in the control group (p < 0.001). Coronary vascular resistance and myocardial tissue wet/dry weight ratio were lower in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Heart function was better preserved when FDP was added to St. Thomas solution during hypothermic rat heart preservation. The mechanism is not totally clear, but enhancement of high-energy phosphate production during ischemia is possible. Key words: heart, procurement, hypothermia, fructose-1,6-diphosphate.
 
Article
A body surface area (BSA) of 1.7 m2 was considered as the lower limit to implant a CardioWest Total Artificial Heart (TAH). We reviewed our experience with the TAH in patients with a BSA of less than 1.7 m2. From April 1986 to May 2003, among 149 patients implanted with a TAH in our institution, 30 had a BSA of less than 1.7 m2 (Group I). Results were compared with the remaining 119 patients (Group II). One patient in Group I experienced a fitting problem and was left with the chest open. Otherwise, in this group, the Day 1 cardiac index averaged 3.6 +/- 0.6 liter/min/m2, which was significantly higher than the 2.8 +/- 0.36 liter/min/m2 observed in Group II. Post-implantation central venous pressure and mean arterial pressure were similar in both groups: 14.7 +/- 3.8 mm Hg vs 14.5 +/- 4 mm Hg and 87 +/- 23 mm Hg vs 88 +/- 19 mm Hg, respectively. In Group I, survival on the device dramatically increased from 9% before 1992, to 36% between 1992 and 1997 and finally reached 75% after then. In the meantime, for the same time periods, global survival to hospital discharge increased from 9% to 36% and reached 50% after 1997. In Group II, global survival to hospital discharge was 25.5% before 1992, 34.6% between 1993 and 1997, and reached 52% thereafter. The CardioWest TAH can be used in patients with a BSA between 1.5 m2 and 1.7 m2 with few fitting problems. In this group of patients, results are similar to those obtained in patients with a BSA greater than 1.8 m2.
 
Article
Elevated left ventricular filling pressures present a major target of therapy for symptomatic heart failure but are difficult to assess directly. Because the relationship of left- and right-sided pressures remains ill defined in chronic heart failure, this study compared 3 right-sided measurements (right atrial [RA] pressure, pulmonary artery systolic [PAS] pressure, and severity of tricuspid regurgitation [TR]) to the pulmonary capillary wedge (PCW) pressure. Hemodynamic measurements and echocardiography were available from 1000 patients undergoing transplant evaluation. Right atrial and PAS pressure, and TR severity were compared to PCW pressure. For 754 patients undergoing repeat measurements, changes in RA and PAS pressures were compared to PCW changes. Right atrial pressure correlated with PCW pressure (r = 0.64), regardless of etiology or TR severity. Right atrial pressure changes correlated with PCW changes (r = 0.62). Discordance was defined as either RA > or = 10 mm Hg despite PCW < 22 mm Hg (6%) or RA < 10 mm Hg despite PCW > or = 22 mm Hg (15%). For detection of PCW > or = 22 mm Hg, positive predictive values were 88% for RA > or = 10 mm Hg, 95% for PAS > or = 60 mm Hg, and 79% for > or = moderate TR. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure correlated very closely with PCW (r = 0.79), and could be estimated as 2 x PCW. Reduction in PAS pressure during therapy was strongly determined by PCW pressure reduction (r = 0.67). Accurate estimation of RA pressure can potentially guide therapy of left ventricular filling pressures in approximately 80% of chronic heart failure patients without obvious non-cardiac disease. In this population, elevated PAS pressures are largely determined by elevated left-sided filling pressures.
 
Article
In the early post-operative period after implantation of a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) a non-pulsatile flow occurs. We compared the post-operative time-courses of protein S-100B (S100B) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) as biochemical markers of brain injury in patients after implantation of a continuous flow LVAD and patients receiving a pulsatile flow LVAD. Since 1998 the continuous flow DeBakey VAD has been implanted in 8 patients at our institution. For comparison purposes, a group of 7 consecutive patients in whom a pulsatile Novacor N100 LVAD was implanted were investigated. In both groups cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with cardiotomy suction was used. S100B and NSE were measured in serum pre-operatively, 4 hours after CPB, and on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after implantation of the LVAD. A neurologic examination was performed pre-operatively and post-operatively on days 3 and 14. No differences were found between groups in pre-operative characteristics. The analysis of variance with repeated measurements for S-100B and NSE showed significant time effects (p = 0.004, p = 0.009, respectively) but no group effects (p = 0.06, p = 0.26, respectively) and no interaction between groups and time (p = 0.12, p = 0.48, respectively). The pre-operative serum level of S100B was significantly higher (p = 0.03) in the DeBakey VAD group. The pre-operative serum level of NSE was similar in the 2 groups (p = 0.7). In both groups there was a significant increase of S100B and NSE immediately after surgery (S100B: p = 0.006, p = 0.019; NSE: p = 0.01, p = 0.001). The values returned to pre-operative levels in the DeBakey VAD group on day 1 after implantation and in the Novacor group for S100B on day 3 and NSE on day 1. Post-operatively the mean values of S100B and NSE in the DeBakey VAD group compared with the Novacor group were significantly elevated only on day 3 (p = 0.005, p = 0.023).No neurologic complications were noted in patients with a continuous flow LVAD, whereas in the pulsatile LVAD group 2 patients presented neurologic abnormalities during the study period. The similar course of biochemical markers of brain damage in both groups may indicate that the non-pulsatile flow in the early post-operative period does not lead to increased brain injury or permeability of the brain blood barrier.Elevated levels of S100B and NSE in the post-operative period can be used as diagnostic markers of brain injury in patients after implantation of both types of LVAD.
 
Article
We report a case of recurrent medulloblastoma following successful pediatric double-lung transplant for chemotherapy-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The patient had an apparent 10-year malignancy-free period prior to the transplant. This case demonstrates a potential complication of lung transplantation in individuals with prior malignancies, and questions whether patients with a history of medulloblastoma are suitable candidates for lung transplantation. Copyright (C) 2000 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
 
Article
Beyond the first year after a heart transplant (HT) procedure, patients often develop dyslipidemias, which may be implicated in the genesis of transplant coronary heart disease. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has a several anti-atherogenic properties, but the status of HDL in HT patients is still controversial. Nonetheless, determination of HDL cholesterol concentration is not sufficient for evaluation of the overall HDL protective role. In this study, a fundamental functional property of HDL, the ability to simultaneously receive the major lipid classes, was tested in HT patients. Twenty HT patients and 20 healthy normolipidemic subjects paired for gender, age and body mass index were studied. Blood samples were collected after 12-hour fasting for determination of plasma lipids, glucose, paraxonase 1 (PON 1) activity, HDL diameter and transfer of labeled lipids from an artificial nanoemulsion to HDL. Plasma triglycerides (159 +/- 63 vs 94 +/- 35 mg/dl) and glucose (104 +/- 20 vs 86 +/- 10 mg/dl) were greater in HT patients than in control subjects. HDL cholesterol was lower and HDL diameter was smaller in the HT group (HDL cholesterol: 44 +/- 11 vs 55 +/- 15 mg/dl; HDL diameter: 8.8 +/- 0.6 vs 9.0 +/- 1.2 nm). PON 1 activity did not differ (87 +/- 47 vs 75 +/- 37 nmol/min/ml). The transfer rates of free cholesterol and cholesteryl esters were diminished in HT patients (HT: 8.4 +/- 1.2% and 3.8 +/- 0.6%; controls: 9.7 +/- 1.9% and 4.7 +/- 1.2%, respectively). The transfer of free cholesterol and cholesteryl esters to HDL is diminished in HT patients; disturbance in the ability of HDL to receive lipids may affect the anti-atherogenic properties of the lipoprotein.
 
Article
Few studies have examined the effect of race in lung transplantation (LTx). The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database provides an opportunity to examine outcomes of race matching for a large cohort of patients. We retrospectively reviewed UNOS data for 11,323 adults receiving primary LTx (1997 to 2007). Patients were stratified by donor-recipient race matching and divided into groups of specific race. All-cause mortality was examined with Cox proportional hazards regression incorporating 19 covariates. Short-term mortality (30 days, 90 days, 1 year and 2 years) and rejection in the first year were examined. Of 11,323 patients, 7,414 (65%) were race matched, including 7,104 (71%) Caucasians, 184 (22%) African Americans, 117 (28%) Hispanics and 9 (11%) Asians. During the study, 4,862 (43%) patients died. Race matching decreased the 30-day, 90-day, 1-year and 2-year unadjusted mortality. Race matching decreased risk-adjusted cumulative mortality (hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 0.96, p = 0.006). Kaplan-Meier modeling showed that race matching significantly improved survival. Race matching did not impact rejection in the year after LTx. When deaths in the first year were censored, race matching no longer affected cumulative survival. Donor African American race conferred an increased risk of death, regardless of recipient race. Our study represents the largest cohort evaluating the effect of race matching in LTx. Race matching resulted in an improvement in long-term survival. This improvement appears to manifest in the 2 years after LTx.
 
Article
Although many methods for detection and quantification of allograft rejection of the lung have been explored, only histologic diagnosis by lung biopsies has gained widespread acceptance. To examine whether indium-111-anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody imaging can noninvasively detect acute lung rejection, we measured the uptake of this radiopharmaceutical in lung tissue and with scintigraphy in orthotopically transplanted rat lungs. The left lung transplant model was used with Lewis- to Wistar-King rat allografts and Lewis isograft controls. Lungs were harvested 2,3,4,5,6, and 7 days after transplantation. The transplanted and native lungs were removed 24 hours after injection of the radiotracer, weighed, and counted in a gamma well counter; uptake ratios of the transplanted or native lungs were then calculated, and scintigraphy was performed. Histologic rejection scores by the grading system of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation at 2,3,4,5,6, and 7 in the allografts were 1.2 +/- 0.2, 2.3 +/- 0.6, 3.0 +/- 0.5, 3.7 +/- 0.4, and 4, and 4, respectively. The uptake ratios of the allografts 3,4, and 5 days after transplantation were significantly higher than the values of the respective isografts and correlated with histologic rejection grades. However, 6 days after transplantation, uptake ratios of allografts decreased and did not correlate with histologic grades. On days 3,4, and 5 after transplantation, the tracer uptake within the allografts was visualized by means of scintigraphy. We conclude that indium-111-anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody increased during mild to moderate acute lung rejection. An abnormal scintigram with this radiotracer suggests that lung biopsy should be performed to exclude lung rejection.
 
Article
Gene therapy's potential to modify donor organs to better withstand the process of transplantation has yet to be realized. To determine whether gene transfection is feasible to treat the early post-transplant injury of ischemia-reperfusion, we compared transfection of lungs in the donor prior to organ procurement with transfection of harvested ex vivo lungs in a rat single lung transplant model. Lewis rats (donor transfection [DT]; n = 4) underwent transtracheal adenoviral-mediated transfection with 10(9) plaque forming unit of the beta-galactosidase reporter gene. Donor lungs were harvested following 6 hours of in vivo post-transfection ventilation, and then preserved for 6 hours at 4 degrees C prior to left single-lung transplantation. Ex vivo transfection was performed following organ retrieval; lungs were then preserved at 4 degrees C for 6 hours (EVT6h; n = 6) and 12 hours (EVT12h; n = 6) prior to transplantation. Lung transgene expression was measured by chemiluminescence at reperfusion, and at 2 hours following lung transplantation. Donor transfection lungs showed significantly higher levels of transgene expression as compared with EVT lungs at the time of reperfusion (DT = 3,408+/-1,301 relative light units/mg protein; EVT6h = 218+/-7; EVT12h = 213+/-26; p < 0.02) and at 2 hours after lung transplantation (DT = 2900+/-870; EVT6h = 62+/-27; EVT12h = 123+/-21; p < 0.005). Transgene expression measured in the heart, liver, kidney, and serum from DT rats demonstrated virtually no evidence of collateral transfection at 12 hours post-transfection (all <5.0). Gene transfection of donor lungs produces significantly higher levels of transgene expression in lungs at the critical time of reperfusion and in the early period following lung transplantation as compared to ex vivo transfection of cold preserved lungs. Transtracheal donor-lung transfection does not appear to result in collateral transfection of other transplantable organs. Local adenoviral-mediated transfection of the lungs is possible in the multiorgan donor prior to organ procurement and may provide the optimal strategy for gene therapeutic manipulations to address post-transplant ischemia-reperfusion injury.
 
Article
Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is used to treat recurrent severe rejection in clinical heart and lung recipients. The mechanisms of the salutary effects of ECP are poorly understood, but appear to involve regulation of T-cell-mediated alloreactive responses, possibly by induction of regulatory T cells. We created a mouse model of ECP to determine the effects of ECP on T-cell responses in vivo and the contribution of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. In this study, 1 x 10(7) splenocytes were treated with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 200 ng/ml), followed by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation (2 J/cm(2), 350 nm), and then injected intravenously into syngeneic mice. Thirty minutes later, the treated animals received heterotopic cardiac allografts with no immunosuppression. Treated graft recipients were analyzed to determine the effect of ECP on graft survival, deletion of allospecific T cells, and the frequency and in vivo suppressive activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. ECP extends cardiac allograft survival in at least two different strain combinations. For CBA/Ca recipients of C57BL/6 allografts, median survival time (MST) in ECP-treated animals was 16 days vs 10 days in graft recipients treated with cells exposed only to 8-MOP (p = 0.04). The frequency of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+) cells expressing FoxP3(+) increased 2-fold in ECP-treated CBA/Ca mice (82.6 +/- 5.2%, n = 4) relative to untreated mice (44.9 +/- 4.5%, n = 4, p < 0.001). Adoptive transfer of 3 x 10(5) sorted CD4(+)CD25(+) splenocytes from ECP-treated graft recipients to untreated cardiac allograft recipients 30 minutes after transplantation resulted in extended graft survival compared with animals that received the same number of CD4(+)CD25(+) splenocytes from cardiac allograft recipients not treated with ECP (MST: 24 days vs 13 days, respectively, p = 0.001). Analyses of 5,6-carboxy-fluorescein-succinimidyl-ester (CFSE)-labeled H-2K(b)-specific T cells in the spleen and lymph node showed no evidence of peripheral deletion after ECP treatment. ECP extends graft survival even in fully histoincompatible strain combinations with no immunosuppression. It increases the frequency of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) splenic T cells, and its effects can be transferred to untreated recipients using minimal numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, indicating that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells may play a key role in the immunomodulatory effects of ECP.
 
Article
The deposition of complement components within grafts, complement consumption, and prolongation of graft function by complement inactivation imply a pivotal role for complement in xenograft hyperacute rejection. The current investigations examined the endothelial production of vasoactive substances in pulmonary arteries during simulated hyperacute rejection. Canine pulmonary arteries were suspended in organ chambers and exposed to either autologous canine serum for 90 minutes or heterologous porcine serum for 30, 60, or 90 minutes. Following serum exposure, the vessels were allowed a one-hour equilibration in buffered crystalloid solution. Dose-response curves were obtained with acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and calcium ionophore A23187 following contraction with phenylephrine (10(-6) M) in the presence of indomethacin (10(-5) M). Receptor-dependent, endothelial-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine (10(-9)-10(-4) M) were impaired with 30-, 60-, or 90-minute porcine serum exposure when compared to vessels exposed to autologous canine serum (n = 10, 7, 9, respectively; p < .05; 2-way ANOVA). Receptor-independent, endothelial-dependent relaxations to calcium inophore (10(-9)-10(-6) M) were significantly impaired at 60- and 90-minute porcine exposures only (n = 7, 8; p < .05). Endothelial-independent relaxations to sodium nitroprusside (10(-9)-10(-4) M) were not impaired with either canine or porcine serum exposure. Oxyhemoglobin (10(-6) M) abolished acetylcholine-mediated relaxations, indicating that nitric oxide was the predominant mediator. Simulated hyperacute xenograft rejection impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation of canine pulmonary arteries. Both basal and stimulated production of nitric oxide is impaired by heterologous serum exposure and, subsequently, complement activation. Reduced production of nitric oxide may explain, in part, the vasospasm and thrombosis of xenografts during hyperacute rejection.
 
Article
An 8-month-old boy with acute myocarditis was mechanically supported with the Berlin Heart EXCOR biventricular assist device. Signs of myocardial recovery were not apparent until 40 days from presentation and ventricular function continued to improve with device removal possible after 120 days of support. He had normal cardiac function 3 months after device removal. Recovery from myocarditis in infants can take much longer than previously recognized and an extended wait for recovery is possible with the Berlin Heart.
 
Article
Heart transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing actinic keratoses and non-melanotic skin cancers when compared with the general population. Systemic retinoids have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of such lesions in recipients of other organs, but as of yet the heart transplant model has rarely been studied. In this investigation we describe our experience with the use of acitretin in a group of heart transplant patients. Five heart transplant recipients with multiple new skin cancer presentations were treated with acitretin at doses of either 10 or 25 mg/day. Inclusion criteria were based on progressive actinic keratoses, recurrent skin malignancies or continuous lesions despite treatment with appropriate topical therapies. Patients were excluded if they were women of child-bearing age, had severe hepatic or renal impairment or were taking contraindicated medications. Over the treatment period all patients showed a reduction in the number of new non-melanotic skin cancers excised and histologically confirmed. Three patients had a very large reduction and 2 patients had a more moderate reduction in the number of new presentations. All patients had an objective decrease in the number of actinic keratoses. All patients tolerated the drug well with only 1 patient transiently discontinuing the Acitretin due to side effects. No significant alterations in the biochemical tests or serum lipids were reported. Over the treatment period, low-dose acitretin proved a valuable addition in the long-term strategy of reduction and treatment of non-melanotic skin cancers in heart transplant recipients with multiple skin cancers and actinic keratoses.
 
Article
Scintigraphy using iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-123-MIBG) has been used to demonstrate that >50% of orthotopically transplanted hearts undergo partial cardiac sympathetic re-innervation and that this occurs no earlier than 1 year post-transplant. This study used planar and singe-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) I-123 MIBG scintigraphy to show that cardiac re-innervation was not detectable in any of the 8 patients studied 1.1 to 6.3 years post-heterotopic transplantation. Thus, potential for cardiac re-innervation varies according to the type of procedure performed.
 
Article
Risk stratification of ambulatory heart failure (HF) patients has relied on peak VO(2)<14 ml/kg/min. We investigated whether additional clinical variables might further specify risk of death, ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation (INTERMACS <4) or heart transplantation (HTx, Status 1A or 1B) within 1 year after HTx evaluation. We hypothesized that right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and the model for end-stage liver disease-albumin score (MELD-A) would be additive prognostic predictors. We retrospectively collected data on 151 ambulatory patients undergoing HTx evaluation. Primary outcomes were defined as HTx, LVAD or death within 1 year after evaluation. Average age in our cohort was 55 ± 11.1 years, 79.1% were male and 39% had an ischemic etiology (LVEF 21 ± 10.5% and peak VO(2) 12.6 ± 3.5 ml/kg/min). Fifty outcomes (33.1%) were observed (27 HTxs, 15 VADs and 8 deaths). Univariate logistic regression showed a significant association of RVSWI (OR 0.47, p = 0.036), PCWP (OR 2.65, p = 0.007) and MELD-A (OR 2.73, p = 0.006) with 1-year events. Stepwise regression showed an independent correlation of RVSWI<5gm-m(2)/beat (OR 6.70, p < 0.01), PCWP>20 mm Hg (OR 5.48, p < 0.01), MELD-A>14 (OR 3.72, p< 0.01) and peak VO(2)<14 ml/kg/min (OR 3.36, p = 0.024) with 1-year events. A scoring system was developed: MELD-A>14 and peak VO(2)<14-1 point each; and PCWP>20 and RVSWI<5-2 points each. A cut-off at≥4 demonstrated a 54% sensitivity and 88% specificity for 1-year events. Ambulatory HF patients have significant 1-year event rates. Risk stratification based on exercise performance, left-sided congestion, right ventricular dysfunction and liver congestion allows prediction of 1-year prognosis. Our findings support early and timely referral for VAD and/or transplant.
 
Article
Exercise performance, an important aspect of quality of life, remains limited after heart transplantation (HTx). This study examines the effect of cardiac allograft remodeling on functional capacity after HTx. The total cohort of 117 HTx recipients, based on echocardiographic determination of left ventricle mass and relative wall thickness at 1 year after HTx, was divided into 3 groups: (1) NG, normal geometry; (2) CR, concentric remodeling; and (3) CH, concentric hypertrophy. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed 5.03 ± 3.08 years after HTx in all patients. Patients with acute rejection or significant graft vasculopathy were excluded. At 1 year post-HTx, 30% of patients had CH, 55% had CR and 15% had NG. Exercise tolerance, measured by maximum achieved metabolic equivalents (4.62 ± 1.44 vs 5.52 ± 0.96 kcal/kg/h), normalized peak Vo(2) (52 ± 14% vs 63 ± 12%) and Ve/Vco(2) (41 ± 17 vs 34 ± 6), was impaired in the CH group compared with the NG group. A peak Vo(2) ≤14 ml/kg/min was found in 6%, 22% and 48% of patients in the NG, CR and CH groups, respectively (p = 0.01). The CH pattern was associated with a 7.4-fold increase in relative risk for a peak Vo(2) ≤14 ml/kg/min compared with NG patients (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 51.9, p = 0.001). After multivariate analysis, a 1-year CH pattern was independently associated with a reduced normalized peak Vo(2) (p = 0.018) and an elevated Ve/Vco(2) (p = 0.035). The presence of CH at 1 year after HTx is independently associated with decreased normalized peak Vo(2) and increased ventilatory response in stable heart transplant recipients. The identification of CH, a potentially reversible mechanism of impairment in exercise capacity after HTx, may have major clinical implications.
 
Article
Lung transplantation is a well-established treatment for end-stage cystic fibrosis, and there are considerable data on medium- and long-term results. However, less information exists about transplantation for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Between December 1988 and June 2001, 22 patients (12 men, 10 women) underwent transplantation for bronchiectasis not due to cystic fibrosis. Procedures were bilateral sequential single-lung transplants (BSSLTX) in 4 patients, en bloc double lung transplants (DLTX) in 5, heart-lung transplants (HLTX) in 6, and single-lung transplants (SLTX) in 7. Lifelong outpatient follow-up was continued at a minimum of every 6 months. One-year Kaplan-Meier survival for all patients was 68% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54%-91%), and 5-year survival was 62% (95% CI, 41-83%). One-year survival after SLTX was 57% (95% CI, 20%-94%) vs 73% (95% CI, 51-96%) for those receiving 2 lungs. At 6 months, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 73% predicted (range, 58%-97%), and mean forced vital capacity was 68% predicted (range, 53%-94%) after receiving 2 lungs (n = 10); in the SLTX group at 6 months, mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 50% predicted (range, 34%-61%), and mean forced vital capacity was 53% predicted (range 46-63%) (n = 4). Survival and lung function after transplantation for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis was similar to that after transplantation for cystic fibrosis. A good outcome is possible after single lung transplantation in selected patients.
 
Article
Epoprostenol significantly improves function and survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) but is associated with many risks and side effects. Furthermore, effective oral therapy is now available. We report our long-term experience with 13 patients from among 118 treated with epoprostenol who were able to be weaned to oral therapy, including 6 with persistently abnormal hemodynamics (mean pulmonary artery pressure > or = 35 mm Hg). Oral therapy with bosentan (n = 11) or sildenafil (n =2) was started before weaning epoprostenol in all but 1 patient. Right heart catheterization was performed when patients reached a dose of 2 ng/kg/min, and epoprostenol was discontinued with hemodynamic monitoring. Functional class and 6-minute walk test were assessed at regular intervals. Repeat right heart catheterization was performed 1 year after discontinuation of epoprostenol. Nine patients remained on oral therapy alone for up to 46 months. Four patients deteriorated in functional class, and 2 of them resumed epoprostenol therapy. Inhaled iloprost was started in another patient. One additional patient died, unrelated to PAH. Twelve patients underwent right heart catheterization at the time of epoprostenol discontinuation. Hemodynamic evaluation 13.2 +/- 0.9 months later showed that the 5 patients with normal or nearly normal hemodynamics at the time of discontinuation of epoprostenol had no deterioration, whereas 4 of the 7 patients with abnormal hemodynamics had worsened. The 6-minute walk test at last follow-up was not significantly changed from maximal distance on epoprostenol (420 +/- 94 vs 412 +/- 95 meters). Weaning from epoprostenol to sildenafil or bosentan with sustained clinical improvement is possible, even with persistent pulmonary hypertension; however, patients with persistently abnormal hemodynamics are at risk for hemodynamic and clinical deterioration and require close follow-up.
 
Article
In patients with heart failure, B-type natriuretic peptides (BNP, N-BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are established prognostic markers. However, circulating interleukin (IL)-6-related cytokines and soluble glycoprotein 130 (sgp130), their common subunit for signal transduction, are also increased. We hypothesized that levels of circulating sgp130 and cardiac peptides provide independent prediction of worsening pump failure in the long term. A series of 76 patients (77% male, 54 ischemic and 17 nonischemic, left ventricular ejection fraction 22% +/- 7%) had blood samples drawn for assay of sgp130, oncostatin-M, N-ANP, N-BNP, and BNP. A composite end point of worsening pump failure (requiring hospitalization, intravenous therapy, or urgent heart transplantation) and pump failure death was used for follow-up. During follow-up (up to 7 years), rate of worsening pump failure was 22.3%, including death. N-ANP (5666 +/- 3100 vs 7850 +/- 12164 fmol/ml), N-BNP (278 +/- 284 vs 250 +/- 297 pmol/ml), and oncostatin-M (15 +/- 28 vs 16 +/- 63 pg/ml) were similar in those who incurred worsening pump failure and in others. Mean sgp130 levels were 389 +/- 123 ng/ml in patients who developed worsening heart failure (Group A) and 289 +/- 123 ng/ml in stable patients (Group B; p < 0.0001). Mean BNP was 567 +/- 774 pg/ml in Group A and 307 +/- 324 pg/ml in Group B (p < 0.05). By using a cutoff value of 286 ng/ml for gp130 in Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that the rate of freedom from worsening heart failure was significantly higher in patients below compared with patients above this cutoff point (p = 0.03). In univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, only sgp130 emerged as statistically significant (p < 0.001). In addition to BNP, sgp130 could be useful in identifying patients at high risk for heart failure progression.
 
Article
Staging of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is based on the decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second, a measure of overall ventilatory capacity. A single staging system is applied to all lung recipients, regardless of the bias which can be caused by the native lung after single lung transplantation. We determined the decline of graft function in single lung recipients by a combination of two methods: 133-Xe radiospirometry and dynamic spirometry. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second fraction of the transplant (FEV1tx) was calculated from the proportion of ventilation of the transplant (Vtx) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second. Eight single lung recipients were followed up for a median observation period of 17 months; bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome developed in four of them. The fractional decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of the transplant was significantly greater than the decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (p = 0.016) in all patients during the follow-up. In the patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, the mean decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 1.1 L (39.5%), and in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of the transplant it was 0.9 L (55.8%). The measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of the transplant suggested stage 2a and 3a dysfunction in two grafts in which the assessment of forced expiratory volume in 1 second indicated stage 1a bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. In one patient, decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of the transplant was suggestive of chronic dysfunction 4 months before it was diagnosed by biopsy and declined lung function. The assessment of forced expiratory volume in 1 second seems to underestimate the severity of chronic dysfunction in single lung grafts. Instead, the determination of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of the transplant with radioactive tracers provides selective information of the graft function, which could be used for clinical evaluation of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in single lung recipients.
 
Article
Common genetic variations influence rejection, infection, drug metabolism, and side effect profiles after pediatric heart transplantation. Reports in adults suggest that genetic background may influence post-transplant renal function. In this multicenter study, we investigated the association of genetic polymorphisms (GPs) in a panel of candidate genes on renal function in 453 pediatric heart transplant recipients. We performed genotyping for functional GPs in 19 candidate genes. Renal function was determined annually after transplantation by calculation of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Mixed-effects and Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess recipient characteristics and the effect of GPs on longitudinal eGFR and time to eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73m(2). Mean age at transplantation was 6.2 ± 6.1 years. Mean follow-up was 5.1 ± 2.5 years. Older age at transplant and black race were independently associated with post-transplant renal dysfunction. Univariate analyses showed FASL (C-843T) T allele (p = 0.014) and HO-1 (A326G) G allele (p = 0.0017) were associated with decreased renal function. After adjusting for age and race, these associations were attenuated (FASL, p = 0.075; HO-1, p = 0.053). We found no associations of other GPs with post-transplant renal function, including GPs in TGFβ1, CYP3A5, ABCB1, and ACE. In this multicenter, large, sample of pediatric heart transplant recipients, we found no strong associations between GPs in 19 candidate genes and post-transplant renal function. Our findings contradict reported associations of CYP3A5 and TGFβ1 with renal function and suggest that genotyping for these GPs will not facilitate individualized immunosuppression for the purpose of protecting renal function after pediatric heart transplantation.
 
Article
Jugular venous pressure (JVP) is assessed to estimate volume status in patients with heart failure because right atrial pressure (RAP) reflects pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). In a large cohort of heart failure patients spanning 14 years, we sought to further characterize the relationship between RAP and PCWP, including identifying temporal trends, to optimize estimates of PCWP by JVP. We also sought to determine whether the RAP to PCWP relationship impacts post-transplant mortality. Hemodynamic data were obtained from 4,079 patients before cardiac transplantation. Elevated RAP was defined as ≥10 mm Hg and elevated PCWP ≥22 mm Hg. Hemodynamics were "concordant" when both RAP and PCWP were elevated or when both were not elevated. The frequency of concordant hemodynamics was assessed over 3 eras (1993 to 1997, 1998 to 2002, 2003 to 2007). Baseline characteristics were compared among quartiles of the ratio (RAP+1)/PCWP. The association of (RAP+1)/PCWP with 2-year mortality after cardiac transplantation was assessed using multivariate models. The frequency of concordant hemodynamics over time was stable (74%, 72%, 73%; p = 0.4). Increasing (RAP+1)/PCWP was associated with the following variables: female gender; cardiomyopathy etiology besides ischemic or non-ischemic; prior sternotomies; and lower creatinine clearance (p < 0.01 for all). Elevated (RAP+1)/PCWP was associated with post-transplant mortality (relative risk 1.2, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.37, p = 0.02). [corrected] RAP and PCWP remain concordant in most heart failure patients, supporting the ongoing use of JVP to estimate PCWP. Easily identifiable patient characteristics were associated with an increased RAP/PCWP ratio, and their presence should alert clinicians that PCWP may be overestimated by JVP assessment. A higher RAP/PCWP ratio was an adverse risk factor for post-cardiac transplant survival.
 
Article
Here we report the treatment of native heart complications (aortic regurgitation, ventricular fibrillation and heart failure) following a heterotopic heart transplant by excision of native heart and relocation the heterotopic heart in the orthotopic position. The patient was a 24 year old woman who had received a heterotopic transplant at the age of 9 years from a 9 year old donor. The donor heart had grown sufficiently to allow it to support her adult circulation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010;29:368-70
 
Article
We present a 14-year-old boy who suffered from progressive biventricular cardiac failure and secondary pulmonary artery hypertension associated with the rarely seen Alstrom syndrome. The boy underwent successful heart-lung transplantation. We conclude from this report that heart-lung transplantation in patients with Alstrom syndrome is a viable therapeutic option in select cases. J Heart Lung Transplant 2007;26:1217- 8. Copyright (c) 2007 by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
 
Article
An increasing number of patients are returning to normal activity after implantation of intracorporeal left ventricular assist devices. We describe the emergency replacement of the impeller portion of a HeartMate II left ventricular assist system that had stopped functioning after the 14-year-old recipient experienced a sudden fall from a skateboard.
 
Article
Human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G) is a non-classical Ib molecule in the major histocompatibility complex. HLA-G has important immunosuppressive properties, and in the context of cardiac transplantation, is associated with a low risk of cellular rejection. A 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in exon 8 of the HLA-G gene is associated with messenger RNA (mRNA) stability and expression of HLA-G. This study analyzed the relationship between HLA-G polymorphisms and serum HLA-G levels in patients after cardiac transplantation to determine if any specific HLA-G genotype is associated with cellular rejection. Ninety-four heart transplant patients were genotyped for the 14-bp polymorphism. Serum HLA-G levels and cellular rejection grades were evaluated in all patients. The 14-bp polymorphism was significantly associated with serum HLA-G expression. Patients with the -14-bp/-14-bp genotype had significantly higher mean serum HLA-G levels (88.2 U/ml) than those patients with the +14-bp/-14-bp (52.8 U/ml) and +14-bp/+14-bp (32.2 U/ml) genotypes (p = 0.004). The -14 bp/-14-bp genotype was significantly associated with fewer episodes of cellular rejection. This study suggests that the 14-bp deletion in the HLA-G gene plays an important role in the expression of HLA-G and thus might be a clinically useful genetic indicator for cellular rejection risk after cardiac transplantation.
 
Article
Functional assessment of the potentially damaged graft from a non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) is mandatory for successful outcome after transplantation. We investigated the impact of the topical cooling solution on graft preservation and whether inflammatory markers in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can predict pulmonary graft viability in a pig ex vivo lung perfusion model. Pigs were euthanized and left untouched for 1 (SAL-1, PER-1) or 3 (SAL-3, PER-3) hours. Topical cooling was done with saline or low-potassium dextran solution (Perfadex) for 1 or 3 hours. In the heart-beating donor control group, the lungs were flushed, explanted and stored for 4 hours. BAL samples were taken from right lungs after explantation and assessed for nitrite, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and protein levels. Left lungs were prepared for ex vivo evaluation. Hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters were measured. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), oxygenation index and Pao(2)/Fio(2) ratio differed significantly between the SAL-3 (42.2 +/- 6.0, 15.9 +/- 3.2 and 148 +/- 14.6 Wood units, respectively) and PER-3 (23.9 +/- 2.7, 6.4 +/- 0.8 and 221.7 +/- 15.06 Wood units, respectively) groups (p < 0.05). BAL IL-8 levels were higher in the SAL-3 group compared with the PER-3 group. BAL nitrite and protein levels were statistically higher in the SAL-3 group (0.98 +/- 0.17 micromol/liter, 728.3 +/- 75.7 microg/ml) than in the PER-3 (0.22 +/- 0.09 micromol/liter, 393.3 +/- 51.1 microg/ml) group (p < 0.05) and correlated with an increase in PVR (r = 0.623, p = 0.001; r = 0.530, p = 0.006, respectively). After 3 hours of warm ischemia topical cooling with Perfadex resulted in better graft function. Nitrite and protein levels in BAL correlated well with PVR and may therefore be used as a non-invasive marker to predict graft function for NHBDs.
 
Article
Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory adipocytokine believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF). We aimed to characterize the expression of adiponectin and its receptors in CHF and to assess the impact of microRNAs on the cardiac adiponectin system. Expression of adiponectin and adiponectin receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) was studied by qPCR and immunohistochemistry in myocardial tissues of patients with end-stage CHF and control subjects. MicroRNA binding was evaluated by cloning of an ADIPOR2 3´-untranslated-region reporter construct and subsequent transfection experiments. Effects of miRNA transfection were analyzed in cardiomyocyte cell cultures by qPCR and Western blotting. Gene silencing of ADIPOR2 was performed by siRNA transfection, and the effects of hypoxia/serum starvation were analyzed by flow cytometry. Although CHF patients displayed elevated plasma adiponectin levels, myocardial adiponectin expression generally was very low. In CHF, cardiac ADIPOR1 expression increased by >4-fold, whereas the increase in ADIPOR2 was less than 2-fold. Reporter gene assays on constructs containing the ADIPOR2-3'-untranslated region suggest that microRNA-150 specifically repressed ADIPOR2 expression. Transfection of cardiomyocytes with premiR-150 precursor molecules resulted in 60% down-regulation of ADIPOR2 mRNA and a significant reduction of ADIPOR2 protein expression. MicroRNA-150 was substantially expressed in both normal and CHF myocardium, with a 1.7-fold higher expression in CHF. Finally, knock-down experiments elucidated a stress-protective role of ADIPOR2 in cardiomyocytes. MicroRNA-150 counteracts ADIPOR2 up-regulation in CHF and thus may contribute to adiponectin resistance. Targeting microRNA-150 may be a future strategy to restore cardioprotective adiponectin effects.
 
Article
Neutrophil adhesion is initiated by the interaction of rapidly expressed endothelial selectins with oligosaccharide structures (sialyl Lewis(x) on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). The carbohydrate sialyl Lewis X analogue CY-1503 blocks selectin receptors, thereby inhibiting PMN rolling and subsequent firm adhesion and migration. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of CY-1503 on PMN migration and reperfusion injury in canine left lung allografts. Donor lungs were flushed with modified Euro-Collins solution (1500 ml, 4 degrees C) and preserved for 21 hours at 1 degree C. Left lung allotransplantation was subsequently performed in 14 mongrel dogs. Immediately after transplantation and allograft reperfusion, the recipient contralateral right pulmonary artery and bronchus were ligated to permit assessment of isolated allograft function during a 6-hour postreperfusion period (FIO2 = 1.0). Allograft gas exchange (q 15 minutes) and hemodynamics (q 60 minutes) were assessed. After sacrifice, allograft bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) PMN count and allograft tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Two groups were studied: In group I (n = 7) CY-1503 was added to the donor lung flush (20 mg/L) and given to the recipient (35 mg/kg intravenous bolus) before reperfusion, followed by a continuous infusion (5.25 mg/kg/h intravenously) during the 6-hour assessment period. Group II animals (n = 7) received no CY-1503. Gas exchange in group I was superior throughout the assessment period (p < 0.01 at 6 hours after reperfusion). BALF PMN count in group I was reduced to 0.57 +/- 0.3 x 10(6) PMN/ml compared with 3.9 +/- 1.3 x 10(6) PMN/ml in group II (p < 0.05). Group I allograft MPO activity was 0.21 +/- 0.06 compared with 0.40 +/- 0.02 delta OD/mg/ min in controls (p < 0.02). Two animals in each group died early after reperfusion as a result of graft failure and were excluded from analysis. Our observations indicate that selectin inhibition effectively reduces PMN adhesion, migration, and subsequent reperfusion injury in preserved canine lung allografts.
 
Article
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a life-threatening disease manifested by progressive pulmonary vascular remodeling, compromised pulmonary blood flow and right heart failure. Most studies have explored how pulmonary endothelial function modulates disease pathogenesis. We hypothesize that IPAH is a progressive panvasculopathy, affecting both pulmonary and systemic vascular beds, and that systemic endothelial dysfunction correlates with disease severity. Recent studies have demonstrated systemic endothelial dysfunction in adults with pulmonary hypertension; however, adults often have additional comorbidities affecting endothelial function. Systemic endothelial function has not been explored in children with IPAH. In this single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study we examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a nitric oxide-mediated, endothelial-dependent response, in children with IPAH and matched controls. FMD measurements were compared with clinical and echocardiographic measures of IPAH severity. Thirteen patients and 13 controls were studied, ranging in age from 6 to 20 years. FMD was decreased in IPAH subjects compared with controls (5.1 ± 2.1% vs 9.7 ± 2.0%; p < 0.0001). In IPAH subjects, FMD correlated directly with cardiac index (R(2) = 0.34, p = 0.035), and inversely with tricuspid regurgitation velocity (R(2) = 0.57, p = 0.019) and right ventricular myocardial performance index (R(2) = 0.44, p = 0.028). The presence of systemic endothelial dysfunction in children with IPAH and its strong association with IPAH severity demonstrate that IPAH is a global vasculopathy. Although morbidity in IPAH is typically associated with pulmonary vascular disease, systemic vascular changes may also relate to disease pathogenesis and progression. Further study into shared mechanisms of systemic and pulmonary endothelial dysfunction may contribute to future therapies for IPAH.
 
Article
Little is known about the quality of life (QOL) of children with heart disease who undergo life-saving surgery. The aim of this multicenter study was to examine self- and parent-reported QOL outcomes in pediatric heart transplant recipients. Pediatric heart transplant recipients/families (n = 174) from 7 transplant programs completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scales and Cardiac Module. Scores for the heart transplant sample were compared with non-transplant patients who had undergone conventional cardiac surgery and with a healthy child sample. Within the cardiac surgery group, heart disease/surgery was further categorized by severity/complexity. Heart transplant recipients were a mean age of 10.6 ± 4.7 years at a mean time post-transplant of 6.0 ± 4.1 years. By both self-report and parent proxy report, mean scores for heart transplant recipients were significantly lower than those in healthy children for physical and psychosocial QOL, including emotional and social functioning (p < 0.001), with 31.3% self-reporting significantly impaired psychosocial QOL scores. By self-report, there were no significant differences in emotional and social mean scores between the transplant and cardiac surgery groups. Transplant recipients reported significantly fewer cardiac symptoms than children with cardiac surgery (p < 0.01). Their self-reported school functioning scores were not significantly different from children with moderate to severe disease. Although pediatric heart transplant recipients experience significant symptomatic improvement, they remain at-risk for impaired psychosocial QOL, similar to children with residual or palliated heart disease. Assessment is needed to identify children at-risk and improve psychosocial outcomes.
 
Article
IL-16 promotes the recruitment of various cells expressing CD4, a receptor for IL-16. The precise role of IL-16 in transplant rejection remains unknown; therefore, the present study investigated the contribution of IL-16 to the development of chronic rejection in heart transplants. C-H-2(bm12)KhEg (H-2(bm12)) donor hearts were transplanted into (1) IL-16-deficient (IL-16(-/-)) C57BL/6J or (b) wild type (WT) control recipients (MHC class II mismatch). Grafts were harvested at 52 days, parenchymal rejection was assessed by the ISHLT grading system, and CAV was examined morphometrically. Graft infiltrating cells were detected 10 and 52 days after transplantation. Intragraft cytokine and chemokine profiles were assessed. To confirm the role of IL-16 in CAV development, C-H-2(bm12)KhEg (H-2(bm12)) donor hearts were transplanted into C57BL/6J WT recipients treated with (1) anti-IL-16-neutralization monoclonal antibody or (b) control immunoglobulin G. Grafts were harvested at 52 days, and CAV was quantified morphometrically. Graft-infiltrating cells were examined histologically. Parenchymal rejection and CAV was significantly attenuated in donor hearts transplanted into IL-16(-/-) recipient mice compared with WT controls. Donor hearts transplanted into IL-16(-/-) recipients had a significant reduction in coronary artery luminal occlusion, intima-to-media ratio, and percentage of diseased vessels. CAV was associated with decreased donor organ inflammation, as well as donor organ cytokine (IL-1β and IL-6) and chemokine (MCP-1 and KC) protein expression. Intimal proliferation and inflammatory cell infiltration were significantly reduced in hearts transplanted into recipients treated with an IL-16-neutralization antibody. IL-16-deficiency reduced graft inflammatory cell recruitment, and allograft inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Therefore, IL-16 neutralization may provide a potential target for novel therapeutic treatment for cardiac allograft rejection.
 
Article
Transplant vasculopathy is a long-term complication of cardiac transplantation. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PCI) is a method of choice for local revascularization that is also increasingly used in heart transplant patients. Between October 1989 and November 2006, 160 adult cardiac transplant recipients (19 women) with mean age at heart transplantation of 47 +/- 12 years underwent PCI in 502 coronary segments during 319 catheterizations (balloon only, 209; bare metal stents, 227, drug-eluting stents, 66). Concomitant medical therapy, procedural data, primary success, recurrence of stenosis, and cardiac events (cardiac death or repeat transplantation) were analyzed retrospectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed. Stents reduced early and mid-term recurrence of stenosis but had no impact on graft survival. Drug-eluting stents did not improve the restenosis rate. Immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil and concomitant treatment with statins and clopidogrel were significantly associated with reduced recurrence of stenosis and prolonged graft survival. Low steroid dosage was associated with a positive impact on graft survival. Stenting in heart transplant patients has no impact on graft survival despite high primary success and deferred recurrence of stenosis. Early reduction of steroids, immunosuppression by mycophenolate mofetil, and concomitant treatment with statins are likely to reduce recurrent stenosis and to improve graft survival in heart transplant patients needing PCI. Long-term treatment with clopidogrel deserves further assessment.
 
Top-cited authors
Robert L Kormos
  • University of Pittsburgh
Berkeley Keck
  • Tucker Pavilion
Bruno M Meiser
  • Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich
Francis D Pagani
  • University of Michigan
James B Young
  • Cleveland Clinic