The Journal of foot and ankle surgery: official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons

Published by Elsevier
Online ISSN: 1067-2516
Publications
General information and outcome scores of included studies 
Article
The objective of the present study was to review the current data on the long-term outcomes of calcaneal fractures, with special emphasis on the role of the type of treatment, surgical approach, and reduction and internal fixation. The search was limited to skeletally mature patients. Major databases were searched from 1978 to 2011 to identify studies relating to functional outcome, subjective outcome, and radiographic evaluation at least 2 years after either surgical or conservative treatment of calcaneal fractures. Of 59 initially relevant studies, 25 met our inclusion criteria. A total of 1,730 fractures were identified in 1,557 patients. The mean sample size-weighted follow-up period was 4.6 years. The findings from the present review support current clinical practice that displaced calcaneal fractures are treated surgically from 1 level I evidence study, 1 level II, and multiple studies with less than level II evidence, with open reduction and internal fixation as the method of choice. If the fracture is less complex, percutaneous treatment can be a good alternative according to current level 3 and 4 retrospective data.
 
Article
Absorbable 1.3-mm polydioxanone (ORTHOSORB) pins were implanted in 75 New Zealand White rabbits in three sites: within the lateral subcutaneous tissue parallel to the femur, down the femoral intramedullary canal, and mediolaterally across the femoral condyles (transcondylar). Pins were harvested at periodic intervals up to 56 and 365 days for mechanical and histologic analyses, respectively. Mechanical analyses were performed by loading the pin in double shear. Histologic analyses were performed on the pin and surrounding tissue. Histologic observations revealed a typical nonspecific foreign-body reaction at all implant sites that resolved at 1 year after resorption of the pin. On histologic examination, there was complete resorption of the pin material in the subcutaneous site by day 182, and there was complete resolution of all response to the pin in six of nine rabbits by day 365. In the intramedullary site, pin material was completely resorbed, based on histologic examination, in five of six rabbits by day 182, and there was complete resolution of the response to the pin in eight of nine rabbits by day 365. The pin material was completely resorbed based on histologic examination of the transcondylar site by day 210, and there was complete resolution of the response to the pin in four of six rabbits by day 270 and in four of nine rabbits by day 365. No enlarged pin tracks or sinus formations were observed in or near the implants sites. The average initial shear strength as 171.4+/ 5.1 MPa, and the breaking strength retention decreased with increasing implantation time. Pins from the subcutaneous regions maintained above 97% of their initial strengths at 28 days, and those from the intramedullary canals maintained above 92%. At later times the strength of the pins implanted in the intramedullary canal decreased more rapidly than those from the subcutaneous region. Overall, the average breaking strength of the subcutaneous pins was significantly greater than that of the intramedullary pins at all time points beyond 14 days. These data indicate that the pins exhibited a strength retention profile sufficient to allow normal healing of bone without enlarged pin tracts, allergic reactions, or sinus formations.
 
Article
Medical records were reviewed for 90 patients (101 amputations) (mean age 64.3 years, range 39 to 86 years) who underwent transmetatarsal amputation (TMA). The mean follow-up period, excluding those patients who either died or went on to a more proximal amputation less than 6 months after TMA, was 2.1 years. Patients were examined for any postoperative complications associated with TMA. Complications were defined as hospital mortality occurring less than 30 days postoperatively; stump infarction with or without more proximal amputation; postoperative infection; chronic stump ulceration; stump deformity in any of 3 cardinal planes; wound dehiscence; equinus and calcaneus gait. An uncomplicated outcome was defined as the absence of all these complications and an ability to walk on the residuum with a diabetic shoe and filler after a minimum follow-up of 6 months. The chi(2) tests of association were used to determine whether diabetes, a palpable pedal pulse, coronary artery disease, end-stage renal disease, cerebral vascular accident, or hypertension were predictive of or associated with healing. A documented palpable pedal pulse was a predictor of healing (P = .0567) and of not requiring more proximal amputation (P = .03). End-stage renal disease predicted nonhealing (P = .04). A healed stump was achieved in 58 cases (57.4%). Postsurgical complications developed in 88 cases (87.1%). Two patients died within 30 days postoperatively. These data suggest that TMA is associated with high complication rates in a diabetic and vasculopathic population.
 
Article
Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain in the U.S. Army soldier, resulting in a significant loss of man hours. Given the heavy operations tempo of the U.S. military, successful treatment options need to be considered and used as quickly as possible. Plantar fasciitis can be successfully treated in up to 90% of patients using conservative measures. Operative intervention might need to be considered for those in whom conservative measures have failed. The present report is a review of 105 consecutive uniport endoscopic plantar fascial release procedures performed by the principal investigator during a 9-year period. The following data were collected and analyzed: gender, age, weight, height, body mass index, medical treatment facility, procedure laterality, preoperative pain levels, postoperative pain levels at 3 months, first ambulatory day in the controlled ankle motion boot, return to activity as tolerated, and complications. Three major points were of interest: evidence of improvement in chronic plantar fasciitis when treated with uniport endoscopic procedures; the patient attributes associated with self-reported pain levels 90 days postoperatively; and the patient attributes associated with the average time until patients were able to return to activities as tolerated in a controlled ankle motion boot. It was noted that 44.5% of those with a body mass index of 29.80 kg/m(2) or greater reported a postoperative pain level of 0; and 96.3% of those with a body mass index of 25.53 kg/m(2) or less reported postoperative pain levels of 0. The analyzed data were used to characterize the clinical outcomes of the procedure, identify changes in outcome with surgeon experience, and identify whether certain patient subgroups have better outcomes, allowing surgeons to identify which patient might be the best candidates for an endoscopic release procedure.
 
Article
One hundred-six patients underwent emergency debridement of a deep foot space abscess. While 43 patients were admitted after an outpatient visit with immediate surgical debridement (group A), 63 patients were transferred from other hospitals after a mean stay of 6.2+/-7.5 days without debridement (group B). No significant differences were observed in the demographic and clinical features between the 2 groups, except for the following differences in group B: higher blood glucose level on admission (P=.015), lower serum albumin level (P=.005), and a more frequent extension of the infection to the heel (P=.005). Eradication of the infection was obtained in group A without amputation in 9 patients, with an amputation of 1 or more rays in 21, with metatarsal amputations in 12, and with a Chopart amputation in 1. In group B, incision and drainage alone were performed in 4 patients, amputation of 1 or more rays in 21, metatarsal amputations in 10, Chopart amputations in 23, and an above-the-ankle amputation in 5. The amputation level was significantly more proximal in group B (chi2=24.4, P<.001). There was no significant difference in the presence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease between the 2 groups (P=.841). Regression logistic analysis showed a significant relationship between the amputation level and the number of days elapsed before debridement (odds ratio, 1.61; P=.015; confidence interval, 1.10-2.36), but not with the presence of peripheral occlusive disease (odds ratio, 1.73; P=.376; confidence interval, 0.29-15.3). These data show that a delay in the surgical debridement of a deep space abscess increases the amputation level. Accuracy in the diagnosis of peripheral occlusive disease and immediate revascularization yield similar outcomes in patients with or without peripheral occlusive disease.
 
Article
One hundred six patients who underwent a Lapidus arthrodesis for a symptomatic hallux valgus deformity, mainly with first ray hypermobility, were retrospectively reviewed. Radiograph and chart reviews were performed in addition to a patient survey completed at a mean 17 months postoperatively. Of the 78 patients who completed the survey, 70.5% were satisfied with the procedure; 80.2% would choose the same method again. Seven percent of patients were dissatisfied. Review of preoperative and 3-month postoperative radiographs showed a mean intermetatarsal angle reduction of 12.4 degrees . The average postoperative sesamoid position was 2.5, a 4.0 reduction from the preoperative mean value of 6.5. The complication rate was 5.7%, including 2 nonunions (1.8%) requiring a repeat surgery, 1 deep-vein thrombosis (0.9%), and 3 patients with complex regional-pain syndrome (2.7%). In 16% of patients, resolution of swelling and subjective complaints took longer than 3 months; 4.7% of patients developed sesamoiditis or metatarsalgia that resolved with conservative measures. Radiographic undercorrection was evident in 4.7% of patients. The results showed that the Lapidus procedure provided reliable correction in cases of severe hallux valgus with intermetatarsal angles >15 degrees and in those patients with first ray hypermobility.
 
Article
Unlabelled: Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is a recommended technique for hallux rigidus. The preparation of the joint surfaces and the way in which fixation is achieved might be relevant in success or failure of the arthrodesis. All patients were selected from archived records of operations performed at the 'Groene Hart' Hospital in Gouda, the Netherlands, from 1996 until 2005. Patients were operated following a fixed protocol using flat surfaces and a single compression screw bridging the arthrodesis from proximal medial to distal lateral. Their charts were reviewed retrospectively. Answers to questions regarding their current pain, shoe wear, and walking ability were recorded using the criteria of the AOFAS foot score as a template in a questionnaire. Of a total of 109 arthrodesis, 104 (95.4 %) united within 8 weeks without problems. Four feet were re-operated for pseudoarthrosis and one was re-operated for malunion with too much dorsiflexion. Removal of the intramedullary screw was necessary in 85 feet (78%). Of the 79 patients who returned their questionnaire, 58 patients (73.4%) considered their problems solved and 57 patients (72%) were completely satisfied with the result. Our study shows that a single screw fixation method is an effective technique in treating hallux rigidus, with high satisfaction in patients between 40 and 80 years of age. Level of clinical evidence: 4.
 
Article
Outcomes for 11 patients who underwent an in situ tibialis posterior tendon to flexor digitorum longus tendon side-to-side anastamosis as the sole procedure for stage 2 tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction were reviewed. The average follow-up was 34.4 months. Using the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot rating scale, a mean improvement of 39.3 points was achieved, with preoperative scores of 38.8 improving to 78.1 postoperatively. Good to excellent results were achieved in nine patients. The in situ side-to-side anastamosis is technically easier to perform, has less tissue trauma, and compares favorably with other soft-tissue procedures and reconstructions for stage 2 tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction. Performing this transfer alone, while leaving the flexor digitorum longus tendon intact, theoretically provides a stronger transfer as the length-tension relationship of the flexor digitorum longus tendon is maintained near its physiologic level. The procedure can consistently restore inversion ability to the rearfoot and stop the progression of tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction.
 
Article
The reliability and durability of partial first ray amputation in patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy has recently been questioned. In an effort to determine the repeat amputation rate after a partial first ray amputation associated with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy at our institution, we performed an 11-year retrospective review. A total of 59 patients (40 males and 19 females), with a mean age of 63 (range 39 to 97) years, were included. The mean follow-up was 33.8 (range 1 to 123) months, with initial incision healing occurring in all 59 patients. Despite the initial healing, 69% developed a mean of 3.1 subsequent foot ulcerations at a mean of 10.5 months, 36% required ancillary surgical procedures, and more than 90% of patients were prescribed multiple courses of antibiotics at a mean of 26.6 clinic visits during the follow-up period. A total of 25 patients (42.4%) underwent more proximal repeat amputation at a mean of 25 (range 1 to 97) months after the initial partial first ray amputation. The results of our retrospective review revealed that nearly 1 of every 2 patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy who undergo a partial first ray amputation will progress to a more proximal repeat amputation, despite initial healing. These data question the reliability and durability of this level of amputation as a primary procedure in this patient population. A more proximal level amputation, such as a balanced transmetatarsal, might provide a better functional and reliable residual weight bearing foot and should be considered at the initial presentation. This is especially true given that nearly one half of the patients died during the follow-up period. However, this remains a matter for conjecture because of the limited data available; therefore, additional prospective investigations are warranted.
 
Article
This article presents the results of a retrospective chart and radiographic review of 11 feet (8 patients) that underwent a Cole midfoot osteotomy from February 1998 through October 2000 at the Western Pennsylvania Hospital. The average time to follow-up was 23 months (range, 11 to 29.5 months). A 100% bony union rate was achieved, with an average time to radiographic union of 2.3 months (range, 1.2 to 4.5 months). The average time until full weightbearing was 3.3 months (range, 2 to 4.25 months). The average preoperative talo-first metatarsal angle on an anteroposterior radiograph was 8.60 degrees and 8.64 degrees on the lateral radiograph. The average postoperative change was 3.50 degrees (P =.03) on the anteroposterior radiograph and 16.82 degrees (P =.003) on the lateral radiograph. At the final follow-up visit, all patients were independently active and were able to wear conventional shoe gear. A postoperative questionnaire was completed by 5 of 8 patients (8 of 11 feet) at a mean 21 months (range, 13 to 29.5 months) postoperatively. Of these patients, 4 of 5 patients (7 of 8 feet) would recommend this surgery to others. No major complications were reported in this study. These results suggest that the Cole midfoot osteotomy is a reasonable procedure to consider for correcting pes cavus deformities with the apex in the midfoot.
 
Article
To evaluate morbidity associated with surgical lengthening of the gastrocnemius, medical records were reviewed retrospectively for 126 patients (mean age, 49.7 years; range, 8-78 years) who had undergone open gastrocnemius recession. Ten patients had isolated recession; 116 had gastrocnemius recession with an additional foot or ankle procedure on the ipsilateral limb. During a mean follow-up period of 19 months (range, 6-50 months), all patients were examined for any postoperative complications associated with the recession. Complications were defined as the presence of postoperative infection, wound dehiscence, nerve problems, decreased muscle strength, scar problems, or calcaneus gait (overlengthening). Uncomplicated outcome was defined as absence of all these complications and return to regular activity, both occurring during a follow-up of at least 6 months. Postsurgical complications developed in 9 (6%) of the 126 patients: 6 (4%) had scar problems, 2 (1.33%) had wound dehiscence, 2 (1.33%) had infection, 3 (2%) had nerve problems, and 1 (0.67%) developed complex regional pain syndrome. No patient complained of either a limp or gait disturbance. Neither persistent decrease in muscle strength nor calcaneus gait was seen. These data suggest that the open gastrocnemius recession procedure has low associated morbidity.
 
Article
A series of thirteen patients that had primary fusion of the ankle joint through an isolated medial approach is presented. The technique involves transection of the medial malleolus for access to the articular surfaces, rather than the traditional transfibular approach. The medial malleolus was replaced in all cases, preserving the deltoid ligament. Union was achieved in 12 of 13 patients. The technique is described in detail and the advantages of this approach are discussed with respect to preservation of the blood supply to the talus and tibia.
 
Article
The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture has been discussed for decades. During the past half decade, evidence has increased in favor of nonoperative treatment and dynamic and weightbearing rehabilitation. We hypothesized that the treatment strategies would show great variation and that adherence to evidence-based recommendations would not be as good as desired. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how acute Achilles tendon rupture is treated in Scandinavia. A questionnaire was distributed to all orthopedic departments treating acute Achilles tendon ruptures in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. The questionnaire was returned by 138 of 148 departments (response rate 93%). Two-way tables with Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. In Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland, 19 of 23 (83%), 44 of 48 (92%), 26 of 40 (65%), and 8 of 27 (30%) departments recommended surgical treatment (p < .001). Dynamic rehabilitation was used significantly less often in Denmark (5 of 23 [22%]), Norway (17 of 45 [38%]), and Sweden (11 of 40 [28%]) than in Finland (15 of 26 [58%]; p = .015). A significant difference was found among the countries in the educational level of the performing surgeons (p < .001). Surgical treatment was the treatment of choice in Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish hospitals regardless of the increasing evidence favoring nonoperative treatment. Although increasing evidence has favored dynamic rehabilitation, it has gained limited use across Scandinavia. Weightbearing was used in most hospitals. Surgery was performed by junior surgeons in most hospitals across Scandinavia. Treatment algorithms showed considerable variation and often did not adhere to the clinical evidence.
 
Article
Coverage of the weightbearing heel poses a unique technical challenge to the reconstructive surgeon. In the present study, we share our clinical experience with the use of the medial plantar artery-based flap for coverage of tissue defects around the heel. Eighteen medial plantar artery flaps performed from January 1996 to December 2009 were included. All the procedures were performed by 2 surgeons at Aga Khan University and Hospital (Karachi, Pakistan) and Bahawal Victoria Hospital (Bahawalpur, Pakistan). Of the 18 patients, 16 were male and 2 were female. The indications were traumatic loss of the heel pad in 13, pressure sores in 2, and unstable plantar scars in 3. All the flaps were raised as sensate fasciocutaneous pedicled flaps based on the medial plantar artery. All the flaps healed uneventfully without major complications. The donor site was covered with a split-thickness skin graft, and we had partial graft loss in 1 case. The sensate flaps had slightly inferior protective sensation compared with the normal side. From our results, we suggest that the medial plantar artery flap is a good addition to the existing armamentarium. It provides tissue to the plantar skin with a similar texture and an intact protective sensation. The technique is easier to master compared with free microvascular flaps and has less risk of any functional donor site morbidity.
 
Article
The small bones of the feet may be affected by a full spectrum of benign and malignant processes. Essentially all tumors which may arise elsewhere in the skeletal system may also occur in the feet. Although investigators have completed exhaustive studies detailing the occurrence of tumors of the skeletal system at large, few series have adequately summarized such tumors as they occur in the small bones of the feet. A study was made of 150 consecutive cases of mass-forming tumors of the bones of the feet, which were diagnosed over a 15-year period at a major cancer center. This series confirms that the bones of the feet are affected by a full spectrum of mass-forming tumors; however, such lesions arise with an incidence that is unique to this site. The various tumors identified in this series are presented and the associated epidemiologic data are discussed. Unusual trends in incidence, apparently unique to this location, are stressed.
 
Article
A new design for a 3-part ankle replacement was developed in an effort to achieve compatibility with the naturally occurring ligaments of the ankle by allowing certain fibers to remain isometric during passive motion. In order to test the design concept clinically, 158 prostheses were implanted in 156 patients within a 9-center trial and were followed up for a mean of 17 (range 6 to 48) months. The mean age at the time of surgery was 60.5 (range 29.7 to 82.5) years. Outcome measures included the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgery hindfoot-ankle score and range of motion measured on lateral radiographs of the ankle. The preoperative American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgery score of 36.3 rose to 74.6, 78.6, 76.4, and 79.0, respectively, at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months. A significant correlation between meniscal bearing movement on the tibial component (mean 3.3 mm; range 2 to 11 mm) and range of flexion at the replaced ankle (mean 26.5°; range 14° to 53°) was observed in radiograms at extreme flexions. Two (1.3%) revisions in the second and third postoperative years necessitated component removal (neither were for implant failure), and 7 (4.4%) further secondary operations were required. The results of this investigation demonstrated that non-anatomic-shaped talar and tibial components, with a fully conforming interposed meniscal bearing, can provide safety and efficacy in the short term, although a longer follow-up period is required to more thoroughly evaluate this ankle implant.
 
Article
This multicenter study retrospectively reviewed the medical records and radiographs of 15 consecutive patients (17 feet; mean patient age, 54.1 years), who underwent revision "bone-block" Lapidus arthrodesis for a symptomatic nonunion. In all cases but one, the procedure was performed with ipsilateral autogenous bone grafting. All cases used either screw fixation or a combination of screw and plate fixation. Patients were monitored for a minimum of 6 months postoperatively to assess clinical and radiographic union. Successful union was seen in 14 (82%) of the 17 feet that underwent revision. Nonunion was documented in 3 (18%) cases. These results support a favorable rate of union with the described surgical technique. Chi-square tests of association were used to determine whether gender, fixation, bone stimulation, and smoking were predictive of or associated with bone healing. Active smoking in the perioperative period was a predictor of nonunion (P = .05). Based on these findings, the authors recommend aggressive preoperative counseling, and smoking should be considered a relative contraindication to revision surgery.
 
Article
Footprint evaluation is a widely used method for the determination of foot morphology, but its efficacy and validity are considered controversial. Dynamic footprints were obtained from both feet of 5,866 school-aged children (6-17 years old) to detect any foot changes during growth. The interpretation of the imprint was performed using a classification scheme consisting of 6 types of footprints. In this scheme, footprint types I and II represent the typical and intermediate high-arched foot, respectively. Types III and IV represent normal foot variants, while type V corresponds to the low-arched foot and type VI to the severe flat foot, the latter often encountered in pathological conditions. There was statistically significant difference (P<.05) in footprint-type frequencies between boys and girls of ages 7, 9, 11, 14, and 15, which probably indicates the difference in growth potential of the foot between sexes. The proportion of high- and low-arched foot types decreased with increasing age in both boys and girls. Even though critical changes of the foot are believed to occur during pre-school development, this study shows that considerable changes also take place during school age and until late adolescence.
 
Article
Peroneal tendon pathology is rare, but is probably underestimated because it is frequently undiagnosed. It should always be in the differential diagnosis of lateral ankle pain. Surgical treatment of peroneal tendinopathy is indicated after failure of conservative measures. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the medium-term clinical results of 17 patients operated for peroneal tendinopathy without tendon subluxation. A series of 17 patients composed of 7 women and 10 men with a mean age of 53.6 ± 4.6 (range 45 to 60) years were reviewed. The mean preoperative Kitaoka score was 46.7 ± 17.1 (range 25 to 69) points. All patients had radiological evaluation, which demonstrated hindfoot varus in 6 of the 17. Surgical interventions comprised synovectomy, debridement, suture-tubularization, fibrous resection, or tenodesis depending on the preoperative findings and also a valgus osteotomy (Dwyer) in 6 cases and ankle ligament reconstruction (modified Blanchet) in 1 case. All patients were reviewed clinically with a mean follow-up of 4.3 ± 3.8 years (range 16 months to 14 years). Average time to return to sport was 8.5 ± 10.4 months (range 3 months to 3 years). The mean time to return to work was 2.5 ± 1.9 (range 0 to 6) months. The mean postoperative Kitaoka score was 90.1 ± 11 (range 64 to 100) points with a statistically significant improvement to the preoperative score (p < .0001). Sixteen patients were satisfied or very satisfied with their treatment (94.1%). Surgical treatment of peroneal tendinopathy after failed conservative treatment leads to significantly improved function. It is a simple treatment to undertake, which gives a good outcome for both the patient and surgeon.
 
Various contractures observed in children with severe clubfoot
Article
The authors treated and reviewed 18 patients with 26 idiopathic clubfeet by posterolateral release and elongation of the tendo Achillis at a mean age of 14.6 months (range 7-32 months). The mean follow-up of these patients was 43 months (range 6- 100 months). Function, appearance, and pain were studied. The mean ankle dorsiflexion was 20 degrees at the time of review. In all but one case, the hindfoot equinus had been well corrected. Subtalar movement was 75% of normal in six feet, and 50% of normal in 16 feet. Revision of the posterolateral release combined with anteromedial release was carried out for six patients with residual hindfoot varus and forefoot adduction at an average of 13.5 months following the initial procedure. In one patient, the deformity was overcorrected, but the results of the rest of the revision operations were otherwise good. No skin or wound problems were observed in this series. In conclusion, of 26 feet undergoing posterolateral release for severe clubfoot, 70% had a satisfactory result. Six feet required further surgery (reoperation rate of 23.1%).
 
Article
A technique of endoscopic gastrocnemius recession was evaluated. Fifteen patients undergoing 18 procedures were prospectively studied with a minimum follow-up of 1 year. There were 9 women and 6 men (mean age, 44.1 +/- 22.6 years). One patient had an isolated recession; the others had various adjunctive flatfoot or reconstructive procedures. Pre- and postoperative ankle dorsiflexion was evaluated, as was the amount of time before patients could perform a single-leg heel raise postoperatively. The mean preoperative ankle dorsiflexion with the knee extended was -8.7 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees , which improved from a mean 14.9 degrees at 3 months postoperatively to a mean 6.2 degrees +/- 2.6 degrees . At 12 months postoperatively, this value was 3.6 degrees +/- 1.8 degrees , a net postoperative improvement of 12.6 degrees (P < .00001). Patients were able to perform a single-leg heel raise on an average of 13.0 +/- 6.0 weeks. Complications were mostly related to lateral foot dysesthesia in the distribution of the sural nerve (N = 3). Furrowing of the medial leg was noted in 1 patient. No hematomas or neuromas associated with the portal sites were found. These results show endoscopic gastrocnemius recession to be an acceptable method of lengthening the gastrocnemius complex.
 
Article
The authors present a follow-up of the Austin bunionectomy using a single 2.7-mm American Society of Internal Fixation (ASIF) screw. At a mean 5-year follow-up, 45 feet in 32 patients were evaluated with information from clinical examination, radiographic data, and responses to a patient questionnaire. When compared to the 18-month follow-up, good reduction of the intermetatarsal and the hallux abductus angle were maintained. Clinical findings, including the first metatarsophalangeal joint range of motion and hallux purchase power, remained acceptable, and a small number of new transfer lesions were noted. Patient satisfaction with appearance and overall satisfaction with the procedure remained excellent-to-good in 96% of the procedures.
 
Article
Eighteen patients with intraarticular calcaneal fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation and augmentation with an injectable carbonated apatite cement. Functional follow-up studies using the Zwipp Foot Score and densitometry were performed at 6-month intervals postoperatively. Histological samples of biopsies obtained at the time of hardware removal (6 months postoperatively) were also analyzed. The use of bone cement led to intermediate-term functional outcomes that were no better than those reported with conventional surgical procedures using bone graft. Patients demonstrated postoperative difficulties similar to those seen in other studies of this fracture, including pain, subtalar motion restrictions, peroneal impingement, and difficulties on uneven terrain and with toe- and heel-walking. However, compared to patients treated surgically without injectable carbonated apatite cement, full weight bearing on the affected extremity was regained at an average 4 weeks postoperatively. In addition, autogenous bone graft was not required to fill the osseous defect using this technique, minimizing morbidity and discomfort. During the present observation period of 3 years, only a slight decrease in the density of the peripheral zones of the cement block was observed. Histological examination revealed fibrous bone formation resulting from remodelling processes. Complete resorption and remodeling of the bone cement were not complete at 3 years. One patient developed a postoperative wound infection. Another displayed cement loosening secondary to failure of bony ingrowth.
 
Article
The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate 18 consecutive cases of peritalar dislocations referred to our department during a period of 25 years and to delineate the factors influencing long-term prognosis. There were 13 (73%) medial and 5 (27%) lateral dislocations. Six patients (33%) suffered an open injury, including 2 of 13 (15%) medial and 4 of 5 (80%) lateral dislocations. Associated fractures involving the hindfoot or forefoot were noted in 7 feet, including 3 of 5 lateral dislocation cases. Reduction was accomplished under general anesthesia; in no case was open reduction necessary. In 4 of 6 open injuries with associated fractures, temporary fixation with Kirschner wires was performed. Patients were immobilized in a plaster cast for 4 weeks, or for 6 weeks in the presence of fracture, followed by weightbearing as tolerated. At a mean follow-up of 10.2 years (range, 4 to 26 years), 10 patients (56%) showed excellent results; all had sustained a closed medial low-energy dislocation. There were 3 cases (17%) with fair results and 5 cases (28%) with poor results. Forty-five percent of patients showed a restriction of activity, a reduction of subtalar range of motion, and moderate or severe radiographic signs of hindfoot degenerative arthritis. There were no cases of talar avascular necrosis, and in no case was secondary surgery necessary. Lateral dislocation and open medial dislocations with concomitant fractures showed a greater potential for poor prognosis. The results were independent from period of cast immobilization, suggesting that 4 to 6 weeks of immobilization provides acceptable long-term results.
 
Article
Unlabelled: The opening base wedge osteotomy is a safe and useful surgical alternative for correction of moderate to severe hallux valgus deformities with substantial metatarsus primus varus. The authors combine the modified McBride bunionectomy with a proximal first metatarsal opening base wedge osteotomy. Osteotomy stabilization was achieved without bone grafting with a titanium fixation plate specifically designed for opening proximal osteotomies. To assess outcomes achieved by the use of this fixation device, we reviewed the records of 18 procedures (16 patients). Preoperative and postoperative weight-bearing radiographs were measured to compare changes in the following radiographic variables: intermetatarsal angle 1-2, hallux valgus angle, the first metatarsal protrusion distance, and the Seiberg Index. The mean follow-up duration was 11 months (range, 6-17 months). The median intermetatarsal angle decreased by 9 degrees (range, 2 degrees-15 degrees), the hallux valgus angle decreased by 13.5 degrees (range, 0 degrees-56 degrees), and the change in first metatarsal protrusion distance was +2.6 mm (range, -0.8 to 6.6 mm), and all of these changes were statistically significant (P < or = .001). The preoperative to postoperative change in the Seiberg Index was not statistically significant (P = .17). In regard to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hallux Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal score, the postoperative scores were statistically significantly higher than the preoperative scores (P < .001). Complications included 2 (11.11%) recurrences, and 1 (5.56%) case of deep vein thrombosis. Fourteen patients (16/18 feet, 88.89%) reported satisfaction with the surgical results. Level of clinical evidence: 4.
 
Article
Many surgeons consider performing plantarflexory osteotomy when a lateral weightbearing radiograph shows an elevated first metatarsal. In our study, we clinically evaluated the first metatarsal position in terms of the forefoot-to-rearfoot relationship and radiographically evaluated the lateral intermetatarsal angle in 190 patients. We divided the subjects into forefoot varus, valgus, and neutral groups and compared their mean lateral intermetatarsal angle. The mean lateral intermetatarsal angle for those with forefoot varus, valgus, and neutral was 1.4° ± 3.10°, 1.3° ± 3.30°, and 0.4° ± 2.67°, respectively. Neither analysis of variance nor post hoc tests showed any significant difference among the groups. We hypothesized that the ground reacting force alters the first ray position on the weightbearing radiographs; thus, it would not be advisable to rely solely on this angular measurement for surgical decision-making.
 
Article
A retrospective assessment was performed on 196 tumors of the foot and ankle [out of 1786 bone and soft tissue tumor cases, (10.9%)] between March 1986 and March 1996 in the Ankara University Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology Tumor Section. Mean age was 28 years (range 3 to 75 years). Of the 196 foot and ankle tumor cases, 171 (87.2%) were benign, and 25 (12.8%) were malignant. One hundred ninety-four (98.9%) were primary tumors and 2 (1.1%) were metastatic tumors. One hundred thirty-six (69.4%) originated from bone, whereas 60 (30.6%) originated from soft tissue. The most frequent foot and ankle tumors were osteosarcoma among malignant osseous tumors, squamous cell carcinoma among malignant soft tissue lesions, solitary exostosis among benign osseous tumors, and xanthoma and giant cell tumor among benign soft tissue tumors. Mean follow-up time was 21.3 months (12 to 90 months). One hundred forty (71.4%) of the patients underwent various operations while the remaining 56 (28.6%) were treated conservatively. Of the 140 surgical cases, 13 (9.3%) had a recurrence, 3 (2.1%) died, and 124 (88.6%) had a clinical cure. For most of the patients who required surgery, nonaggressive procedures were sufficient while amputations were required for 14 patients.
 
Article
Sixty-three congenital idiopathic clubfeet were clinically and radiographically evaluated following a single Turco-type complete posteromedial soft tissue release with internal fixation. Average age at the time of surgery: 12.4 months; average postoperative follow-up: 67.2 months. A new rating system that weighs dynamic functional results more heavily was used to compare our findings. The results were rated as excellent in 29 feet (46%), good in 15 feet (24%), fair in 8 feet (13%), and poor/failures in 11 feet (17%). Ninety-five percent of the parents were satisfied with the current results, although 59% felt that their child would have physical limitations in the future. Clinical complications included the following residual deformities: hindfoot varus (3.2% or two feet), equinus (3.2% or two feet), cavus (22.2% or 14 feet), and forefoot adductus (41.3% or 26 feet). The bimalleolar axis in the 63 clubfeet averaged 74.9 degrees. No calcaneus gaits were present. Radiographic complications included both over-correction (1.6% or one foot) and under-correction (4.8% or three feet) of the talonavicular joint articulation, avascular necrosis of the navicular, (14.3% or nine feet), talus (4.8% or three feet), and calcaneus (1.6% or one foot). Thirty-three feet (52.4%) revealed some degree of abnormal talar dome flattening, 22 feet (34.9%) revealed navicular dorsal subluxation or "wedging." Only 37 (58.7%) exhibited normal talonavicular joint congruity.
 
Article
Publication is the ultimate desired end point of scientific research. However, oral manuscript presentations of research studies are often referenced in textbooks, journal articles, and industry white papers, and, as a result, influence treatment care plans. No data exist for the actual publication rate of podiatric foot and ankle surgery oral manuscript presentations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the actual publication rates of oral manuscript presentations at the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS) Annual Scientific Conference over 10 years. Print or electronic media for the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference official program between 1999 and 2008 were obtained. Each year's official program was hand searched for any oral manuscript presentation, and, when identified, the title and authors were individually searched through electronic internet-based search engines to determine whether an oral manuscript presentation had been followed by publication of a full-text article. Additionally, pertinent journals were hand searched for potential articles. A total of 67.5% (139/206) oral manuscript presentations were ultimately published in 1 of 12 medical journals in a mean of 14.5 months. All journals except one (91.7%) represented peer-reviewed journals. The publication rate of oral manuscript presentations at the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference is similar to or greater than orthopaedic subspecialties, including foot and ankle surgery, publication rates. Based on the above, attendees of the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference should be aware that the majority of oral manuscript material presented at the ACFAS Annual Scientific Conference can be considered as accurate because they survive the rigors of the peer-review process more than two thirds of the time.
 
Article
Publication is the desired end point of scientific research. Ultimately, it is desired that research presented in poster format at a scientific conference will be developed into a report and become published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. Moreover, poster presentations of research studies are often referenced and, as a result, influence treatment care plans. No data exist for the actual publication rate of podiatric foot and ankle surgery poster presentations. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the actual publication rates of poster presentations at the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS) annual scientific conference (ASC) during a 10-year period. Print or electronic media for the ACFAS ASC official program from 1999 to 2008 were obtained. Each year's official program was manually searched for any poster presentation and, when identified, the authors and title were individually searched using Internet-based search engines to determine whether a poster presentation had been followed by publication. Of the 825 posters, 198 (24%) poster presentations were ultimately published in 1 of 32 medical journals within a weighted mean of 17.6 months. Of the 32 journals, 25 (78.1%) represented peer-reviewed journals. The publication rate of poster presentations at the ACFAS ASC was less than that of oral manuscripts presented at the same meeting during the same period and was also less than the orthopedic subspecialty poster presentation publication rates. Therefore, attendees of the ACFAS ASC should be aware that only a few of the posters presented at the ACFAS ASC will be valid because they will not survive the rigors of publication 76% of the time. Additionally, more stringent selection criteria should be used so that the selected poster presentations can ultimately withstand the publication process.
 
Article
Unlabelled: The classic foot type of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A is pes cavovarus with associated digital contractures. In this article, we describe a painful pes planovalgus foot type in a 10-year-old child with progressive Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A polyneuropathy. The authors discuss possible etiologies and treatment options in this isolated case. The value of gait analysis in preoperative planning and postoperative surveillance are also discussed. Level of clinical evidence: 4.
 
Article
The authors radiographed and dissected 200 fresh frozen cadaveric specimens selected randomly from the general United States population. A 21% incidence of inferior calcaneal exostosis formation was identified. Of those specimens identified as having an inferior calcaneal exostosis, there was a 52.4% incidence of heel spurs that were in the plantar fascia and a 47.6% incidence of heel spurs that were identified superior to the plantar fascia. After dissection of the specimens, the mean width and thickness of the medial, central and lateral bands of the plantar fascia, and the width of the medial and lateral subcutaneous fat were calculated. The presence of an inferior calcaneal bursa was identified in one specimen, and the presence of a heel neuroma was identified in 0 specimens of the 200 examined. The results of this study will assist the practitioner in performing the endoscopic plantar fasciotomy by providing the surgeon with quantitative averages of fascial dimensions. By knowing these fascial measurements, the practitioner will be aided intraoperatively in determining what level of fasciotomy to perform. This could help obviate some of the postoperative biomechanical sequelae that can occur with total releases, and immediate postoperative excessive ambulation by the patient. This study may help to gain insight into the true etiology of heel spur syndrome/plantar fasciitis.
 
Article
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is growing at epidemic proportions in the United States and worldwide. Most alarming is the steady increase in type 2 diabetes, especially among young and obese people. An estimated 7% of the US population has diabetes, and because of the increased longevity of this population, diabetes-associated complications are expected to rise in prevalence. Foot ulcerations, infections, Charcot neuroarthropathy, and peripheral arterial disease frequently result in gangrene and lower limb amputation. Consequently, foot disorders are leading causes of hospitalization for persons with diabetes and account for billion-dollar expenditures annually in the US. Although not all foot complications can be prevented, dramatic reductions in frequency have been achieved by taking a multidisciplinary approach to patient management. Using this concept, the authors present a clinical practice guideline for diabetic foot disorders based on currently available evidence, committee consensus, and current clinical practice. The pathophysiology and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, infections, and the diabetic Charcot foot are reviewed. While these guidelines cannot and should not dictate the care of all affected patients, they provide evidence-based guidance for general patterns of practice. If these concepts are embraced and incorporated into patient management protocols, a major reduction in diabetic limb amputations is certainly an attainable goal.
 
"International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition" codes used to extract frequencies of foot and ankle fractures
Frequency and proportion of fractures and anatomic category of fractures within foot and ankle
Article
Understanding the epidemiology of foot and ankle trauma could be useful in health services research and for policy makers. It can also define practice patterns. Using the National Trauma Data Bank data set from 2007 to 2011, we analyzed the frequency and proportion of each fracture in the foot and ankle in major trauma hospitals in the United States. A total of 280,933 foot and/or ankle fractures or dislocations were identified. Although oversampling of more severe trauma in younger patients might have occurred owing to the nature of the data set, we found that the most common fractures in the foot and ankle were ankle fractures. Midfoot fractures were the least common among all the foot and ankle fractures when categorized by anatomic location. Approximately 20% of all foot and ankle fractures were open.
 
Article
Heel pain, whether plantar or posterior, is predominantly a mechanical pathology although an array of diverse pathologies including neurologic, arthritic, traumatic, neoplastic, infectious, or vascular etiologies must be considered. This clinical practice guideline (CPG) is a revision of the original 2001 document developed by the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS) heel pain committee.
 
Article
Patients presenting late for treatment of clubfoot deformity are still common in many parts of the world. These feet are often rigid and severely deformed. Surgical correction is the prevailing option to attain a plantigrade foot, and the extent of correction required predisposes to wound-healing problems. We present the results of treatment of 15 patients (21 feet) with severe, untreated congenital talipes equino varus, who underwent operations using a double zigzag incision as a single-stage procedure. These patients ranged in age from 6 months to 4 years and presented late, having received no treatment or inadequate treatment since birth. The desired end point of the study was a fully corrected foot with a wound that would heal primarily without complications. The etiology was isolated congenital talipes equino varus in 11 patients and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita in 4 patients. Eleven patients were boys and 4 were girls; 6 patients underwent bilateral procedures. The patients were graded preoperatively and postoperatively using the Dimeglio classification, with 10 feet classified preoperatively as grade 3 and 11 graded as grade 4. Desired correction was achieved in all feet, and all wounds healed uneventfully with no complications. This single-stage technique is very safe and cost-effective and is an easy alternative to standard techniques for dealing with late-presenting untreated severe clubfoot deformities.
 
Article
Unlabelled: Twenty-two patients underwent a posterior bone block distraction arthrodesis of the subtalar joint between 1999 and 2006. The indication for surgery was loss of heel height, subtalar joint arthrosis, decreased talar declination with associated tibiotalar impingement, insufficient Achilles tendon function, malalignment of the rear foot, and pain with ambulation. There were 11 male and 11 female patients with a mean age of 46.7 years (range 20 to 71). The mean follow-up period was 27.3 months (range 12 to 63.9 months). Radiographic analysis revealed a mean increase in heel height of 6.09 mm (P= .0001), 5.83 degrees (P= .12) of lateral talocalcaneal angle, 5.5 degrees (P= .06) of talar declination, and 5.23 degrees (P= .07) of calcaneal inclination. The talo-first metatarsal angle increased an average of 4.5 degrees (P= .18). There was a 95.5% union rate. Postoperative complications included nonunion in 1 patient, subsidence of graft (collapse) in 1 patient, wound dehiscence in 3 patients, painful hardware in 7 patients, sural neuritis in 1 patient, superior cluneal nerve dysfunction in 1 patient and one mild varus malunion. Posterior bone block distraction arthrodesis can be successfully used to restore heel height, realign the foot, and decrease the morbidity associated with late complications of calcaneal fractures, as well as, nonunion and/or malunion following subtalar joint arthrodesis, Charcot neuroarthropathy, and avascular necrosis of the talus. Level of clinical evidence: 4.
 
Article
Unlabelled: A retrospective study involving 22 patients (31 feet) with a history of prolonged moderate to severe heel pain associated with plantar fasciitis were examined to determine if ablation of the sensory branch of the medial calcaneal nerve would result in symptomatic relief. Participants in this study were given subjective questionnaires and visual analog scales in order to rate their symptoms before and after nerve ablation using radiofrequency energy. The results showed that the mean preintervention visual analog pain score was 8.12 +/- 1.61 (with 10 being the worst pain the patient could imagine), and this dropped to 3.26 +/- 1.97 after 1 week and 1.46 +/- 1.76 after 1 month, 1.96 +/- 1.98 at 3 months, and 2.07 +/- 2.06 at 6 months, and the improvement was statistically significant (P < .001) at each stage of follow-up. Furthermore, patients followed for up to 1 year showed no significant worsening of symptoms. Adverse events were limited to hematoma at the site of entry of the radiofrequency cannula. These findings support the conclusion that radiofrequency nerve ablation be considered an alternative to repetitive corticosteroid injections or open surgical intervention for the treatment of recalcitrant plantar heel pain. Level of clinical evidence: 4.
 
Article
Unlabelled: Plantar fasciitis can be a chronic and disabling cause of foot pain in the adult population. For refractory cases, extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been proposed as therapeutic option to avoid the morbidity of surgery. We hypothesized that the success of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis is affected by patient-related factors. A retrospective review of 225 patients (246 feet) who underwent consecutive ESWT treatment by a single physician at our institution between July 2002 and July 2004 was performed. Subjects were included only if they had plantar fasciitis for more than 6 months and failure to response to at least 5 conservative modalities. Patients were evaluated prospectively with health questionnaires, Roles and Maudsley scores, and American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle and hindfoot scores at regular intervals. Follow-up was 30.2 +/- 8.7 months post procedure. Multivariable analysis was performed to assess factors leading to successful outcomes. Success rates of 70.7% at 3 months and 77.2% at 12 months were noted in this population. Previous cortisone injections, body mass index, duration of symptoms, presence of bilateral symptoms, and plantar fascia thickness did not influence the outcome of ESWT. The presence of diabetes mellitus, psychological issues, and older age were found to negatively influence ESWT outcome. Whereas many factors have been implicated in the development of plantar fasciitis, only diabetes mellitus, psychological issues, and age were found to negatively influence ESWT outcome. Level of clinical evidence: 2.
 
Article
Several studies of Lapidus arthrodesis have commented on the rate of nonunion (ranging from 3.3% to 12.0%), although these figures are based on relatively small patient populations. This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records and radiographs of 211 consecutive patients (32 men, 179 women; mean age, 46.9 years) who received modified Lapidus arthrodesis for forefoot pathology in 227 feet. In all cases, the procedure was performed using joint curettage with subchondral plate preservation and screw fixation. Patients remained nonweightbearing for 6 to 8 weeks and were monitored for a minimum of 6 months postoperatively. Nonunion was seen in 12 (5.3%) of the 227 feet that underwent modified Lapidus arthrodesis.
 
Article
Several methods have been described for fixation of unstable medial malleolar fractures. Certain patient populations, including the elderly, those with osteoporosis and osteopenia, and patients with diabetes mellitus, are generally known to be susceptible to complications associated with ankle fracture healing. The goal of the present retrospective investigation was to review the outcomes of a series of patients who had undergone medial malleolar fracture repair using fully threaded bicortical interfragmental compression screw fixation. Patients were included in the present series if they had undergone bicortical fixation of an unstable ankle fracture with a medial malleolar fracture component, in addition to having at least 1 of the following comorbidities: age 55 years or older, osteoporosis or osteopenia, diabetes mellitus, peripheral arterial disease, end-stage renal disease, chronic kidney disease, previous kidney transplantation, peripheral neuropathy, or current tobacco use. A total of 23 ankle fractures in 22 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients was 69.52 (range 45 to 89) years; 17 were female (77.27%) and 5 were male (22.73%). Of the 23 medial malleolar fractures, 21 (91.3%) achieved complete, uncomplicated healing. The mean interval to union was 62.6 (range 42 to 156) days. A total of 4 complications (17.39%) were noted, including 1 nonunion (4.35%), 1 malunion (4.35%), and 2 cases of painful retained hardware (8.7%). From our experience with this series of patients, bicortical screw fixation for medial malleolus fractures appears to be an acceptable alternative for fixation that provides a stable construct for patients at greater risk of bone healing complications.
 
Article
The objective of the present study was to evaluate our complications of screw stabilization and to formulate recommendations for clinical practice. Using a prospectively collected fracture database, the data from 236 consecutive adult patients were analyzed who had undergone syndesmotic screw stabilization from January 1979 to December 2000 at our level I academic trauma center. We observed 16 complications in 15 patients. The average patient age was 37.5 years. Of the 15 patients, 1 had a Weber B fracture and 14 had a Weber C ankle fracture. These complications included tibiofibular synostosis in 11 patients, screw breakage in 4 patients, and late diastasis in 1 patient. All breakages occurred in Weber C fractures. In particular, the 3.5-mm screws, penetrating both tibial cortices, tended to break. Synostosis was observed in 3% of the Weber B fractures and 5% of the Weber C fractures. Weightbearing in a plaster cast during syndesmotic screw stabilization is a safe postoperative treatment. We suggest that the use of 3.5-mm screws and screws penetrating 2 tibial cortices have a greater risk of breakage. Because of the low complication rate and more difficult treatment of late syndesmotic diastasis, a syndesmotic screw should be placed when in doubt of the indication.
 
Article
Unlabelled: A retrospective analysis of 24 cases of minimally invasive, open reduction, and internal fixation of intra-articular calcaneal fractures is presented. Collected data included articular step-off, medial wall displacement, and Boehler's angle, in addition to other descriptive characteristics of the fracture and case series. The operative technique is described in detail including the optimal screw constructs. Arthroscopic assistance was used in 10 of the cases. The articular step-off of the posterior facet, medial wall displacement, and Boehler's angle all displayed statistically significant change between the preoperative and postoperative periods (P < .0001). These results were consistent with the goal of restoration of articular congruity, calcaneal morphology, and calcaneal height. There were no soft tissue complications. The mean overall follow-up duration was 2.8 years (range 1 to 10 years). Of the 18 patients who were followed for more than 1 year (range 1.0 to 10 years), none went on to subtalar fusion. The results of this study suggest that a minimally invasive approach can improve radiographic parameters consistent with the ultimate goals of operative reduction of calcaneal fractures, and can be used to achieve satisfactory results with minimal risk of wound complication. Level of clinical evidence: 4.
 
Article
Unlabelled: In our retrospective study, we report the objective results of the Mau osteotomy in the treatment of hallux valgus. We reviewed the results of 24 cases of moderate to severe hallux valgus deformities corrected with the Mau osteotomy of the first metatarsal combined with a distal soft-tissue procedure. Follow-up was possible in 24 cases. Preoperatively the mean hallux valgus and first intermetatarsal angles were 31.3 degrees and 16.6 degrees respectively, and were corrected postoperatively to an average of 13.00 degrees+/-7.15 degrees and 9.80 degrees+/-2.43 degrees respectively (P< .001). In the sagittal plane, the first metatarsal was shortened by an average of 2.00 mm. Two (8.3%) cases had dorsal elevation of the osteotomy fragment. Complications included 3 recurrences of the deformity, 1 frank nonunion, 8 dorsal cortical nonunions, 5 cases of undercorrection, and 1 case of broken hardware that was present in the nonunion that went on to revision. There were no superficial or deep infections, and no cases of transfer metatarsalgia were noted. In this series, the use of an oblique first metatarsal osteotomy with a dorsal shelf resulted in reliable and powerful correction of the first intermetatarsal angle in patients with moderate to severe hallux valgus. Particular attention should be paid to severe IM angles and the possibility of undercorrections. Despite ambulation postoperatively, the Mau osteotomy minimized dorsal malunion and the incidence of transfer metatarsalgia. Level of clinical evidence: 4.
 
Article
The initial treatment of congenital idiopathic talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) is most often nonsurgical. However, surgical treatment in the form of posteromedial release is often undertaken after failure of conservative measures. The prevalence of both immediate and long-term complications in surgically treated clubfeet has cultivated a renewed interest in nonsurgical treatment. The Ponseti method for treating clubfoot has seen a revived interest among those caring for infantile clubfeet. We report on our first 34 infants (57 clubfeet) treated by using the techniques and principles described by Ponseti. Using a standard scoring system, 54 of 57 clubfeet were successfully corrected without requiring posteromedial release. Only 2 patients (3 clubfeet) required extensive surgical correction. There were 6 relapses. In all recurrent cases, there was a lack of compliance with the straight-last shoe and foot abduction bar regimen. Based on this level of initial success, we believe that posteromedial release is no longer necessary for the majority of cases of congenital clubfeet.
 
Article
The authors report the results of 21 patients (26 feet) who had Chevron osteotomy of the first metatarsal head to correct hallux valgus. Fixation was achieved by using a small plating system consisting of one L-plate (8.5 mm x 17 mm x 0.8 mm) and four screws (1.6 mm). Results showed no capital fragment displacement, avascular necrosis, or plate deformation. One case of screw loosening was noted on x-rays. This patient noted occasional irritation over the plate while wearing shoes. Symptoms did not cause the patient to seek removal of the plate and screws. The small plate system allows the surgeon to perform the osteotomy as originally described by Austin, with the added security of rigid internal fixation.
 
Article
The Syme amputation is often overlooked as an alternative to below-knee amputation or above-knee amputation in cases of limb-threatening foot infections and gangrene. Even though the advantages of the Syme amputation over major amputation are well cited in the literature, many surgeons do not view this amputation as a viable option for limb salvage. We herein present our initial experience with this operation in a series of patients at imminent risk for major lower extremity amputation. This study included our initial 26 patients at high risk (92% had diabetes) with infection and/or significant peripheral arterial disease who underwent ankle disarticulation for limb salvage. Medical records were abstracted for pertinent demographic and clinical data. Variables of interest included diabetes status and duration, presence of peripheral arterial disease, infection, osteomyelitis, and gangrene. Our primary outcome variable was a healed amputation, whereas secondary outcomes included time to healing, subsequent major amputations, and complications. Despite prior recommendation for below-knee amputation or above-knee amputation in each of these patients, 50% remained healed at an average of 49.3 weeks of follow-up. Although 17 patients (65.4%) ambulated in a Syme prosthesis after healing of the original Syme operation, several patients went on to major amputation for progressive sepsis or recurrent ulcers, and 1 patient subsequently died. Because of the relatively small number of study subjects, we could find no significant predictors of success or failure of this procedure. However, all 10 patients eventually succumbing to major amputation and all 3 patients who died during follow-up had diabetes mellitus. At the end of follow-up, 46.2% (12/26) patients were functioning well in a Syme prosthesis. In this high-risk cohort of patients in whom major amputation had been recommended, we achieved a healing rate of 50% at an approximate 1-year follow-up. With the majority of patients having diabetes and peripheral vascular disease, we could not find any clear predictive factors for failure or successful outcome in this small population. Nonetheless, the Syme amputation deserves further study and consideration as a viable limb salvage option in patients threatened with major lower extremity amputation.
 
Top-cited authors
David G. Armstrong
  • Keck School of Medicine USC
Lawrence A Lavery
  • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Steven Kravitz
  • Academy of Physicians in Wound Healing, Winston-Salem NC, United States
John M Schuberth
Robert Frykberg
  • U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs