The Journal of craniofacial surgery

Published by Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
Print ISSN: 1049-2275
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Gene therapy in the craniofacial region provides a unique tool for delivery of DNA to coordinate protein production in both time and space. The drive to bring this technology to the clinic is derived from the fact that more than 85% of the global population may at one time require repair or replacement of a craniofacial structure. This need ranges from mild tooth decay and tooth loss to temporomandibular joint disorders and large-scale reconstructive surgery. Our ability to insert foreign DNA into a host cell has been developing since the early uses of gene therapy to alter bacterial properties for waste cleanup in the 1980s followed by successful human clinical trials in the 1990s to treat severe combined immunodeficiency. In the past 20 years, the emerging field of craniofacial tissue engineering has adopted these techniques to enhance regeneration of mineralized tissues, salivary gland, and periodontium and to reduce tumor burden of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Studies are currently pursuing research on both biomaterial-mediated gene delivery and more clinically efficacious, although potentially more hazardous, viral methods. Although hundreds of gene therapy clinical trials have taken place in the past 20 years, we must still work to ensure an ideal safety profile for each gene and delivery method combination. With adequate genotoxicity testing, we can expect gene therapy to augment protein delivery strategies and potentially allow for tissue-specific targeting, delivery of multiple signals, and increased spatial and temporal control with the goal of natural tissue replacement in the craniofacial complex.
 
O-linked mannose β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 (PomGnT1) constitutes one third of the O-linked glycoproteins in brain tissue. However, its functions have been seldom investigated in brain cancers. In this study, immunohistochemistry was used for the detection of the PomGnT1 protein in 133 cases of glioma tissues. Spearman correlation analysis was used for the relationship between PomGnT1 staining and the glioma grade. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to measure the diagnostic value of PomGnT1 protein in the degree of glioma malignance. We found that PomGnT1 expression was correlated with glioma grade, and it could be used as a marker to distinguish low- and high-grade gliomas. Stably transfected U87 cells were constructed to overexpress short hairpin RNA of PomGnT1. Immunofluorescence test detected that this protein also could restrain the generation of U87 cells' pseudopodia. Western blotting further showed that the PomGnT1 protein had an impact on the c-myc protein level. In conclusion, our data suggest that PomGnT1 protein was correlated with the malignance of glioma progression, the mechanism involved in glioma cell's pseudopodium formation, and the expression of c-myc protein.
 
This article compares 2 different alveolar distractors: Lead System (LS) and MODUS MDO 1.5/2.0 (M-MDO). This is a clinical retrospective study; 32 distractions were performed. We used the LS distractor (intraosseous) on 24 patients and the M-MDO (extraosseous) on the other 8. The variables included bone alveolar ridge height, alterations of the oral mucosa, number of distractors, implant survival, and complications. We also developed descriptive and univariate statistical analysis. The mean increase of bone height after performing the alveolar distraction was 6.15 mm, 5.74 mm with LS, and 8.36 mm with M-MDO (P < 0.0001). The survival rates of the implants in the intraosseous and extraosseous groups reached 100%. However, the use of M-MDO resulted in a significant defect in the alveolar mucosa during implant insertion (100%), an event that did not occur when using LS (P < 0.001). The most common complication in the intraosseous group was the tilting of the segment (25%), whereas, in the extraosseous group, the main difficulty was the rod interference with the opposing arch (75%). Bone defects after alveolar distraction appeared both in the intraosseous group (66.7%) and in the extraosseous group (50%). Both the LS and the M-MDO distractors are effective for alveolar bone distraction. The choice of one distractor over another depends on the clinical characteristics of each case, such as the size and shape of the defect, the patient's tolerance, the distance to the opposing arch, and the surgeon's experience.
 
An increase in blood pressure during dental treatment has been investigated with regard to potential medical risks since previous studies suggest that dental procedures may cause stress to the patient and, consequently, the cardiovascular system. The aim of the present study was to analyze hemodynamic changes following the administration of either 2% lidocaine (L100) or 4% articaine (A100) (both with epinephrine 1:100,000) in the surgical removal of symmetrically positioned lower third molars. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out involving 47 patients. Each patient underwent 1 surgery at each of 2 appointments--one under local anesthesia with L100 and the other with A100. The following parameters were assessed at 4 different times: systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure; heart rate; oxygen saturation; rate pressure product; and pressure rate quotient. No hypertensive peak was observed in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure at any evaluation time. Moreover, the type of anesthetic solution did not affect diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, or oxygen saturation during the surgeries. The pressure rate quotient was the only parameter to exhibit statistically significant differences between groups at different evaluation times (P < 0.05). The hemodynamic parameters evaluated in third molar surgery with 2% lidocaine and 4% articaine (both with epinephrine 1:100,000) did not show significant differences.
 
The LeFort I osteotomy has become a routine procedure in elective orthognathic surgery. The authors report the occurrence of intra- or perioperative complications in a series of 1000 consecutive LeFort I osteotomies performed within a 20-year period. In total, 64 (6.4%) patients experienced complications. Anatomical complications affected 26 (2.6%), patients, including 16 (1.6%) with a deviation of the nasal septum and 10 (1.0%) with non-union of the osteotomy gap. Extensive bleeding that required blood transfusion occurred in 11 (1.1%) patients exclusively after bimaxillary corrections; in 1 patient a ligation of the external carotid artery became necessary. Significant infections such as abscesses or maxillary sinusitis occurred in 11 (1.1%) patients. No patient experienced an osteomyelitis. Ischemic complications affected 10 (1.0%) patients, including 2 (0.2%) who experienced an aseptic necrosis of the alveolar process and 8 (0.8%) who, under critical revision, were affected by retractions of the gingiva. Five (0.5%) patients experienced an insufficient fixation of the osteosynthesis material. The risk and the extent of complications was enhanced in patients with anatomical irregularities (eg, in patients with craniofacial dysplasias, orofacial clefts, or vascular anomalies). The risk of ischemic complications was enhanced in extensive dislocations or transversal segmentation of the maxilla. The authors conclude that patients with major anatomical irregularities should be informed about an enhanced risk of Le-Fort I osteotomies. Preoperative planning avoiding transversal segmentation or extensive dislocations of the maxilla should reduce the occurrence of complications. For healthy individuals, the risk of complications with the LeFort I osteotomy is considered low.
 
The focus on nonsyndromic craniosynostosis, the most common type of isolated craniosynostosis, is sagittal, followed by unilateral coronal, bilateral coronal, metopic, and lambdoid, in order of decreasing frequency. Certain forms of craniosynostosis display a sex predilection. For example, boys outnumber girls in a 4:1 ratio in sagittal synostosis, but girls outnumber boys in a 3:2 ratio in unilateral coronal synostosis. Other forms, such as metopic, lambdoid, and bilateral coronal synostosis, demonstrate no sex dominances tract.
 
A 5-year review of 101 cases of zygomatico-orbital fractures is presented. The epidemiology, fracture patterns, treatment modalities, and complications were evaluated in this retrospective study. A majority of fractures were sustained by males and resulted from trauma inflicted during altercations and traffic accidents. The most common fracture pattern was tripod fracture and the most common associated facial fractures were mandibular fractures. Open reduction and rigid fixation was the most frequently employed treatment modality. Depending on the stability of reduced zygoma, one, two and three-point fixations were applied. Orbital floor exploration was performed in 41 cases. Ten out of 16 orbital floor bone defects required reconstruction. In these cases orbital floor was reconstructed with 1.5-mm porous polyethylene implant. Although we encountered a few complications related to the incisions for open reduction, the rate of complication in which correction was difficult (e.g. facial asymmetry) was lower with this approach when compared with the literature.
 
Orbital fractures can lead to esthetic deformities and functional impairments, and adequate surgical timing is considered important in obtaining good results from surgery. By means of chart review, a retrospective analysis was carried out in 108 consecutive cases of pure orbital fractures to investigate the differences in surgical timing and the correlations with patient age and clinical and radiographic findings. In this analysis, surgical timing of pure orbital fractures was strongly related to the combination of parameters such as anatomical location of the fracture, eventual exposure of the fracture, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage or penetrating wounds, age of patients, eventual functional impairments or muscle entrapment, and serious conditions of compression or ischemia. As the data confirmed, an urgent approach was considered indispensable in severe orbital apex fractures and in orbital fractures with CSF leakage, penetrating objects, or exposure. Early surgery was necessary within 3 days in children with diplopia (type IIIb) and mainly within 7 days in adults with double vision (type IIIa). Delayed surgery, within 12 days in all cases, was performed orbital wall fractures with no impairments (type II) or in orbital rim fractures (type I). Data from this retrospective analysis confirm the need for an aggressive approach to all orbital fractures. In our experience, surgery was performed within 12 days and most orbital fractures were treated during the first week after trauma, which is earlier than previously reported.
 
Numerous reports on the complications of craniofacial surgery have been published in the western world. However, relatively little such information concerning Oriental populations has been documented. We therefore set out to provide a retrospective analysis of all the complications of craniofacial surgery encountered during the 10-year period of 1986 to 1995 at Seoul National University Children's Hospital, the only children's hospital in Korea. Forty-nine children underwent 57 consecutive craniofacial procedures at our institution during 1986 to 1995. A retrospective chart analysis of the frequency and types of complications was performed. Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests were then calculated for several factors, including age at surgery, duration of surgery, intraoperative losses of hemoglobin and hematocrit, total amount of blood transfusion, and the number of complications according to year, diagnosis, and operative procedure to find any significant correlation with the incidence of complications. Mortality was 1.8%. The major complication rate was 7.0% and included cases of visual loss and persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak. Analysis revealed the presence of several trends, including an increased incidence of complications with increased patient age at surgery, duration of surgery, and intraoperative loss of hematocrit. The number of complications was also noted to increase in cases with complex craniofacial synostosis syndromes (Crouzon's, Apert's Antley-Bixler, etc.) and tumors of the orbit and cranium. Finally, complications were noted to decrease in recent years, most likely due to the increased experience of our craniofacial team. Nevertheless, statistical analysis revealed that the incidence of complications correlated significantly only with increased duration of surgery (p < 0.05). The results of our study indicate that although craniofacial surgery in the Orient carries an inherent risk for significant complications, the risk can be minimized and the rate of mortality and major complications kept to an acceptable level by a careful and experienced craniofacial team. Groups at most risk for complications are those with a long duration of surgery.
 
Otoplasty is one of the most frequently performed esthetic surgical procedures in children and adolescents. Several techniques can give satisfactory results, but few address all the components of the prominent ear deformity. The author reports on the evolution and application of a cartilage-sparing otoplasty technique that addresses all the components of the prominent ear deformity. One hundred patients (200 ears) were treated over a 10-year period. An 8% revision rate and minimal complications were encountered.
 
Ballistic trauma to the craniofacial skeleton combines the challenges of complex bone injury and loss with severe soft tissue injury and violation of the naso-orbital or oropharyngeal cavities. The authors report a patient who experienced a unique ballistic injury at 28 months of age that resulted in loss of the mandibular ramus and condyle. A segmental injury to the facial nerve was also identified. Primary costochondral grafting and delayed interpositional nerve grafting was undertaken. After 10 years, the patient has nearly 40 mm of opening, with only slight deviation to the injured side. Her facial nerve regeneration provides complete orbicularis oculi function, oral competence, and only slight facial asymmetry. This traumatic reconstruction differs from that of patients with hemifacial microsomia or post-traumatic/arthritic ankylosis in that the joint space itself was spared. Thus, the costochondral graft benefits from the remaining articular disk and upper disk space and is able to rotate and translate. Function and growth are adequately re-established, even in this young pediatric patient.
 
Since the first operation for premature suture closure in North America in 1888, there have been some fundamental changes in the treatment of these sutures, the latest being the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 1996 approval of a bioabsorbable fixation device. This retrospective study documents our experience with procedures performed primarily by Bennie J. van R. Zeeman for isolated craniosynostosis over a 10-year period. It was an attempt to evaluate factors affecting outcome and to determine the safety of the techniques used to correct these congenital defects. Diagnoses included plagiocephaly (116) and sagittal (44), metopic (17), and bilateral coronal (12) synostosis. All patients underwent fronto-orbital advancement or calvarial vault remodeling, or both. The average patient age at time of sagittal synostosis surgery was 13.4 months; unilateral coronal synostosis, 12.2 months; deformational plagiocephaly, 9.8 months; metopic synostosis, 8.6 months; and bilateral coronal synostosis, 10.4 months. Perioperative complications were minimal, with one mortality. Postoperative complications included three cases involving infection. The problem of reoperation for the removal of wires and plates remains the greatest postoperative complication. Because of poor patient compliance, no accurate postoperative follow-up has been recorded. On the basis of our experience, we wish to point out some problems inherent in this surgery and also the complications that can occur despite careful coordinated planning and team effort.
 
Orbital skeletal injuries are frequently associated with other significant injuries and require a substantial surgical effort to correct. The use of a unified classification of orbital injury may better predict the surgical effort required to correct such injuries and help with future comparisons of results. In an attempt to summarize the principles of reconstruction of the orbital skeleton following trauma and introduce a unified classification system for orbital injuries, a retrospective review of all consecutive orbital reconstructions in a tertiary care teaching hospital was conducted. The nasoethmoidal region was involved in 32%, the zygomatic complex in 50%, and the frontal region in 28% of orbital fractures. Of the orbital walls, four walls were involved in 5%, three walls in 17%, two walls in 30%, and one wall in 53%. Associated ocular and neurologic injury was encountered in 33% and 57% of patients, respectively. Regions of fixation ranged from one to eight. Bone grafts were used in 20% and titanium mesh in 34% of the orbits. In general, the authors recommend an aggressive approach to orbital injuries, addressing all associated injuries simultaneously.
 
We present a new case of unilateral synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint, including diagnostic images, the treatment performed, and histologic analysis. In this report, we describe a case of temporomandibular joint synovial chondromatosis treated only through arthroscopy to remove 112 loose bodies completely.
 
A random sample of 119 young, healthy Han Chinese adults (56 men and 63 women) between the age of 18 and 25 years (mean, 22.7 y) in PR China was obtained for this study. By the guidance of standard methods, based on Farkas's anthropometric measurements in craniofacial region, 12 nasal soft tissue landmarks and 12 linear and 3 angular measurements were chosen. The linear measurements were taken directly, whereas the angular measurements were taken by photogrammetric method. Eight nasal proportion indices were calculated according to the linear measurements. The application of the independent-samples t-test showed sex dimorphism in most parameters of the nasal region. All the linear measurements were larger in men than in women, whereas all the angular measurements were smaller in men than in women. The significant differences in partial parameters between men and women have been proved. Ten of 12 linear measurements, 1 of 3 angular measurements, and 3 of 8 nasal proportion indices showed significant sexual dimorphism (P < 0.01). Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, the nasal anthropometric measurements and proportion indices of Han Chinese adults were different, to some extent. This study could provide credible and objective reference material for plastic and maxillofacial surgeons for the external nasal soft tissue evaluation and planning of the cosmetic nasal surgery. Besides, these results could be a useful guidance for preoperative and postoperative evaluations of secondary rhinoplasty in nasal deformity associated with cleft lip and palate.
 
Skin blistering and fragility are hallmarks of the rare hereditary disease called Epidermolysis Bullosa, affecting mainly the skin but also all mucocutaneous layers and sometimes the aerodigestive tract. Orofacial clefts are among the most common structural birth defects in humans, seen about 2 cases per 1000 births. This case report illustrates the closure of cleft lip and cleft palate in 13 month female with epidermolysis bullosa.
 
Antibiotics-plus bioactive glass-containing bioabsorbable self-reinforced (SR) polylactide screws have been developed for antibacterial osteoconductive bone fixation. The aim of the present study was to test the pullout properties of these recently developed miniscrews. Ciprofloxacin-plus bioactive glass-containing SR-polylactide miniscrews (BC) were compared with miniscrews made of neat SR-polylactide (A), SR-polylactide with bioactive glass (B), and ciprofloxacin-containing SR-polylactide (C). BC miniscrews and their controls (A, B, C) (all of length 6.0 mm, core diameter 1.45 mm, thread diameter 2.0 mm) were applied to one pair of cadaveric fibulae. Pullout force was measured using a materials testing machine. We carried out 49-50 pullout tests for each implant type. The Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test were used for statistical evaluation. The pullout force for BC miniscrews was 114.9 +/- 34.0 (SD) N. Pullout forces for control miniscrews were 162.7 +/- 37.8 N (A), 99.1 +/- 16.2 N (B), and 142.9 +/- 26.9 N (C). Differences between the four groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Ciprofloxacin-plus bioactive glass-containing polylactide miniscrews have good holding power to human cadaver fibulae. However, adding bioactive glass and ciprofloxacin components to neat SR-polylactide results in lower pullout values.
 
Recent applications of distraction osteogenesis to the Le Fort III osteotomy in patients with craniofacial dysostosis have proven promising (1-3). Distraction has allowed the midfacial segment to be brought further forward and maintained in position with greater stability when compared with the standard technique of intraoperative advancement. Because no bone grafts or plates must be placed, access incisions are necessary only for performance of the osteotomy. In an effort to minimize the morbidity of the procedure, we have begun performing the Le Fort III osteotomy without the coronal incision. Instead, the nasofrontal junction is approached using the medial aspect of an upper blepharoplasty incision. A lower eyelid and gingivobuccal sulcus incision are also used to complete the osteotomy. This technique has resulted in a shorter operative time and decreased blood loss when compared with the Le Fort III distraction procedure using the standard coronal incision.
 
Transnasal endoscopic approach for the repair of choanal atresia (CA) has gained favor in recent years. However, the studied cohorts are too small to make a comprehensive comment on this approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different techniques, used for the removal of CA under endoscopic guidance, on surgical outcome and effectiveness of transnasal endoscopic approach in these patients as a whole. We present the results of transnasal endoscopic repair of CA in 13 patients and made a meta-analysis of similar studies in the literature. Mean success rate with transnasal endoscopic repair was 85.3% in a total of 238 cases in 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Only the history of previous surgery for CA seemed to significantly decrease the postoperative success rate (P = 0.029). Rate of revision surgery did not significantly differ between mixed, bony, or membranous atresia (P = 0.395). Likewise, simple perforation or complete excision of the atretic plate under endoscopic view (P = 0.513), use or no use of mucosal flap to seal the denuded bone of the choana (P = 0.472), and postoperative stenting or no stenting (P = 0.252) have proved not to considerably have influence on the surgical outcome. Death of perioperative bleeding was the single major complication in 1 case among all of the study groups. In conclusion, types of CA, excision method, and stenting have no significant effect on surgical outcome of CA. Irrespective of the technique used for the excision and the repair of atretic plate, transnasal endoscopic approach with higher success rate and minimal postoperative morbidity is a good choice for the repair of CA.
 
Over a period of 4.5 years, 14 patients with frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles were treated. Most patients came from Northern Namibia. Precise delineation of all cranial abnormalities was obtained by modern imaging techniques, and specific patterns of cerebral abnormality were found. The malformation was corrected in a single stage, and significant modifications have been developed to render the procedure simpler and safer. Information from our series favors delayed neural tube closure as the primary pathogenesis of the defect and suggests a common teratogen as the most probable etiological agent. Our experience leads us to advocate early correction of even small defects.
 
Use of alloplastic materials in facial bone reconstruction is still controversial. Medpor porous polyethylene is a relatively new implant material that is well suited for this purpose and has a number of advantages over other alloplasts. It is a pure polyethylene with a unique manufacturing process and pore size. Technically, it is easy to work with; it can be carved, contoured, adapted, and fixated to obtain a precise three-dimensional construct. Physically, it is a pure, biocompatible, strong substance that does not resorb or degenerate. It demonstrates long-term stability, high tensile strength, resistance to stress and fatigue, and a virtual lack of surrounding soft-tissue reaction. Rapid tissue ingrowth occurs into the pores. Extensive vascular ingrowth creates the potential to transport cellular products that fight infection deep into the implant. The implant was used in 140 patients from June 1988 to August 1991 to treat acute orbitozygomatic injuries (71), acute Le Fort injuries (24), delayed orbitozygomatic injuries (33), and delayed onlay augmentation (12). In this series, there was 1 instance of implant infection requiring removal, and no implant migration, or exposure.
 
Jacopo Berengario was born in Carpi, a medieval city close to Modena (northern Italy), circa 1460. He studied medicine at Bologna University and, in 1489, graduated in philosophy and medicine. He was appointed lecturer in anatomy and surgery at the same university, a position that he maintained for 24 years. Between 1514 and 1523, Berengario published some important anatomic and surgical works, which gave considerable fame to him.Commentaria... supra Anatomiam Mundini (Commentary... on the Anatomy of Mondino), published in 1521, constitutes the first example of an illustrated anatomic textbook ever printed. The anatomic illustrations were intended for explaining the text. Artistically speaking, the plates are typical examples of the Renaissance period and worthy of the greatest consideration.De Fractura Calvae sive Cranei (On Fracture of the Calvaria or Cranium), published in Bologna in 1518, is the first treatise devoted to head injuries ever printed. It is a landmark in the development of cranial surgery that went through numerous editions. The text was prepared in 2 months and dedicated to Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, who experienced a skull injury in the occipital region. Berengario wanted to demonstrate to other physicians his knowledge of anatomy and his expertise on the brain and head traumas. The book includes the illustration of an entire surgical kit or a corpus instrumentorum for performing cranial operations, which appeared for the first time in a printed book. However, Berengario's highly commendable aim was to indicate to the reader the step-by-step procedure of craniotomy for management of skull fractures along with the sequential use of the previously presented instruments.
 
The purpose of this study was to determine the normal physiologic timing of the closure of the metopic suture in non-craniosynostotic patients. This clinical study involved a consecutive series of infants and young children who underwent 3D CT-scan evaluation for deformational plagiocephaly or suspected traumatic head injury. All patients with evidence of craniosynostosis were excluded from the study. Every infant and child referred to our Craniofacial Team for deformational plagiocephaly between 1997 and 2000 (n = 84) received a baseline pre-treatment 3D CT-scan of the head. Our study also included a series of selected pediatric trauma patients (1 to 24 months of age) between 1997 and 2000 (n = 75) who received CT-scan to rule out head injury. The CT scan results were reviewed for closure of metopic suture by a single observer. The earliest evidence of metopic suture closure was at 3 months, the age at which 33% of patients (4/12) were closed. At 5 months of age, 59% (13/22) of sutures were closed. At 7 months of age, 65% (15/23) were closed. At 9 months of age, 100% (10/10) were closed. All patients greater than 9 months of age within the study had complete metopic suture closure. Our findings suggest that normal or physiologic closure of the metopic suture occurs much earlier than what has been previously described. This study establishes that metopic fusion may normally occur as early as 3 months of age, and that complete fusion occurred by 9 months of age in all patients in our series. Therefore, 3-D CT scans showing complete closure of the metopic suture at an early age (3 to 9 months) cannot be considered as evidence of metopic synostosis, and thus, should not be the decisive factor for early surgical intervention.
 
The aim of this cross-sectional anthropometric study was to determine the age-related changes in the facial framework during adulthood in healthy white North Americans of European ancestry (261 male subjects and 339 female subjects). Five measurements, four horizontal and one vertical, defining the framework were taken from the skin and bony surface of the face in the maturation period (16-20 years) and in 10-year age categories of adulthood (21-90 years). As well, the thickness of the soft-tissue cover between these two anatomical levels was measured. The categories between 21 and 40 years represented early adulthood, those between 41 and 70 years represented middle adulthood, and those between 71 and 90 years represented late adulthood. The forehead width in both sexes increased significantly on the skin and bony surface from the maturation period to early adulthood. In middle adulthood, the changes were significant only sporadically. In late adulthood, the upper and lower jaw showed a harmonious change with age, mostly increasing on both the skin and bony surface. The face width proved to be the most stable measurement and had the thinnest soft-tissue cover. No consistent pattern emerged during adulthood in increases or decreases within the facial framework; however, an unexpected harmony was noted between the values of the measurements in early and late adulthood in both sexes on both the skin and bony surface. The thickness of the soft-tissue cover at the bony landmarks was greatest in the midface, with a moderately decreasing tendency in both sexes. In the lower jaw, the soft tissue showed significant increases in thickness in early adulthood and moderate to large decreases in late adulthood. Anthropometric analysis of the facial framework in adulthood marks only the first step in establishing the morphological changes of the aging face. Quantitative evaluation of changes within the facial framework of the aging population must be carried out in more detail. Increased worldwide migration results in a mixing of people of various racial/ethnic origins and necessitates a general anthropometric analysis of the aging face to provide more reliable guidelines for therapy.
 
Human papillomavirus infection can cause a variety of benign or malignant oral lesions, and the various genotypes can cause distinct types of lesions. To our best knowledge, there has been no report of 2 different human papillomavirus-related oral lesions in different oral sites in the same patient before. This paper reported a patient with 2 different oral lesions which were clinically and histologically in accord with focal epithelial hyperplasia and oral papilloma, respectively. Using DNA extracted from these 2 different lesions, tissue blocks were tested for presence of human papillomavirus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Finally, human papillomavirus-32-positive focal epithelial hyperplasia accompanying human papillomavirus-16-positive oral papilloma-like lesions were detected in different sites of the oral mucosa. Nucleotide sequence sequencing further confirmed the results. So in our clinical work, if the simultaneous occurrences of different human papillomavirus associated lesions are suspected, the multiple biopsies from different lesions and detection of human papillomavirus genotype are needed to confirm the diagnosis.
 
Fractures of the mandibular condyle represent 20% to 35% of all mandibular fractures. There are several clinical variants of this type of fracture that give rise to different problems in relation to their classification and treatment. A sample of 16 patients (of a total of 280 patients examined and treated from 1985 through 1995) with mono- and bilateral, displaced and decomposed, condylar fractures that occurred during growth were examined by the authors, who assessed, by a 2-year follow-up, the relevant clinical, functional, and instrumental parameters. On the basis of the data gathered by this study, a plan was drawn up for treating these patients that takes into account the different situations, such as either a nonsurgical or surgical treatment (by the use of condylectomy or external rigid fixation), and points out the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
 
Top-cited authors
Barry L Eppley
  • Indiana University Health
Kun Hwang
  • Inha University
William S Pietrzak
  • University of Illinois at Chicago
Alvaro A Figueroa
  • Rush University Medical Center
Francesco Carinci
  • University of Ferrara