The Journal of Specialised Translation

Publications
This article deals with the concept of ‘translation’ in the field of advertising, often known as ‘copy adaptation.’ The different advertising strategies used when adverts are published or broadcast in different countries involve different approaches to the task and the study of translation in this context. Standardisation (or globalisation) and localisation (or adaptation), two opposing advertising strategies, require different translation procedures. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which what is termed ‘advertising translation’ can actually be considered to be translation or not, bearing in mind existing definitions of translation and classifications of translation strategies. To this end, definitions of ‘translation’ from different periods of time (paradigms) will be observed, with an emphasis on the evolution that this concept, and corresponding term, has undergone as it has gradually incorporated different text types and specific translation activities. To illustrate the dynamic nature of this field of study, we will present and analyse pairs of advertisements (comprising an original advert and its translated version) in the translation of which specific strategies or solutions regarding the transfer of the message have been used. In the course of this study, a key question is posed: is adaptation different from translation or is it part of translation? The conclusion shows that transfers in advertising largely depend on functionalist strategies of translation, and therefore on translation in general.
 
With the era of globalisation, China has become one of the most important video game markets in the world. To enter the Chinese market, culture adjustments are often made to video games in order to meet the needs and expectations of Chinese gamers. After briefly describing the characteristics of the Chinese game market, this article will focus on the process of cultural adaptation that games undergo when they are localised into Chinese, focusing on game-related aspects such as number format, food-related terminology, myths and legends, songs, the use of colours, character design, and game mechanics, as well as sociocultural, economic and political issues such as gaming habits and censorship. A number of examples are provided to illustrate how the above-mentioned aspects may affect the success of a foreign game in the Chinese market. The article concludes by highlighting the importance of cultural adaptation in game localisation into Chinese and outlining future research avenues.
 
Adaptation is prominent in many facets of the creative industries, such as the performing arts (e.g. theatre, opera) and various forms of media (e.g. film, television, radio, video games). As such, adaptation can be regarded as the creative translation of a narrative from one medium or mode to another. This paper focuses on film adaptation and examines its role in cultural production and dissemination within the broader polysystem (Even-Zohar 1978a). Adaptation has been viewed as a process which can shed light on meaningful questions on a social, cultural and ideological level (cf. Casetti 2004; Corrigan 2014; Venuti 2007). Nevertheless, an integrated framework for the systematic analysis of adaptations seems to have remained under-researched. The paper puts forward a model for adaptation analysis which highlights the factors that condition adaptation as a process and as a product. In this way, adaptation is studied as a system monitored by economic, creative and social agendas which nevertheless transforms the communicating vessels of the literary system and the film industry. To illustrate this, the paper discusses how the two systems and various creative and socioeconomic considerations interlace in the latest film adaptation of The Great Gatsby (Luhrmann 2013). It concludes on the benefits of a holistic approach to adaptation.
 
In recent decades, post-editing has received its fair share of attention in the industry as well as in academic circles. What has attracted by far the most attention is the question of quality: together, machine translation and post-editing defy long-standing and commonplace notions of quality. In this paper, we try to observe quality from the vantage point of end users, who are believed to have the final say on a text's fitness for purpose. We will report on an experiment in which end users were asked to pass judgment on manipulated machine translations with different degrees of post-editing. Our findings demonstrate that the additional effort associated with higher degrees of post-editing does not necessarily lead to more positive judgments about text quality. The evidence suggests that text quality is context-dependent and is, therefore, subject to a somewhat opaque process of constant (re)negotiation.
 
An architectural review is a popular discourse genre that architects and architecture critics use to describe buildings, which results from the unique way in which specialists think about architecture and about the design thinking process. It is also a popular, domain-specific translation genre in the SpanishEnglish language combination, and it is commonly acknowledged to be one of the most difficult to understand and thus, to translate. To facilitate the understanding of architectural reviews to translators who are barely or not familiar at all with this typology of discourse, this article will expose the singularities surrounding the prototypical way in which ideas are organised in architectural reviews, the underlying line of thought that brings them together, and the way that architectural ideas are verbally expressed. Two architectural reviews will be analysed from an interpretative standpoint. The article concludes on the importance of adopting specialists' perspective in the translation process.
 
Access services aiming to make live performances accessible to persons with sensory impairments are more and more a priority and a widespread practice. If providing accessibility to theatre plays, operas and other forms of live entertainment requires a deep knowledge −and detailed consideration− of the diverse needs of these segments of the audience, they also open up avenues for audience expansion. Relying on a two-year experiment in making opera accessible for people with visual impairments, and on the feedback they provided before, during and after accessible performances (in 2015 and 2016), this article reflects on audience participation as a tool for empowerment, increased awareness, sharing, universality. It offers a detailed discussion of the methodology and results obtained from observation protocols, questionnaires and interviews with accessibility providers and receivers. With a theoretical framework informed by audiovisual translation studies, reception and audience studies, the article also focuses on the positive, reversed trend whereby accessibility for special audiences becomes an asset for all. It concludes with overall comments regarding the findings of the experiment.
 
Audio description (AD) is a specific form of media accessibility for all and especially for blind and visually impaired people. The service can be pre-recorded or delivered live. In this article, we focus on live AD for a live performance, more specifically for (postdramatic) theatre, a movement in theatre which brings along specific needs for AD. Given the nature of theatrical signs, AD does not and cannot replace all visual theatrical signs. However, it becomes a sign in its own right. Our hypothesis is that the AD should translate the unique interaction and movement of all the relevant theatrical signs and describe how they affect each other. The article proposes a different place for AD creation, namely during the production process of the performance. This approach accommodates the integration of directorial input. Eventually, we want this research to produce a useful working document that can serve as a guideline for describers. After explaining the concepts of AD and postdramatic theatre, this paper deals with several methodological challenges specific to the theatrical context, which are further illustrated with examples from the theatre in Flanders today. In the conclusion, semiotics are suggested as an appropriate framework for AD.
 
More and more language service providers (LSPs) are now using a post-edited machine translation (PEMT) production model in addition to, or instead of, the traditional Translation-Editing-Proofreading (TEP) model, in order to cope with the growing demand for translation. As a result, translators are increasingly expected to work as post-editors in the PEMT process, but the reluctance of translators or resistance to this expectation is evident as they feel their professional skills and identities are sidelined by technology (Kelly 2014; Cadwell et al. 2017). This article attempts to provide a theoretical description of the translators' resistance to post-editing work using Bourdieu's concepts: capital, field and habitus. Bourdieu's sociological framework allows us to examine the positions of translators and post-editors in the field of translation and its mechanism of emotional impacts. For this purpose, I draw on qualitative and quantitative data collected in a focus group study with 16 UK translation project managers, a survey of 155 company websites and two training manuals for post-editors. The study will provide industry stakeholders, as well as translation educators, useful conceptualisation tools to understand the current situation surrounding social agency of translators and post-editors.
 
The goals of this article are to summarise the problems and solutions found in translating a very well-known health-related quality of life questionnaire from English into Spanish. From a functional approach, we have analysed and compared with the original the translation of the items of the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instrument, in its shortened version, the WHOQOL-BREF, which has followed a common international protocol based on back-translation techniques in which a review process by monolingual and bilingual groups takes place to ensure its equivalence. The article finds that the Spanish translated questionnaire still has a number of deficiencies that need correcting, so mainly linguistic but also sociocultural and visual questions have to be studied more carefully.
 
As JoSTrans enters its fifteenth year of publication, this article sets out to chart how ‘specialised translation’ has been conceptualised since the journal’s launch based on a survey of articles published over that time. The results show a shift away from what has traditionally been considered as the core of specialised translation, namely, the interlingual translation of texts in non-fictional subject fields, with professional and training issues, as well as audiovisual translation now achieving higher numbers of articles. The inclusion of some literary topics, whilst not frequent, also suggests a broadly conceived publishing policy. The article concludes with an acknowledgment that a broader view of specialised translation can be productive in fostering new perspectives as part of the fast-changing interdiscipline of Translation Studies and in supporting flexible curriculum design.
 
Translation commentary is often used as an assessment method in translation degrees. In spite of this, relatively little attention has been paid to it empirically. This paper, on the one hand, proposes Kolb’s experiential learning cycle (2014) to conceptualise the use of translation commentary in translator education; on the other hand, it reports on an interview study detailing translator educators’ perception of translation commentary and their institutional practice of using translation commentary as an assessment method. Interview results show that translation commentary is perceived to be a hybrid of both an academic essay and reflective narrative. Its assessment is found to be linked to the hybridity. The true value of translation commentary probably lies in its conjunctive nature of transcending the boundary among knowledge, skill, theory and practice.
 
Use of topnotes by fansubbers
Use of unorthodox orthotypographic resources
In recent years, scholarly research in audiovisual translation in general, and subtitling in particular, has moved beyond the analysis of linguistic minutiae to embrace wider sociocultural concerns, thus highlighting its societal significance and establishing closer links with film and media studies. In this article I set to explore the social significance of some of the new forms of subtitling that have surged in the age of digital media, thanks to the opportunities offered by the affordabilities and democratisation of technology. Drawing primarily on Bakhtin’s theory of carnival, the discussion centres on how participatory subtitling activities warrant the pursuit of individual freedom and contribute to the breakdown of hegemony. The way in which these novel subtitling practices give voice to certain collectives whilst also challenging traditional information dissemination mechanisms is also probed.
 
While codes of ethics undoubtedly represent most working translators’ primary (or only) point of contact with the literature on ethics within the field of translation, scholars readily acknowledge that these documents offer contradictory and sometimes confusing guidelines. After synthesising a range of discussions of codes of ethics to outline key areas of weakness, this article goes on to question why it is that such major shortcomings are yet to be addressed. It argues that, despite ostensibly offering a set of rulings designed to aid translators in their daily work and ethical decision-making, these codes can also function as client-facing documents that indirectly help translation agencies and associations to sell translations and memberships. This is achieved by developing a sense of trust and confidence around a skewed image of the translation process and a fictional construction of the translator as a neutral conduit, which overrides genuine ethical insight to increase status and to reassure clients that their ‘message’ will remain intact. Not only does this present issues regarding transparency and integrity, it also forces us to question the assumption that the codes themselves are automatically ethical. Finally, I suggest changes that may enable us to build towards a code of ethics that offers an empowering image of translation as an active, multi-faceted activity that requires expert knowledge and judgement, while openly recognising its inevitably manipulative basis.
 
Current research on translation technology seeks to integrate physical, cognitive and organisational ergonomics, and uses insights from the situated cognition paradigm to bring together social and technical perspectives on fast-evolving human-computer interactions. Even though these trends imply that a wider variety of professional contexts should be considered, studies of institutional translation are still scarce. This paper reports on a three-week research stay in the French language department of the European Commission (DGT-Fr2), aimed at understanding current uses and perceptions of machine translation (MT) and post-editing within Europe's biggest translation institution. Based on ethnographic data, we established a survey that we tested among French translators before translating it into English and submitting it to all DGT translators. Our quantitative data include 89 respondents from 15 language departments. We perform multiple linear regressions to assess technology acceptance, before focusing on the variance that the model leaves unexplained. Our findings show that perceptions of control, subjective norm and image, as well as insecurity (fear of MT) have an impact on professional MT acceptance.
 
References to songs
References to politics and history
Despite being (in)famous for its use of voice-over in fiction films, Poland also has a long-standing dubbing tradition. Contemporary Polish dubbing is largely domesticated: culture-bound items from the original are often replaced with elements of Polish culture, which is supposed to increase viewers’ enjoyment of the film. In this study, we examined whether Polish viewers can identify references to Polish culture in the contemporary Polish dubbing of foreign animated films and whether they enjoy them. With this goal in mind, we conducted an online survey and tested 201 participants. Given that many references relate to items from the near or distant past, we predicted that viewers may not fully understand them. The results show that, paradoxically, although viewers do not fully recognise references to Polish culture in contemporary Polish dubbing, they welcome such allusions, declaring that they make films more accessible. The most difficult category of cultural references to identify in our study turned out to be allusions to the canon of Polish literature, whereas the best scores were achieved in the case of references to social campaigns and films. Younger participants had more difficulties in recognising cultural allusions dating from before the 1990s compared to older participants. The vast majority of participants declared they enjoy domestication in contemporary Polish dubbing.
 
Creative industries are now widely recognised as an important drive for economic growth around the world. The museum industry, specifically, is regarded as a crucial cultural asset in this development. Against this background, this paper explores how translation research can help improve the practice of museum translation, which in turn can help museums meet their new expectations as a cultural and creative industry. The paper begins by discussing the concepts of museums and museum translation. It then reviews the literature on translation practices in museum settings, with a view to proposing five functions of museum translation: informative, interactive, political, social-inclusive, and exhibitive. The paper continues by discussing “inter-community disjunctions” between museums and translation professionals, and suggests that Translation Studies on museum texts can have more explicit museological implications in at least two areas: economic value and social-inclusivity in museums. It is hoped this paper will stimulate much-needed theoretical and professional attention regarding the role of translation practices in the museum industry.
 
Despite common perceptions, transcreation is not glorified translation. Nor is it a synonym for 'creative translation' - a definition based on the questionable assumption that translation is not a creative act per se. While it is true that different types of texts allow for different degrees of freedom when it comes to 'transposing' them from one language to another, transcreation should be regarded as a different practice altogether. The typical translation evaluation grid used by professional reviewers contains several error categories. What happens when we apply this grid to transcreation? As it turns out, those errors can only apply to translation, not to transcreation, where they are not errors at all. Committing such errors, i.e. breaking the rules of grammar or spelling, is actually considered a plus in transcreation. Evidence suggests that transcreation is the only possible way to 'translate' marketing and advertising copy. In this article I draw on my professional experience as a copywriter involved in both origination and transcreation, and I will define transcreation as writing advertising or marketing copy for a specific market, starting from copy written in a source language, as if the target text had originated in the target language and culture. I also argue that creating target-language copy that can truly resonate with the target audience requires a special set of skills (language skills, copywriting skills, cultural sensitivity and local market understanding), which make the transcreation professional a fully-fledged consultant. I conclude on the specific skillset is required from transcreation professionals.
 
The study uses as a starting point a set of value dilemmas traced in corporation management strategies worldwide; these dilemmas can offer a rationale for exploring whether and how automobile industry advertising on UK-Greek corporation homepages creatively employs values inherent in relevant management strategies. Findings show that automobile digital advertising is an eloquent paradigm of cross-cultural variation in entrepreneurial communication with clients. The study encourages focus on cultural aspects of commercial material mediation in accounting for variation in the implementation of value dilemmas in intercultural transfer. A tension between global and local cultural variabilities is emerging which highlights the socially aware aspect of innovation. 'Culturalising' economic life, in terms of raising awareness of culture-specific norms in communication, seems to be of paramount importance in wealth creating environments, as is argued in the conclusion.
 
The aim of this introduction is to highlight the presence of translation in the world of creative industries. I discuss various models of creative industries that are operative in different parts of the globe and I propose a basic typology that can help to clarify the role of translation according to these models. The discussion then moves to the theoretical implications that this extraordinary range of translational phenomena has for the way we understand translation in the present era. This part concludes with an attempt to identify some 'family resemblances' between these phenomena, to wit, the creative, the aesthetic and the promotional elements. The second part of the introduction presents the contributions to this issue and highlights the diversity of approaches and the potential of research in this newly conceptualised area of enquiry.
 
Machine translation has traditionally been linked to the translator's technological skills. However, the imperatives of the market have fostered the figure of the post-editor, understood not as an expert in machine translation systems, but as a professional in charge of revising and modifying the text proposed by the machine. This fact forces trainers to introduce these contents during the degree and to offer a greater specialisation during postgraduate studies. For this reason, in the present paper, taking into account the role that post-editing and machine translation are playing in the industry, the different Master's degrees in the European Master's in Translation (EMT) network are analysed in order to examine whether these contents are included in their syllabuses and with what degree of specialization. For that purpose, the information about the different subjects and modules offered in the EMT Master's degrees was collected and explored using the technique of content analysis. Taking this data as a starting point, a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis will be presented in order to identify internal and external factors that could be influencing the teaching of post-editing and machine translation in the EMT network.
 
This article focuses on two case studies of First World War museums and examines their museological representation of often difficult multilingual histories and experiences: the Kobarid Museum (Slovenia) and the Historial de la Grande Guerre (France). The Kobarid Museum uses four languages - Slovenian, Italian, German and English - to recall the dramatic events that took place in that borderland during the First World War. The Historial, located in Péronne in the Somme, uses three languages - German, French, and English - to tell the story of that same war from multiple viewpoints both at home and on the front. In both museums, multilingualism plays a vital role in representing complex, interweaving memories in relation to borderlands and the international nature of the First World War, affecting the visitor in a variety of ways. Are the museums using their multilingual approach effectively to promote their messages of peace? Or are they further deepening divides between language-speaking communities and thereby perpetuating animosity? Reflecting on these questions and the use of languages, including processes of translation, within museums more generally advances consideration of the relationship between language, power and the mediation of memory of traumatic events.
 
In recent years, the notion of paratranslation has grown in Translation Studies, particularly in the literary field. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the effect that paratextual components — peritextual and epitextual — (Genette 1997) may have on the rendering of theatrical texts into another language, especially if these texts are intended for performance. This article will seek to deal with the issue of paratranslation in the theatre, and more specifically with the potential influence of epitexts on the reception of a particular stage play in a different culture, as well as with the significance of the figure of the translator in the process. Two recent British performances of the Spanish classic Life is a Dream, based on two different translations, have been used by way of example. The results will show how reviews, webpages, videos, posters, flyers and programmes can add to the manner in which a particular play is perceived in the eyes of its target audiences, and to what extent the final outcome may be felt as part of the recipient theatrical culture.
 
This article presents a description of a machine translation (MT) and post-editing course (PE), along with an MT project management module, that have been introduced in the Localisation Master's programme at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona in 2009 and in 2017 respectively. It covers the objectives and structure of the modules, as well as the theoretical and practical components. Additionally, it describes the project-based learning approach implemented in one of the modules, which seeks to foster creative and independent thinking, teamwork, and problem solving in unfamiliar situations, with a view to acquiring transferable skills that are likely to be in demand, regardless of the technological advances taking place in the translation industry.
 
The aim of this article is to investigate the solutions that translators opt for when translating metaphorical expressions that are classified as either ‘rich images’ or ‘non-rich images.’ The investigation is based on a corpus of Scientific American texts from 2003 and 2004 and their translations into French, Italian, German, Russian and Polish. Rich images are metaphorical expressions that are ‘rich’ in detail and in associations, and around 40% of the metaphors that occur in the corpus can be classified in this way. Based on a conceptual framework partially derived from metaphor research and on quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data, the article provides a list of translation procedures that the author identifies for the translation of rich images into non-rich images and vice versa. The article determines that there is a greater tendency for rich images to be replaced by non-rich than vice versa, thus leading to the conclusion that there is a general tendency to shift from the more to the less specific, in this area of translation practice at any rate.
 
Research into Translation (translation and interpreting) is to a large extent conducted by practitioners (‘practisearchers’) as opposed to ‘professional researchers’ from cognate disciplines, due to academic requirements in training programmes and to personal interest. Many of them can be said to ‘specialise’ in TIS. Research requirements from students are challenging because they take much time and personal investment away from the acquisition of Translation skills. There is also a lack of research training which translates into endemic weaknesses in the practisearchers’ scholarship. Recommendations are formulated to address both issues.
 
Is it easy to distinguish between the solution types?
Solution types reported to be difficult (percentages of difficulties mentioned)
An eight-term pedagogical typology of translation solutions has been compiled and taught in two Masters classes, one in the United States and the other in South Africa. The results suggest that the typology is robust enough to be pedagogically effective in the two situations if and when the teaching stresses a series of points: 1) the nature of its “problem-solving” premises has to be explained carefully, 2) the typology should be presented as a list of ways to address problems that cannot be solved using the norms of standard languages or “cruise” mode translation procedures, 3) it should be presented as being open-ended, inviting new solutions and new combinations of the main solution types, 4) its theorisation should be kept as simple as possible, in the interests of pedagogical clarity, and 5) the application of the typology should emphasise its status as a discourse of resistance to the tradition of “either-or” approaches to translation decisions.
 
The purpose of this paper is to describe the so-called fansubs, a different type of subtitling carried out by amateur translators. The first part of this study covers both the people and phases involved in the fansubbing process from beginning to end. The second section focuses on the legality and ethics of fansubs. The third part pays attention to the actual translation of fansubs and their unique features, such as the use of translator's notes or special karaoke effects. The paper concludes with a reflection on the work done by fansubbers and the possibilities opened by this mainly Internet phenomenon.
 
Framework and comprehensibility dimensions 
This article makes a contribution to text and translation quality assessment in the functionalist paradigm. It presents a communication-oriented framework for the evaluation of pragmatic texts including their translations with regard to their comprehensibility as one of the central factors of their skopos adequacy. It is based on the results of comprehensibility research gained both in the field of cognitive science (schema theory and theory of mental models) and in the fields of educational psychology (the four comprehensibility dimensions presented by Langer et al. and Groeben) and linguistics. It also includes results from communication theory and semiotics. In the resulting framework a distinction is made between six comprehensibility dimensions, 'perceptibility,' 'simplicity,' 'structure,' 'correctness,' 'concision,' and 'motivation.' Requirements derived from the latter four of these dimensions do not only have to be fulfilled by the textual code itself, but also by the mental models to be conveyed by the code.
 
It is not only the linguistic but also the cultural and ideological differences between source and target cultures that come to the fore in the act of translating. These cultural and ideological connotations often reflect assumptions which may vary from one culture to another, revealing different ways in which social issues may be approached. This paper aims at seeing what the differences between the dubbed and subtitled translations of three British films suggest in terms of how different countries deal with gender issues, and to what extent these translations may mould differently the audiences' understanding about these issues.
 
The crucial role of conventions in translation has been extensively recognised in Translation Studies. The localisation of digital texts entails mainly instrumental texts that need to be received as original productions in the target context of reception, and therefore, source-text conventions should in principle be replaced by those in the same target genre (Nord 1997; Gamero 2001). After a theoretical review of the notion of convention, this paper will consider whether target text conventions are actually incorporated in localised texts. For this purpose, web navigation menus were selected, as they represent the most conventional textual segments in websites (Nielsen & Tahir 2002). For the purpose of this study, a comparable corpus of navigation menus was extracted from the Spanish Comparable Web Corpus (Jiménez-Crespo 2008a). Following a descriptive study on conventional features of original Spanish corporate websites (Jiménez-Crespo 2008b), these findings were contrasted with translated texts in order to shed some light onto the role of convention in the translation products. The results of the contrastive study show that conventional terminology in Spanish websites is significantly less present in translated texts. This is explained in terms of interference from source texts conventions and the specific constraints that operate during the translation process.
 
This paper sets out to investigate quality in the translation of tourist discourse on the Web. It is divided into two parts. The first discusses theoretical issues: localisation and translation; which theoretical framework for Web translation; the criteria to assess translation quality. The second part is an investigation into a corpus of UK and Italian tourism Web sites: the criteria outlined are employed to explore transfer strategies, and translation problems and errors. The focus is on the tourist language regarding accommodation; the data considered are taken from the accommodation page of tourist board sites, and hotel sites.
 
The paper presents an overview of the EN 15038:2006 standard, Translation services— Service requirements, and analyses its implications for the translation industry and specialised translator training in tertiary education institutions. It is the first pan-European standard which addresses the quality of the translation process specifically and establishes translation service requirements. Among other things, it establishes an independent third-party revision as an obligatory component of the translation process. Its significance for the translation industry is that it raises its profile as one of the standardised industries and contributes to the professionalisation of the translator and, more importantly, the reviser. With the growing number of translation agencies seeking to obtain the 15038:2006 certification, the standard gains increasingly wider recognition, which exerts certain pressure on educational institutions. It promotes a broader view of translation as part of the translation service, reflecting the market expectation to train translation service providers rather than translators. It sees the training of translation service providers as a life-long learning process and stresses the importance of continuous professional development. The standard may be considered as a guideline for market-oriented training.
 
Translator and interpreter (T&I) training, using virtual learning environments, was largely uninterrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in the Global North. This might not have been the case in the Global South, especially in African countries. Building on earlier studies which focused on a comparative analysis of a number of T&I programmes in Africa, the objective of this paper is to further investigate the T&I training situation in a number of African countries between the pre-COVID-19 (before March 2020) and the initial lockdown (March - September 2020) period. Online questionnaires were administered to T&I students and trainers in five countries: Benin, Cameroon, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo. The data collected were analysed qualitatively. Our preliminary findings, although not surprisingly, reveal that T&I training was interrupted by the lockdown and the attempted transition to online teaching and learning has not been smooth, due to economic challenges, insufficient technological infrastructure and skilled human resources. We find that the provision of reliable technological facilities and the implementation of blended learning are essential for strategic development in African T&I training. Trainers also require continuous professional development to enable them to acquire technological and pedagogical skills necessary to provide training that meets current T&I market demands. KEYWORDS: Translation and interpreting training, online teaching and learning, virtual learning environments, African, COVID-19.
 
Despite the growth of the English-speaking audience, audiovisual translation is still widespread and appreciated by a considerable proportion of media users, who watch audiovisual products in their native tongue. These products are translated using different transfer modes, such as subtitling, dubbing or voice-over. This study focuses on the quality of one of these modes: dubbing, which is measured considering appropriate register, cultural background, as well as the synchronisation between the translating voice and the speaking actor/actress or the on-screen activities. In order to evaluate the dubbing strategies used for translating English bird names in the German dubbed version of the film The Big Year, qualitative features from scientific and audiovisual translation theory have been applied in consideration of established standard scientific terminology and human factors in the birding community. Constraints and challenges arising and their effects on the quality of dubbing are discussed. Various shifts in meaning were identified and classified as to their impact on the general understanding of the scenes. The majority of the shifts were of minor importance, but there were some severe distortions in key scenes, which caused obvious though avoidable incoherence and consequently affected the overall quality of the dubbing. The present study identified both successful and unsuccessful dubbing strategies. It concludes that a systematic adherence to established standard ornithology terminology is not always pursued and that, although some deviations are occasionally suitable due to dubbing constraints, this lack of consistency is overall detrimental to the factual and scientific content of the film.
 
The title of the present volume, "Reflexiones sobre la traducción audiovisual. Tres espectros, tres momentos", augurs the beginning of a journey of 236 pages. The illustration featured on the book cover from the famous tale by Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol, presages an exciting travel in time around the world of Audiovisual Translation (AVT). Like the main character of this story, the reader will be visited by three different spirits: the ghost of past, the ghost of present and the ghost of yet to come. As a result of the upsurge of interest in this area and the constant advances in technology, the threefold approach adopted here becomes necessary to assess what has been achieved during these years, to ascertain the current state of affairs, and to reflect on future directions in both the professional and academic sphere.
 
A book review of The Routledge Encylopedia of Translation Technology by Chan Sin-wai, written for The Journal of Specialised Translation.
 
Review: Baños Piñero, Rocío and Jorge Díaz Cintas (eds) Audiovisual Translation in a Global Context: Mapping an Ever-changing Landscape (2015)
 
A review of: An Introduction to Audio Description. A Practical Guide (2016) by Louise Fryer,.
 
Top-cited authors
Jorge Diaz-Cintas
  • University College London
Agnieszka Szarkowska
  • University of Warsaw
Pablo Romero-Fresco
  • University of Vigo
Carme Mangiron
  • Autonomous University of Barcelona
Maarit Koponen
  • University of Eastern Finland