The Journal of Special Education

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 0022-4669
Publications
Characteristics of Students With ASDs Represented in PEELS, SEELS, and NLTS2. 
Interaction plots describing the effect of age group on odds of receiving speech or language therapy, behavior management service, occupational therapy, or none of three basic therapeutic services depending on the severity of communication impairment. NLTS2 = National Longitudinal Transition Study-2; SEELS = Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study; PEELS = Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study.
Age Trends Across PEELS, SEELS, and NLTS2 in Services Received by Students With ASDs. 
Predicting Communication, Behavioral Health and Life Skills, and Learning Support Service Receipt Among Students With ASDs Represented in PEELS, SEELS, and NLTS2. 
Predicting Technology Aids and Other Services Receipt Among Students With ASDs Represented in PEELS, SEELS, and NLTS2. 
Article
Little is known about how special education services received by students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) differ by age, disability severity, and demographic characteristics. Using three national datasets, the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS), the Special Education Elementary Longitudinal Study (SEELS), and the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2), this study examined the age trends in special education services received by students with ASDs from preschool through high school. Elementary-school students with ASDs had higher odds of receiving adaptive physical education, specialized computer software or hardware, and special transportation, but lower odds of receiving learning strategies/study skills support than their preschool peers. Secondary-school students had lower odds of receiving speech/language or occupational therapy and of having a behavior management program, but higher odds of receiving mental health or social work services than their elementary-school peers. Both disability severity and demographic characteristics were associated with differences in special education service receipt rates.
 
Article
This article reviews research examining the efficacy of early phonological interventions for young students identified with Speech or Language impairments. Eighteen studies are included, providing results for nearly 500 students in preschool through third grade. Although findings were generally positive, there were large individual differences in response to intervention. Further, there was little evidence that interventions enabled students to catch up in phonological or reading skills to typically developing peers. Methodological issues are described and implications for practice and future research are discussed.
 
Article
Promoting the self-determination of adolescents with disabilities has become best practice in secondary education and transition services, but to date there have been no studies establishing a causal relationship between efforts to promote self-determination and enhancement of the self-determination of youth with disabilities. This article reports a randomized trial, placebo control group study of 371 high school students receiving special education services under the categorical areas of mental retardation or learning disabilities. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group (by high school campus), with students in the intervention condition receiving multiple instructional components to promote self-determination. Latent growth curve analysis showed that although all students in the study showed improved self-determination over the three years of the study, students in the intervention group showed significantly greater growth, though specific intra-individual variables impacted this growth. Implications for research and intervention are discussed.
 
Sources of Influence for Women Seeking Genetic Counseling Source n % 
Sources of Information Women Viewed as Helpful During the Genetic Screening Process Source n % 
Article
In this study, 69 women were surveyed who, as a result of a prenatal screening knew they were at risk for carrying a fetus with a disability. Results indicated that most women were referred by their physicians for genetic counseling either because of their age or because of an abnormal blood test. The majority of women indicated they would choose to terminate a pregnancy that tested positive for a disability, but the type of disability of the fetus, either Down syndrome or spina bifida, made no difference in the decision that women believed they would make. The women's intention to terminate a pregnancy appeared to be unrelated to their overall knowledge about disabilities but was negatively related to their knowledge of disability-related services. Although women reported that genetic counseling was helpful, they revealed that they were not given information about future-quality-of-life issues for individuals with disabilities nor provided with the positive as well as the negative aspects of giving birth to a child with disabilities.
 
Estimated Effects of Special Education Services on Children's Behaviors
Article
We sought to quantify the effectiveness of special education services as naturally delivered in U.S. schools. Specifically, we examined whether children receiving special education services displayed (a) greater reading or mathematics skills, (b) more frequent learning-related behaviors, or (c) less frequent externalizing or internalizing problem behaviors than closely matched peers not receiving such services. To do so, we used propensity score matching techniques to analyze data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal-Study Kindergarten Cohort, 1998-1999, a large scale, nationally representative sample of U.S. schoolchildren. Collectively, results indicate that receipt of special education services has either a negative or statistically non-significant impact on children's learning or behavior. However, special education services do yield a small, positive effect on children's learning-related behaviors.
 
Article
This paper reports the effects of a two-year supplemental reading program for kindergarten through third grade students that focused on the development of decoding skills and reading fluency. Two hundred ninety-nine students were identified for participation and were randomly assigned to the supplemental instruction or to a no-treatment control group. Participants' reading ability was assessed in the fall, before the first year of the intervention, and again in the spring of years 1, 2, 3, and 4. At the end of the two-year intervention, students who received the supplemental instruction performed significantly better than their matched controls on measures of entry level reading skills (i.e., letter-word identification and word attack), oral reading fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. The benefits of the instruction were still clear two years after instruction had ended with students in the supplemental-instruction condition still showing significantly greater growth on the measure of oral reading fluency. Hispanic students benefited from the supplemental reading instruction in English as much as or more than non-Hispanic students. Results support the value of supplemental instruction focused on the development of word recognition skills for helping students at risk for reading failure.
 
Article
Concerns a final longitudinal study of 992 premature and full term children. Low birth weight Ss were impaired at approximately 4, 7, and 9 yr. of age when IQ was used as an index of psychologic impairment. It was also noted, at these earlier ages, that perceptual-motor functioning and comprehension difficulty were evidenced. When 12-13 yr. of age, 848 of the Ss were found attending community schools. Low birth weight Ss were relatively impaired on tests of reading and arithmetic achievement. Grade placement was below age expectations. These impairments were not consequent to variations in race or socioeconomic status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
ANALYZED THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A CHILD'S CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR FROM KINDERGARTEN TO GRADE 6 AND HIS SCHOOL SUCCESS AND FAMILY BACKGROUND. 32 TEACHERS USED AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BEHAVIOR RATING SCALE TO RATE EACH OF 809 CHILDREN WITH A WIDE RANGE OF BACKGROUNDS. THE RESULT WAS A 44-ITEM SCALE WITH THE MEANS AND STANDARD DEVIATIONS FOR EACH OF THE BEHAVIOR FACTORS AT EACH GRADE LEVEL, WITH TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY DATA FOR 128 SS OVER 1 WK., AS WELL AS A GRADE-BY-GRADE ASSESSMENT OF BACKGROUND VARIABLES. THE RESULTS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE SCALE, THE POSSIBILITIES FOR ITS USE IN IDENTIFYING AND COMMUNICATING MEANINGFULLY ABOUT CLASSROOM FUNCTIONING, AND IN ACCURATELY FOLLOWING A CHILD'S DEVELOPMENT. ARJOURNAL ABSTRACT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared performance of selected children who were originally tested with the 1960 Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (S-B) and who were later reevaluated with the 1972 version. Hypothetical Ss were created by taking whole-year levels of CA and forming every possible combination by merging with every whole-year level of MA. Only those combinations that actually occurred in the S-B norms tables were used (219). For each combination, 2 simulated scores were obtained: the 1960 S-B IQ and the 1972 S-B IQ. Each pair of scores was regarded as being the same for each S. Analysis revealed consistent overestimation of an S's status in the 1960 S-B as compared to the 1972 edition. Both the statistical and the practical significance of the results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In all disciplines, forecasting of future events has become an accepted way to improve planning, based on the projections of knowledgeable professionals. The National Association of State Directors of Special Education projected the future of special education from the viewpoint of the administrator in both special and general education. An accepted forecasting tool, the Delphi methodology, was used to gather information from 121 participants who predicted the likelihood of events and the year of their occurrence, stating whether these events were highly, moderately, or negatively valued. Results of the study have implications for planning, decision making, training strategies, and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews research investigating the relationship of visual discrimination, spatial relations, memory, and auditory-visual integration to school learning. Results of 60 studies which reported more than 600 individual coefficients indicate that the particular visual skills considered in this article are not essential to academic achievement. It is held that since the relationship of visual training should be reevaluated, particularly if the purpose of such training is to improve academic achievement. (83 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared 35 father-present and 35 father-absent culturally-disadvantaged 10-yr-old boys, supporting the hypothesis that children reared in deprived environments tend to have academic and affective deficits. Father-absent Ss appeared to be more markedly depressed, insecure, unstable, irritable, impulsive, and immature, and tended to underachieve in arithmetic. They showed a marked need for male identification by indicating preferences for male teachers and positive responses to the male investigator. For disadvantaged Ss rapidly administered teachers' ratings, such as the Rating Scale for Pupil Adjustment, appear to be more sensitive indicators of maladjustment than scores on time-consuming projective tests, such as the Michigan Picture Test, which do not have specific norms for disadvantaged groups. (25 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
MATCHED 50 BRAIN-DAMAGED CHILDREN WITH 50 CONTROLS, RANGING IN AGE FROM 10-15 YR. SS WERE TESTED ON THE WISC AND THE HALSTEAD CATEGORY TEST. SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES (P < .005) WERE FOUND BETWEEN THE UNADJUSTED MEANS OF BOTH GROUPS WITH RESPECT TO BLOCK DESIGN AND THE CATEGORY TEST. WHEN THE RESULTS WERE ADJUSTED FOR WECHSLER VEBAL AND PERFORMANCE IQ COVARIATION, NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WERE FOUND BETWEEN THE MEANS. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT AMONG OLDER CHILDREN CHRONIC CEREBRAL DYSFUNCTION RESULTS IN A GENERAL LOWERING OF INTELLECTUAL ABILITY. APPARENTLY THE INADEQUATE LEVEL OF CONCEPT FORMATION IS A FUNCTION OF THE DEPRESSED LEVEL OF INTELLIGENCE RATHER THAN BEING THE RESULT OF SPECIFIC IMPAIRMENT ASSOCIATED WITH NEUROLOGICAL LESIONS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Argues that the psychoeducational approach, which attempts to assess differential abilities and educate according to this assessment, is not wrong but has been abused in its operation in the classroom. Criticism is made of the educational system which fosters belief rather than scrutiny, fails to teach educators to understand the tentative nature of knowledge, places greater importance on training than on education, and suggests that teaching is a bag of tricks to be magically applied. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Argues that teacher training programs should make sure that trainees are aware of and can handle their racial attitudes and behaviors. Teachers must not be permitted to teach students about whom they have negative attitudes. Educators must cease to administer and interpret tests whose structural design excludes the black life style; scores from such tests are often the basis for relegating black children to classes which retard their psychological, social, and academic development. The school, family, and community must help educators to gain the information needed to establish sound educational programs which will encourage the discovery and development of black students' talents. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes multiple-correlational relationships between subscales of the 16PF and E. P. Torrance and J. Khatena's What Kind of Person Are You inventory, a measure of creative-personality characteristics. 312 high school junior and senior gifted Ss were selected from an 8-wk summer educational enrichment experience. 211 of these Ss had previously been identified as being academically talented and 101 had been identified as artistically talented. The 5 most significant scales yielded multiple-correlations of .56 for the academic group, .71 for the artistic group, and .61 for the combined groups. The characteristics of experimenting and assertiveness were common to all groups. The self-report characteristics of less intelligent, shrewd, and reserved were descriptive of the academic and combined talented groups. The scales of self-sufficiency, sensitivity, and casualness were descriptive of the artistic group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Explored the diagnostic utility of the auditory and visual channels of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA). 72 culturally disadvantaged 1st graders assigned to auditory, visual, or control groups on the basis of ITPA profiles served as Ss. Each of the S groups was then divided into 3 subgroups, and each subgroup given a different treatment reading program, emphasizing primarily auditory, visual, or conventional techniques. Results show no significant differences in reading achievement over a 2-yr period among the auditory, visual, or control groups. Also, there was no significant interaction between reading technique used and S classification, indicating that the ITPA sensory channels diagnosis is not useful for predicting the best method of teaching a given child to read. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Assessed the long-range academic implications of persistently aggressive or socially approved classroom behavior. 3rd, 6th, and 9th graders were rated by teachers as either exhibiting most aggressive or most socially approved behavior. 5 yr. Later these groups were studied in terms of teacher grades and scores on standardized tests. After adjustment for initial iq differences, the results indicate that for both teacher grades and test scores the socially approved ss had higher scores than the aggressive ss. The implications of this research for counselors and teachers are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Administered the Key Math Diagnostic Arithmetic Test (Key Math) individually to a random sample of 227 educable mentally retarded (EMR) children (mean CA 11 yrs 4 mo, mean MA 7 yrs 6 mo). Results suggest that while the difficulty level of the basal items in most subtests was acceptable for EMR Ss, the Ss tended to ceiling quite rapidly in many of the subtests. It is noted that a lack of items in the mid-range of the test prevents the fullest use of the data to provide diagnostic information that will affect programming decisions for EMR children. It is also suggested that the Key Math would tend to lose power to discriminate achievement changes for EMR children. Significant factorial validity was found for the claim of uniqueness of the 14 Key Math Subtests. Profile analysis of Ss' performance revealed a pattern of slight underachievement on the majority of the subtests. The incremental deficit in performance found as Ss progressed through school suggests that academic achievement fails to grow as expected over a longer term in school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Tested the effectiveness of the direct remediation technique (Distar Reading Method), the indirect method, the combined method, and no remediation (controls) on 4 groups of children with specific learning disabilities (N = 62). The indirect and combined groups showed better achievement during the experimental year than the direct and control groups. Procedures, results, and qualifications of the study are presented in detail. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews 17 teacher-administered behavior rating scales for elementary through senior high school students, emphasizing the measurement of behaviors which interfere with or relate to academic achievement. 5 groups of rating scales are identified, and the available reliability and validity data for each scale are presented. The review indicates that (a) the most frequently measured behavior is aggression/disobedience; (b) the measurement of overt behavior has been largely motivated by an interest in mental health, rather than factors which influence learning; (c) little attention has been given to behavior at the junior or senior high school levels; and (d) the methodology of some of the measures needs further development and stricter control. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
THE VISUAL RETENTION TEST (VRT), ADMINISTRATION C, WAS ADMINISTERED TO 236 SS (AGE RANGE APPROXIMATELY 6.5-13.5 YR. AND WITH A WISC IQ RANGE OF 85-115). THE REPRODUCED FIGURES WERE SCORED ON 6 CATEGORIES OF RESPONSES: OMISSIONS, DISTORTIONS, ROTATIONS, MISPLACEMENTS, SIZE ERRORS, AND PERSEVERATIONS. DISTORTIONS DECREASED WITH AGE AND MISPLACEMENTS INCREASED WITH AGE. THE TEST WAS ALSO ADMINISTERED TO 79 SS OF COMPARABLE AGES TO THE ABOVE GROUP BUT WITH A WISC IQ RANGE FROM 116-147. AT THE YOUNGER AGES THE BRIGHTER GROUP WAS SUPERIOR TO THE AVERAGE ONE BUT AT THE UPPER-AGE LEVELS THE ADVANTAGE WAS MINIMAL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
REPORTS A STUDY OF THE MORAL JUDGMENTS OF 67 16-21 YR. OLD MENTALLY RETARDED SS (MA 7-10) ATTENDING 2 HIGH SCHOOLS AND AN URBAN OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING CENTER. THE STUDY USED PIAGET'S CLINICAL METHOD OF ELICITING RESPONSES TO STORIES THROUGH PERSONAL INTERVIEWS. OF 4 STORIES TOLD TO THE SS, 2 REQUIRED THE EVALUATION OF AN ACT IN RESPECT TO ITS INTENTION OR RESULT AND 2 ASSESSED THE SS' RECIPROCITY WITH PEERS VS. THEIR DEPENDENCE UPON ADULT AUTHORITY. USING PIAGET'S FINDINGS AND THEORIES AS A BASIS FOR EVALUATION, THE RESULTS WERE COMPARED WITH THOSE OF STUDIES OF NORMAL CHILDREN OF EQUIVALENT MA. THE DIFFERENCES WERE NOT STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT, LEADING TO THE CONCLUSION THAT DESPITE THEIR RETARDED MA, LIFE EXPERIENCES PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSCIENCE IN THESE SS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A review of the literature indicates that the adult outcome of children with reading problems is ambiguous because (a) only 6 published studies and 3 unpublished dissertations have focused on this topic; (b) statistical, methodological, and analytic procedures are not controlled; and (c) control groups have not been adequately used and sample populations are generally not representative of either a school or disabled reader population. Although reading disability is often associated with deviant behavior in children (e.g., psychological disturbances or delinquency), the consequences of these forms of deviancy should not be confused with the long-term results of reading disabilities alone. (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
3 factor analyses were performed on the subtests of the Frostig DTVP using a random sample of kindergarten and 1st grade economically disadvantaged urban youngsters. Results indicate that the test measures 1 general visual perception factor, rather than the 5 postulated by Frostig. The single factor was found even when a group of children with visual perception problems were used as Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Contests M. J. Herrick's (see PA, Vol 50:Issue 4) argument that culturally disadvantaged children belong in special education classes; on the contrary, they represent a challenge to general education, although the challenge has not been met. If special education were to include children with every type of handicap, half of the school population would be in special education classes, which should be reserved for children with severe learning difficulties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the role which special education, as a discipline, has played within the general educational enterprise, focusing on labeling practices which may mask the role of pathological environments in creating handicapping conditions. The view is taken that white racist values undergird education and that special education is a way of helping the regular school preserve its identity, particularly where Afro-American children are involved. The new black ethic and its sociopolitical, psychological, and educational implications are discussed. A proposal is advanced which may help generate an understanding of the socialization processes which black children undergo. Future alternatives for American education are suggested, emphasizing revolutionary models which may enhance Afro-American culture and enable blacks to determine their own future. (21 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
IN 4 MALE AND 19 FEMALE CASES OF JUVENILE THYROTOXICOSIS (HYPERTHYROIDISM), THE MOST PROMINENT SOMATIC SYMPTOMS WERE EXOPTHALMOS, GOITER, WEIGHT LOSS, AND TACHYCARDIA. HYPERKINESIS AND IRRITABILITY WERE THE 2 MOST IMPORTANT BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMS. DECLINE IN SCHOOL WORK WAS THE EARLIEST AND MOST COMMON BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOM, BUT ITS SIGNIFICANCE WAS USUALLY MISSED. SS TYPICALLY FAILED TO PERCEIVE THE SYMPTOMATIC CHANGES IN THEMSELVES OR TO RECOGNIZE THAT THEY WERE ILL. IN ONLY 1 CASE WAS AN EMOTIONAL TRAUMA AUTHENTICATED AS AN ANTECEDENT TO THYROTOXICOSIS, AND THERE WAS NO EVIDENCE OF A RECURRENT PSYCHODYNAMIC THEME IN THE SS' PERSONALITIES OR IN FAMILY OR SOCIAL INTERACTION. IN SOME CASES A SOMATIC ILLNESS MAY HAVE PRECIPITATED THE ONSET OF SYMPTOMS. THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF GENETIC PRONENESS IN SOME FAIMLIES AND, AS EXPECTED, FEMALES IN THE SAMPLE FAR OUTNUMBERED MALES. THE MAJORITY OF BEHAVIORAL SYMPTOMS IN THYROTOXICOSIS MAY BE CONCEIVED AS STEMMING FROM HYPERKINESIS AND FLIGHTY ATTENTION SPAN. (17 REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
TRADITIONALLY, THE 1ST STEP OF THERAPEUTIC TREATMENT WAS TO ASCERTAIN THE CAUSES OF A DYSFUNCTION AND THEN TO PROCEED IN TERMS OF THE ASCRIBED CAUSES. TODAY, THE PROCEDURE IS TO TREAT NONORGANIC BEHAVIOR ABNORMALITIES DIRECTLY BY MEANS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES THAT COULD AMELIORATE THE BEHAVIORAL DEFECTS. THE APPLICATION AND USE OF LEARNING TECHNIQUES USEFUL FOR REHABILITATIVE WORK ARE DESCRIBED: EXTINCTION, POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT, MODELING, PUNISHMENT, DISCRIMINATIVE LEARNING, AND DESENSITIZATION. THE USE OF THESE TECHNIQUES PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE TEACHING PROCESS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Developed 2 tests to measure auditory and visual memory (AM and VM) in children. The tests contained 20 words, all in the immediate sight vocabulary of the 57 8-12 yr old educationally handicapped Ss (IQ range, 80-129), taken from the Mills Learning Methods Test. In addition, Ss either read or heard 2 7-8 sentence stories and were asked to recall all they could about them. The 2-wk test-retest reliability for the AM and VM tests were .657 and .561, respectively. VM and AM scores were also correlated with Wide Range Achievement Test and WISC scores. 22 Ss were identified as having either visual or auditory strength (VS or AS); VS Ss performed better on the stories presented visually, while AS Ss were superior on the auditory stories. Results suggest that the AM and VM tests were reasonably reliable and that performance on these tests was significantly related to memory of continuous discourse presented in various modes. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Points out logical and stylistic inconsistencies in J. W. Lerner's (see PA, Vol 56:Issue 3) analysis of the fields of remedial reading and learning disabilities. Other conceptual problems in the paper are examined, including the article's dependence on superficial distinctions between the 2 fields, and its tendency to make sweeping generalizations and to quote out of context. The lack of a clearcut conceptualization of reading is noted and examined in relation to the problem of defining various reading problems (e.g., dyslexia). It is concluded that more pressing problems exist than those Lerner has pointed out in the diagnosis and treatment of reading difficulties, particularly the failure to act on the needs of the individual learner, and that these should be addressed before attempting to resolve only interdisciplinary conceptual discrepancies. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated over- and underachievement, differences between reading and arithmetic total scores, and type of skill proficiency (concrete vs. cognitive) in 130 children referred by their teachers as behavior problems. Results showed extreme underachievement in both academic areas, significantly higher arithmetic total scores, and greater proficiency in concrete skills for the entire group. The Ss then were classified on the basis of Quay's Behavior Problem Checklist into the two most commonly found categories, e.g., conduct-problem acting-out (n = 34) andersonality-problem withdrawn children (n = 9). No significant differences were found between the 2 groups on reading comprehension and vocabulary, and arithmetic reasoning and fundamentals. (27 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Criticizes the use of differential psychoeducational assessment, with particular emphasis on the Marianne Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception and the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. This approach involves the unwise splitting of behaviors and was adopted in the field of special education because medical and psychological approaches had offered little to educators. The basic assumptions underlying the approach are questioned. It is concluded that special education would improve if it focused on products or achievements rather than processes or abilities. (34 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In this article, we summarize a good portion of the CASL research program on reading in the early grades. We first describe investigations conducted in kindergarten, where our focus was on the development of decoding and word recognition. Then we discuss studies conducted in first grade, where we continued to emphasize decoding and word recognition but expanded our focus to include fluency and comprehension. In explaining the methods of these studies, we provide the greatest detail for the first study, at kindergarten. Our description of subsequent studies is more concise because they share many methodological features with the first kindergarten study. Before closing, we offer several conclusions about practice and future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
5 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS PARTICIPATED IN A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CONTINGENT USE OF TEACHER ATTENTION IN MODIFYING THE BEHAVIOR OF PROBLEM CHILDREN. RECORDINGS OF THE BEHAVIOR OF 2 CHILDREN IN EACH CLASSROOM INDICATE THAT BEHAVIOR OF SUCH PUPILS IS IMPROVED BY (1) MAKING RULES CLEAR AND POSITIVE, (2) IGNORING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR UNLESS IT BECOMES DESTRUCTIVE, AND (3) PRAISING THE BEHAVIOR TO BE STRENGTHENED IN OTHERS. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SUCH PROCEDURES IS REDUCED WHEN THE CHILD IS ILL-PREPARED FOR THE WORK OF THE CLASSROOM, WHEN DEVIANT BEHAVIOR RECEIVES STRONG PEER REINFORCEMENT, AND WHEN DEVIANT BEHAVIOR IS A STRONG INHIBITION TO BEHAVIOR THAT COULD BE REINFORCED POSITIVELY. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the effects of an in-service education program on classroom teacher attitudes toward the handicapped student. A 52-item questionnaire was developed to compare the responses of 191 teachers (experimental) who had participated in a planned program of integration with those of 161 teachers (controls) who had not. As hypothesized, experimental Ss were significantly more positive about integration, their assessment of responsibility for this educational procedure, and feelings about the manageability of special needs students. Teachers' assessment of degree of manageability of various special needs students was similar in hierarchical order for both groups. There were no significant differences in the teachers' acceptance attitudes toward disability and occupation groups. Implications of these results are discussed as they relate to future studies and programs designed to integrate the disabled. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
56 4th graders whose scores on the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities and 18 additional modality test (e.g., reception and association) fell more than 1 standard deviation above or below the mean in only 1 modality and who maintained a minimum of 20 points differential between visual and auditory scores were assigned to 4 groups: High Auditory Learners, High Visual Learners, Low Auditory Learners, and Low Visual Learners. All Ss were exposed to associative and meaningful learning tasks which were presented either orally or pictorially. All Ss tended to perform better when instruction was presented through the visual channel. Only the Low Auditory Learners performed significantly worse than the other groups when associative material was presented through both the auditory and visual sensory modality. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Evaluated the relationship between the Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination (GFW) and selected reading variables, using correlation procedures. The 242 Ss were Caucasian children from a suburban middle-class school district, randomly selected from kindergarten through 3rd grade in 2 schools. Ss suspected of having a hearing loss were referred to the school nurse for further audiometric tests. No substantial relationships were found between CA, MA, and the selected reading variables, nor were the test-retest reliability correlations substantial. Internal consistency of both subtests of the GFW was low; however, by the 3rd grade the Quiet subtest began to show a positive relationship with the variables. It is concluded that the construct validity of the GFW suggests some promise, but its use as a predictor of reading achievement from kindergarten through 3rd grade is questionable. More research and refinement of the test at the 3rd grade is considered needed to make it more discriminatory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Briefly reviews previous research which shows that children of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are deficient in auditory-perception abilities and reading achievement and suggests that deficits in auditory abilities may attenuate development of reading skills. In 1968-1969 2 strategies were implemented in an attempt to increase the reading achievement of 31 black lower-SES 1st graders (with 31 others serving as controls): (a) auditory-perception training and (b) supplemental reading instruction that did not rely heavily upon auditory-perception abilities. 2-yr follow-up data on the Ss indicated that auditory-perception training alone did not increase reading achievement. It is concluded that reading instruction designed to circumvent perceptual deficits may prove effective and deserves further research. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied cognitive functioning of autistic children by means of several different experimental tasks involving language and nonlanguage stimuli. Autistic children between 7-15 yr. old were compared with normal and subnormal Ss matched for MA. Results indicate the following: (a) memory for sentence messages in comparison to random messages is much greater in nonautistic Ss, but not in autistic Ss. (b) Autistic Ss recall the last words of a message better than the 1st part, even if the 1st words are a meaningful sentence. (c) Autistic Ss do not cluster as do nonautistic Ss. And (d) redundancy patterns in the message do not benefit autistic Ss. No difference in response patterns on an unstructured task was observed. It is concluded that the responding of the autistic Ss was characterized by a lack of sensitivity to the inherent pattern of the input, combined with a tendency to impose simple patterns in different situations. This imposition is seen as detrimental in situations governed by definite rules. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Synthesizes various principles of therapeutic education, stressing the need to help the patient through the creation of new functional systems based on existing afferent connections. The concepts of the development of functional systems and the retraction of afferent systems which can be utilized if needed are discussed. Also discussed is use of the patient's previous experiences to reestablish the injured function. The development of methods which can help to organize and establish a desired activity in aphasics is considered in terms of comprehensive reprograming and the division of activities into sequential operations. The creation of external conditions which enable patients to master actions and develop voluntary control over them is examined. Examples of tasks which may be used by aphasics, and the step-by-step procedures to complete them, are given. (18 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Applied specially designed statistical syndrome analyses to derive total profile cluster types of classroom behavior exhibited by normal elementary school children from kindergarten through 6th grade. Analyses were carried out separately at each grade level; and at each level, emerging clusters were compared for percentage of children falling into the cluster, sex distribution, IQ, percentage of aberrant cases, reading achievement grade, and a group of background variables. At each grade level, 5 or 6 cluster types emerged, differing in 1 or more of these variables. 6 cluster types were common to at least 3 grade levels, these alone accounting for the large majority of elementary school children. These behavior clusters are considered to be academically relevant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the literature on teaching approaches for children who display inattentiveness and short attention span, performance anxiety, and a variety of disruptive, defiant, and aggressive behaviors. Specific techniques which have been studied are described to enable any regular- or special-class teacher to implement them and test their utility as a means of fostering behavior conducive to learning. The paper is part of the authors' investigations into the nature, organization, and treatment of behaviorally troubled children; these investigations have resulted in the identification of a series of behavior dimensions that relate to learning effectiveness and recommendation to teachers. It is suggested that further research in the therapeutic remediation be directed to 3 areas: (a) the relationship between poor academic performance and lack of independence in children, (b) the development by teachers of atmospheres fostering student participation, and (c) the personal relationships between emotionally disturbed children and younger elementary school pupils and their teachers. (21/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes tests devised for screening of children from the 2nd 1/2 of 1st grade through the 2nd 1/2 of 4th grade. They consist of 8 group-administered subtests and an additional 4 individually administered auditory subtests for more intensive analysis. The test package is not competitive with the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities which is a diagnostic test, while this is a screening test. Its strong points are that it is group-administered and the school-related tasks that comprise it are easier for the teacher to relate to. Its weak points are the lack of data on both reliability and validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Responds to H. B. Reed (see record 1981-28846-001), contesting Reed's viewpoint that greater knowledge coupled with skillful neuropsychological diagnosis of children would help educators respond to such children more effectively. Also questioned are Reed's viewpoints that known and suspected biological defects may negatively influence learning and behavior, and that educators should know more in this area. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Tested the difference in performance between commands that were read silently as opposed to ones that were spoken. Ss were 30 hyperactive, normal intelligence boys with a mean CA of 9.9, assigned to a group which was either taught to verbalize self-directed commands before responding to a task, silently read the commands, or perform the task without commands. Results show that the group which verbalized commands did significantly better on the task than the other 2 groups. It is concluded that training in self-directed verbal commands is more effective than silently read commands for establishing self-control of voluntary behavior in hyperactive boys. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Administered the WISC and a comprehensive neurological examination to 198 8-12 yr old brain-damaged children and 36 normal children matched for age. On the basis of the neurological examination, Ss were classified as exhibiting either hard signs (e.g., motor dysfunctions or pathological reflexes) or soft signs (e.g., moderate language and speech disturbances, fine motor difficulties, or disturbed balance or gait). WISC IQ was highest in the Ss having 1 or no soft signs, and a greater number of soft signs was associated with a lower IQ. Brain-damaged Ss as a whole showed no Verbal-Performance discrepancies, except that Ss with negative neurological examinations (i.e., 1 or no signs of CNS dysfunction) had significantly lower Verbal IQs than Performance IQs. Hyperkinesis was not associated with test performance. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews the pros and cons of parental involvement in the educational process with special emphasis upon parental roles in public school special education programs. Although many special educators still disparage extensive parental involvement in school affairs, a growing consensus favors a variety of active home-school relationships. This consensus has developed in large part in response to an increasing number of studies supporting successful parental involvement in a variety of educational contexts. (77 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article provides an introduction to the special issue on curriculum-based measurement progress monitoring. This issue of The Journal of Special Education includes reviews of the curriculum-based measurement literature conducted as a part of the Research Institute on Progress Monitoring in the areas of reading, writing, and math. The reviews are designed to provide teachers, administrators, parents, and researchers with information about the present status of curriculum-based measurement--where the support is strong and where more work is needed. A clear understanding of the research base underlying curriculum-based measurement can lead to improvements in its use for educational decision making. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
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Steve Graham
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Bonnie Billingsley
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Margo Mastropieri
  • George Mason University
Christine Espin
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Karen R. Harris
  • Arizona State University