The Journal of Positive Psychology

Published by Taylor & Francis
Online ISSN: 1743-9779
Print ISSN: 1743-9760
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Aims and scope

Publishes research on positive psychology, facilitation of well-being, and the professional application on states of optimal human functioning and fulfillment.

Recent publications
1) Studies Selection Process Flowchart From: [50]
4) Distribution of True Effects and Interval Prediction 4) shows the true effect size distribution. The average effect size is (0.95) with a range of (0.76) to (1.14). This means that any study in this meta-analysis has an effect size between these values with 95% confidence. For any study in a similar population, the effect size could be between (-0.12) and (2.02) with 95% confidence, but more likely near (0.95).
This paper examines the impact of mobile learning implementation in EFL/ESL through a systematic review and meta-analysis of literary productions in various scientific journals (Computers & Education, British Journal of Educational Technology, The Internet and Higher Education, Journal of Educational Technology & Society, Education and Information Technologies). A mixed-method approach with an integrated mixed synthesis design was used in this study, which followed the PRISMA 2020 guidelines. The study included (23) papers, extracted from four scientific journals, resulting in (33) effect sizes, which were checked for reliability using the MMAT 2018 tool. The results showed that the overall effect size was (0.9524) with a confidence interval of 95% (0.76 to 1.14), which indicates a very large effect size. The predictive inference for effect size ranged (-0.12 to 2.02). The results clarified the theoretical foundations, instructional design, language skills, stages of language learning, and tools used in EFL/ESL. The study recommended the implementation of mobile learning in EFL/ESL, providing support and assistance to learners, and conducting more research on the topic.
  • Shigehiro Oishi
    Shigehiro Oishi
  • Youngjae Cha
    Youngjae Cha
We conducted three studies to examine the function of gratitude to God versus dispositional gratitude, dispositional indebtedness, indebtedness to God, and religiosity. Study 1 found that among these variables, dispositional gratitude and religiosity were positively correlated with conscientiousness, the trait most strongly associated with self-regulation, both in self- and informant-reports. Study 2 replicated these findings. Finally, Study 3 (a 44-day daily diary study during Lent) replicated Studies 1 and 2 in terms of predictors of conscientiousness. Furthermore, we found that gratitude to God, rather than dispositional gratitude or religiosity, assessed before the start of Lent predicted average abstinence success during Lent. The multilevel analysis showed that on a day when participants felt more gratitude to God, they abstained more successfully than on a day when they felt less gratitude to God. General gratitude and religiosity were associated with conscientiousness, while gratitude to God was associated with successful abstinence during Lent.
  • Patty Van Cappellen
    Patty Van Cappellen
  • Abbie R. Clapp
    Abbie R. Clapp
  • Sara B. Algoe
    Sara B. Algoe
Gratitude for another person’s actions has received exponential attention from the scientific community for its many benefits. Yet, this research is virtually silent on one key target of gratitude – god – despite billions of people believing in a personal, intervening, and benevolent god. In a large multi-method study, we sampled U.S. Hindus, Muslims, Jews, and Christians (N = 1270). First, we document the prevalence of spontaneous mentions of god as the target of a gratitude expression following a personal success. Only 16% of our religious participants did mention god but priming god increased this number to 29%. Second, we document a wider array of eliciting situations of gratitude to god (GTG) compared to gratitude to another person (GTO) and particularly for broad good things in life that don’t have a clear agent. Finally, we document ways that GTG vs. GTO is demonstrated, suggesting that GTG sustains religious practice and builds morality.
This qualitative research aims to analyze how the major strategic shift in the behavior of nuclear India from defensive (pre-detonation era) to offensive (post-detonation era) has challenged the deterrence stability of south Asia by providing legitimation to Pakistan's deterrent options? Due to this 20 th century's most enduring rivalry (Indo-Pak) and increasing mutual suspicions, the regional nuclear powers are gripped in a Security dilemma. Consequently, the already meager regional resources have been directed towards adding more sophisticated, advanced, and sensitive military technologies (indigenous or imported) to counter the adversary's possible advances. Due to the complex geostrategic location of these nuclear rivals, any triggered conflict may lead to catastrophic outcomes. Which may have deadliest consequences not only for the entire region but also for the rest of the world. Consequently, South Asia the home to one-third of the global population is considered as a nuclear flash point or the most dangerous region on earth. To consolidate this research secondary resources have been used.
How infectious diseases shape individual minds and behaviors has been of interest to researchers. We conducted four studies to examine whether the threat perception of the COVID-19 pandemic was positively related to pro-environmentalism. Study 1 (N = 1,508) showed that individuals’ threat perception of the pandemic was correlated with their pro-environmental behaviors. Study 2 (N = 241) clarified the causality by manipulating threat perception and found that individuals with high (vs. low) threat perception reported higher pro-environmental willingness. Study 3 (N = 406) revealed that awe for nature mediated this relationship. Study 4 (N = 405) replicated Study 3 more than two years after the outbreak and demonstrated the findings were robust regardless of decreases in infection fear. These findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic provides individuals with an opportunity to reconsider the way they treat nature.
Acquiring gratitude and self-transcendence are critical to positive socioemotional development. Indebtedness to God may provide a pathway for this healthy development, yet it remains a largely unexplored construct. The purpose of the present work was to use two innovative qualitative methods; 1) exemplar sampling method (N = 15) and 2) cutting-edge machine learning and language models to visually describe the data (N = 5,598) and provide semantic maps. The thematic coding analyses resulted in 11 inquiry-driven themes (five describing the experience of indebtedness to God and six describing the outcomes of indebtedness to God). The experience of indebtedness to God was transcendent and positive. The machine learning language model analysis resulted in 1,920 unique tags and over 100 independent triangulated semantic themes, and several topographical views of the data to spur future research on this novel construct.
shows the highest percentage of human- centered value in the Ati-Atihan celebration is 28% appreciating the strong belief in Sto. Nino, second, 26.5% concern for others especially for the Aeta, 13. 5% are creative and accurate insights, 11% are hospitality for guests, 8.5% are personal awareness, 7.5% are love, 4 % Truth and 1% for political view.
The celebration of a culture might seem very different depending on who you ask. The Ati-Atihan is perhaps one of the most well-known. This study intends to see the changes that are taking place in the Ati-Atihan festival as a reflection and culture of Akeanon; the human significance that Akeanon possesses, recognizes the impact of community change on the life, mind, culture, and values of the Aeta's. From July 2015 until October 2017, this was carried out in Bulwang, Numancia, and Estancia, all of which are located in Kalibo, Aklan, Philippines. Research of a descriptive nature, in the form of interviews and questionnaires, was conducted with one hundred samples each from the Aeta population and the Non-Aeta population. The alterations are plausible due to the fact that each time the alterations are obvious in the continuous Ati-atihan celebration of the lives of Aetas and Non-Aetas. The findings indicate that more tourists than Aetas take part in the celebration, charcoal is no longer used in place of paints, colorful costumes were worn, the focus was more on celebrities than on Sto. Nio, shopping and drinks, politics are a factor in the celebration, few devotees attended the church mass and proselytized, and there is an increase in road merchandise and drinks. Coconut shells are not used as body costumes, and the original Aetas have been cut out of the celebration. The parade no longer begins at the sea side, as it did in the past; some people's religions or beliefs have changed, which has an effect on those people's beliefs and habits; the parade no longer begins at the sea side. The human values that were noted were a strong belief in Saint Nicholas, concern for the people in general and the Aeta in particular, the ability to think creatively and critically, hospitality, personal awareness, love, truth, and political value.
Background: Education is the basic need and requirement of every individual. Higher education is the strength, competency and capability development of the student and the learner. Management of higher education is necessary and essential for the management Strategies and learning prospectus. Different societies have different educational paradigms that require legislation and rule on the basis of their own social dynamics. Aim: The aim of the present study is to understand the comparative higher education system among the Gulf countries and Pakistan regarding their private and governmental sector educational organizations. Method Data for the research purpose was collected from all the research conducted between 2017 and 2021 written in the English language through the electronic search engine of Maxton, Google Chrome, Firefox, and Microsoft Edge databases: Google Scholar, Cochrane Collaboration, Emerald insight, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Taylor & Frances, Science Direct, ASSIA, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and JSTOR. Keywords used in the research included: higher education systems, private and government sectors, Gulf countries, and Pakistan. Using syntaxes such as “and”, “or”, “with”, “if” etc. Conclusion: Gulf countries have their own in-rooted legislation for higher education. Pakistan has family-designed Higher Education Commission that is working under the ministry of education having international and national relationships with reputed organizations and institutions for educational development. Qatar's higher education system is working under the ministry of education to develop based computers and knowledge.
The gap that this study hopes to solve is the inclusion of pedagogical proficiencies together with the technical abilities in operating LMS. These are the kinds of skills that ought to be experimentally discovered before the establishment of a training program using that software as its basis. This inquiry made use of a descriptive-correlational design, a quantitative technique in the presentation and analysis of the data, and a census in the collection of data utilizing an adopted and modified instrument. In conclusion, the LMS subscription for LENS, Internet connectivity, and online subscriptions such as EBSCO, ERIC, JSTOR, Wiley, Ovid, McGraw Hill, etc. are SOMETIMES available, however video conferencing platforms (messenger, Zoom, Viber, group chat, etc.) are only occasionally accessible. The findings of the survey are concerning since they have an impact on the quality of online and remote learning. The fact that these online journals are readily available to the faculty thanks to the institution's subscription to them could be of great assistance to them. They were unable to attend the school library or any other public libraries during the time that the campuses were temporarily closed, thus it was difficult for them to get their hands on the physical copies of the literature that they needed. They are able to conduct study without leaving the comfort of their own homes and have access to this library subscription that the university maintains.
Local government got recognition as the most significant government tier of service deliverance, fiscal development, and democratic control. Local governments bring government to the doorsteps of the citizens and facilitate local preferences into policy. Local governments are the backbone of a federation where the basic necessities of the local commune meet by the local authorities. It also minimizes the responsibilities of the federal government and its federating units. Pakistan has experienced a troubled local government system since its foundation. After the 18th Amendment in 2010 in the 1973 constitution under the article 140-A, now the provinces are responsible for political, administrative and fiscal affairs of the local governments. Punjab has experienced the PLGA-2013with different flaws. Pakistan Tehreek i Insaf government took an initiative and implemented a new local system in Punjab under PLGO 2021after the final approval of Governor Muhammad Sarwar on December 13, 2021. The new local government system is considering an improved local system that would empower citizens in the actual sense and comprehension of premier Imran Khan's pledge to delegate power to the local level. The new ordinance has suggested manifold changes. It's time now also to free up resources from the provinces; to announce election schedules; and to phase out the bureaucracy's fossilized Brahmins from the municipal level. The study has made a critical analysis of the newly implemented PTI government ordinance introduced in Punjab and investigated how it will carry out the local commune basic necessities after effusive implementation. It is found out that the new system has not yet announced the timetable for the Punjab local government elections. Local governments require turning into endogenous to brace the democracy. The public elimination by the authoritarians and the current government's prompt deferral of the local governments in four provinces, protecting in the name of amendments exacerbate and make worse to the already tormented democracy.
Welcoming accountability is a responsive and responsible virtue that can be shown in relation to people or to God, a higher power, or transcendent guide. Our interdisciplinary team defined transcendent accountability (TA) and developed a 10-item scale using classical and item response theory methods. Across diverse US samples (total N = 990) the scale exhibited internal consistency, construct validity, incremental validity, known-groups validity, and test-retest reliability. TA showed positive correlations with religious and spiritual variables, transcendent virtues (gratitude to God, eschatological hope), human virtues (gratitude, accountability, forgiveness), relationality (agreeableness, empathy), responsibility, conscientiousness, self-regulation), values-congruent autonomy, meaning, and flourishing. It had inverse correlations with negative attitudes and symptoms (personality disorder, anxiety, depression), and weak associations with searching for meaning and social desirability. TA predicted unique variance in spiritual flourishing, meaning, and relational repair. Transcendent accountability is a valuable construct that complements gratitude to God (GTG) and advances positive psychology.
The nature of the relationship between mental health and mental illness is complex and depends on the way we measure and define each concept. A recent article in the Journal of Positive Psychology raises an important question: will positive psychology be better served by a bipolar or bivariate conceptualization of the relationship between well-being and ill-being? Here, bipolar refers to a conceptualization where mental health and mental illness are opposite anchors of the same continuum and bivariate considers each concept related yet distinct. We argue that the bivariate conceptualization offers academic opportunities that are not possible under a bipolar view. We argue that the bipolar conceptualization limits academic progress, diminishes the opportunity for personal recovery, and is not supported by the literature. We further summarize the measurement considerations that would improve the ‘separability’ between mental health and mental illness, to realize the academic opportunities that the bivariate model offers positive psychology.
Knowledge Economy: An Indian Perspective Indian form of knowledge and wisdom touches physical, psychological and philosophical aspects of life. Knowledge is considered as light that shows the path of success and failure. It is something which illuminates and reveals abouttheworldofnoneandformsthebasisoflivingamorallyandethicallygoodlife.Inprevioussomedecadestheconceptof knowledge has been changed that talks about the materialistic aspects of Knowledge and at the same time, discussion about the ‘Knowledge Economy’ has been started to create values from it so that humans can get better standard of life along with qualitative and quantitative growth. Knowledge economy has created an environment ofworkingtogetheringroupsforimprovingcompetenciesatvariousinstitutions.Oneofthecommonandbasicnecessityof Knowledge economy is to have better and competent workforce in academic research and development which further results into creating a value for development of any individuals, groups, community, institutions, state andnation.Thecapacitytouseinformationandcommunicationtechnologies(ICT),solve issues, work in teams, supervise and lead, and engagement in continuous learning are just a few examples of the workplace abilities that a competent workforce must possess. This article will examine the value of interdisciplinary academic research and development from Indian perspective of knowledge economy. Additionally, it examines the degree to which new "workplace competencies "are becoming normative with the help of secondary data. Keywords: Knowledge, Folk-Knowledge, Knowledge Economy, Knowledge Worker.
Objectives: To compare the effects of rigid tapping on pain, Range Of Motion (ROM) and functional disability in addition to routine physical therapy in patient with Sacroiliac Joint (SIJ). Methodology: This was a Randomized control trail (RCT). Total 94 patients of age from 20-35 years were included in this RCT. For evaluating the effects of rigid taping on sacroiliac joint, patients were divided in to two groups. Group A received routine physiotherapy along with rigid taping whereas group B received just routine physiotherapy for pain, ROM and Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS). Data was collected by using questionnaires including Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Neck Disability Index (NDI) and universal goniometer and recorded at baseline, 6th and 12th sessions. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24 was used to analyze the data. Results: The comparison of pain intensity by Mann-Whitney Test after treatment at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 th week showed that mean and standard deviation of pain score were 4.2128 ± 0.61996, 4.2128 ± 0.57992 and 2.0106 ± 2.0106 respectively, in group A and B. There was no statistically significant difference as p − value > 0.005. Similarly, there was no statistical difference in group A and B regarding flexion, extension and axial rotation at baseline, 6 th week and 12 th week as p − value > 0.005. Conclusions: This study concluded that application of rigid taping with routine physiotherapy on group A is same as that of group B with routine physiotherapy in improving pain, ROM and LEFS in female with Lower Cross Syndrome (LCS).
To summarize the types and effects of psycho-behavioral interventions for improving healthy adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB) and analyze the influencing factors, this three-level meta-analysis reviewed studies that measured SWB as outcomes. According to 45 studies, we categorized the interventions into 4 categories: physical activity/health behavior interventions, psychosocial skills interventions (fostering positive characters), psychosocial skills interventions (teaching coping skills), and mixed-type interventions. Most studies were compromised by a weak research design regarding random sequence generation, blinding, and selective reporting. The effect sizes of interventions were low at both post-intervention (Hedges’ g = 0.10) and follow-up (Hedges’ g = 0.02) for positive SWB measures. They were also low at both post-intervention (Hedges’ g = −0.02) and follow-up (Hedges’ g = −0.12) for negative SWB measures. A group-based delivery mode and a longer intervention duration predicted higher effects. These findings call for improving research design in future research and diversifying the intervention approaches. (150 words)
Research on interventions that aim to cultivate character strengths, or virtues, has been conducted primarily among highly resourced, predominantly White communities, and the interventions have been developed to reflect the values of those communities. The purpose of this study was to use a participatory action research approach to develop a virtue intervention focused on addressing the community-identified problem of violence in a predominantly Black community, and to test its effectiveness in a pilot study. Participants were 37 youth (M age = 12.1 years old; 97% Black) who attended summer programs in two sites (on intervention, one control condition). Participants in the intervention group had greater increases in effective nonviolent behavior than participants in the comparison group according to teacher report. Overall, the results of this pilot test suggest it is possible to build a feasible, attractive, evidence-based intervention to promote character strengths using participatory action research.
In partnership with a sport-based Experiential Philanthropy Intervention – The Play Better Program – we conducted a pre-registered, longitudinal experiment examining whether repeatedly reflecting on prosocial activity could boost adolescents’ objective generosity. Adolescents (N = 114; aged 9–16) practiced charitable giving throughout their 2-month sports season and were randomly assigned to repeatedly reflect on the importance of their prosocial activity (Reflection condition) or to write about their everyday activities (Control condition). Adolescents completed an objective measure of generosity at pre- and post-intervention and self-reported measures of prosocial character. Across conditions, adolescents donated objectively more at post- vs. pre-intervention. However, adolescents in the Reflection (vs. Control) condition were no more generous and did not report greater prosocial character at post-intervention. Overall, these findings highlight the malleability of human prosociality and the need for additional scholar-practitioner collaborations to uncover whether and how Experiential Philanthropy Interventions boost long-term generosity among the next generation of givers.
Having purpose is linked to lifelong thriving across the lifespan. However, not all aspects of purpose, such as beyond-the-self purpose, are common among emerging adults. Purpose-relevant interventions in higher education, especially when focused on character development, may facilitate purpose development and have a positive effect on emerging adults’ character. Using mixed-method data from college students in a course designed as a character intervention (n = 32), we explored how the course impacted student purpose. Pre- and post-course purpose scores indicated that the average intervention group’s purpose changed significantly over the semester in two subdomains and that these intervention group changes were significantly greater when compared to a control group (n = 49). Qualitative analyses of intervention group assignments revealed four themes related to purpose: beyond-the-self orientation, tools to pursue purpose, individual flourishing, and building relationships. These results show the power of holistic character interventions to foster purpose in emerging adults.
This paper examines the claim that feelings of gratitude to God are the proper measure for the authenticity and depth of gratitude to God. I want to illuminate what makes that claim seem obvious and then argue that it is false. I hope to show that feeling grateful to God, although not insignificant, is, from the Christian perspective at least, by no means the best barometer of gratitude to God. To those ends, first, I sketch out the structure of gratitude. Next, I explain four ways that gratitude to God stretches or breaks with the paradigmatic structure of standard interpersonal gratitude. I then show how current empirical studies of gratitude to God haven’t been sufficiently attentive to the disanalogy between standard interpersonal gratitude and gratitude to God. Finally, I turn to the Bible to consider how we should rethink gratitude to God if we reject the commonsense view.
Is courage more than just facing fear? We tested the hypothesis that perceived value of the goal, in addition to the perceived riskiness of the action, predicts the extent to which an action is rated as courageous. Participants (300 US undergraduates and 1,254 US residents recruited online) read about either Caitlyn Jenner’s public gender transition or Kim Davis’s refusal to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples. Participants then rated how courageous, risky, and valuable the action was. They also completed a Moral Traditionalism scale. Results indicated that across both samples and both conditions, courage was significantly predicted by the value of the goal, with risk of the action a smaller but mostly significant predictor. Adding Moral Traditionalism as a predictor did not alter these patterns. Results of this study support the inclusion of goal value as an important component of accolade courage.
Religion/spirituality has been linked to virtue development across individuals, but most of this evidence is derived from decontextualized one-time survey studies. We employed a three-wave experience sampling study to examine whether Ramadan heightens Muslim American adolescents’ connectedness to Allah, inhibitory self-control, initiatory self-control, patience, and compassion within individuals. Adolescents (N = 202) were prompted to complete three daily surveys for a week before, during, and after Ramadan each. Results indicated that adolescents grew more connected to Allah and exhibited greater inhibitory self-control, initiatory self-control, and patience in their daily lives from pre-Ramadan to Ramadan, with continued elevated effects for initiatory self-control and patience – but not for inhibitory self-control – after Ramadan. In contrast, adolescents reported high levels of daily compassion before and during Ramadan, but lower levels after Ramadan. Our findings emphasized the importance of disentangling within- and between-person effects and have implications for virtue theories and the design of intervention programs.
In conceptualizing virtues as fully distinct constructs and vices as the absence of virtues, positive psychology is unable to provide a coherent account that explains tensions between virtues. This article puts forward a simple, holistic model that emphasizes the counterbalancing nature of virtues and conceptualizes vices as both deficiencies and excesses of virtues. Virtues check-and-balance one another to temper instantiations of vice. To test this model, a longitudinal study (N = 299) was conducted on goals and goal pursuit, investigating the virtuous strategies of patience and courage and their relations with the vices of passivity and reactivity. Findings suggested empirical support for the virtue counterbalancing model. Additionally, there were interesting distinctions at the within level (e.g., specific goal level) and between level (e.g., characteristic person level) of analysis, which provide further insight into how these virtues and vices relate. Implications for the model and future research directions are discussed.
Character strengths research has the potential to imply that youth have character deficits or moral failings that cause their problematic behavior. This ignores the impact of context, especially for youth who are members of historically marginalized groups in under resourced communities. On the other hand, framing youth who are members of underrepresented groups solely as products of oppression undermines their agency and the power of collective action. It may be possible to promote character development in a contextually relevant, culturally grounded way through a transdisciplinary, participatory action approach. We engaged in this work in three phases: goal specification; logic model identification; and intervention development and testing. Lessons learned included the need for intensive trust-building and identifying the limitations in scope and capacity. Overall, a transdisciplinary, participatory action approach is a promising strategy to overcome the existing bias in virtue development research and to leverage positive psychology to address health disparities.
A growing body of research has focused on distinguishing general forms of gratitude from gratitude to God. We contributed to this area of research by examining correlates of personality traits and meaning in life in a cross-sectional study (N = 1,398). General gratitude was more strongly positively related to honesty-humility, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness, and meaning in life than gratitude to God. Moreover, gratitude to God moderated the positive relationship between general gratitude and meaning in life such that the relationship was stronger at lower than higher levels of gratitude to God. The results suggest that general forms of gratitude may be more important for well-being and positive traits than gratitude to God. General forms of gratitude may be particularly beneficial among less religious people, while gratitude to God may be particularly beneficial for people’s well-being among those who are less grateful in general.
The purpose of the research was to explore the role of universities in achieving Sustainable Development Goal 4 (quality education) in Balochistan. The study also attempted to discover knowledge and awareness of the SDGs among the university community in Balochistan. The study used a quantitative inquiry approach, and data was collected from 120 respondents from major universities in Balochistan using an interview schedule. The results of the study explored that universities had a very vital and prominent role in achieving overall sustainable development goals, especially in SDG 4 (quality education), but there were several factors, like low budgets for universities, a lack of modern tools, equipment, and technology, and a lack of research grants on sustainable development, that prevented universities from achieving sustainable development goals. According to research findings, respondents in the university community presented good but insufficient knowledge about sustainable development, but knowledge in this area should increase in order to understand all SDGs with their goals and targets. The research study recommended that government, non-government, and international agencies should support universities of Balochistan, in order to achieve SDGs, especially sustainable development goal 4. A great change in mindsets and culture is needed in society, academia, and government if we want to meet the challenges of this era.
Perceived reactions to sharing of good news (capitalization), can have important implications for romantic relationships. Typically, when European Americans perceive that their partners respond in an active constructive (versus passive and/or destructive,) manner, they tend to perceive their partners as more responsive and report higher relationship quality. RHowever, cross-cultural differences in norms can influence peoples’ preference for different capitalization responses and whether different capitalization responses convey partner responsiveness. In a combined sample of European Americans, East, and South Asians (N = 915), we investigated whether links among capitalization responses, perceived partner responsiveness, and relationship quality differed by culture. People who perceived active constructive and passive destructive responses reported higher and lower levels of partner responsiveness and relationship satisfaction, respectively. Further, European Americans who perceived active destructive, and European Americans and East Asians who perceived passive constructive, responses, reported less partners responsiveness and relationship satisfaction. South Asians who perceived passive constructive responses reported greater partner responsiveness and relationship satisfaction. East and South Asians who perceived active destructive responses did not differ in relationship satisfaction. Our findings provide a cross-cultural perspective on the study of romantic couples’ positive event disclosure and expand capitalization research to an understudied sample of South Asians.
Considered as a transitional object, the comforting power of the teddy bear has often been asserted in many past studies without knowing its underlying determinants. Through a participatory study conducted during the European Researchers’ Night, this study aims to identify characteristics of teddy bears that influence their comforting power, including visual, olfactory and kinesthetic properties. We also tested the effect of ownership on comforting power. Our study revealed that the emotional bond shared with a teddy bear is a predominant factor. However, we identified characteristics that play a significant role in the perception of comfort, which lies in a combination of visual, olfactory, and especially kinesthetic characteristics. Through these results, our study identifies the determinants spontaneously taken into account in the attribution of teddy bears’ capacity to provide comfort. These results were independent of participants’ age, reminiscent of the teddy bear’s ability to provide comfort at all stages of life.
Gratitude interventions have been shown to reduce stress, but minimal research has examined domain- and stressor-specific gratitude interventions. This study assessed the impact of those gratitude interventions on stress and affect. Participants (N = 239) from the U.S. general population were randomized into one of three groups: domain-specific gratitude (gratitude list in seven domains), stressor-specific gratitude (gratitude list about a stressor in seven domains), or control (task completion list for seven days). The domain-specific gratitude group decreased in stress and negative affect and increased in positive affect from pre- to post-intervention and had lower stress and negative affect than the stressor-specific gratitude group post-intervention. The stressor-specific gratitude group increased in stressor-specific gratitude from pre- to post-intervention. The control group decreased in stress from pre- to post-intervention. Our findings suggest that a domain-specific gratitude intervention is beneficial for psychological health, and a stressor-specific gratitude intervention is beneficial for reframing stressors.
Random intercepts cross-lagged panel model (N = 320) with breadth of kindness schema repertoire and peer acceptance. Unstandardized estimates are displayed. Cross-lagged and autoregressive paths were constrained equal over time, whereas withinwave covariances were freely estimated. Breadth = breadth of kindness schema repertoire; Acceptance = peer acceptance. *** p < .001.
Prototypicality of Virtues Exemplifying Kindness for 4 th and 5 th Graders.
Multilevel Regression Models Predicting Peer-Nominated and Teacher-Rated Kindness as a Function of Breadth of Kindness Schema Repertoire.
Kindness is key to flourishing school communities. A social-cognitive approach to virtue emphasizes the importance of having an elaborate set of accessible mental representations (i.e., schemas) for expressing kindness. We employed a multi-informant, mixed method, longitudinal design across 6 months that focused on 4th and 5th graders’ (N = 320) kindness schemas using the open-ended question, ‘What are some ways you can show kindness to others?’ Results indicated that children’s schemas entailed wide-ranging content, expressing virtues of generosity, compassion, inclusion, civility, and harm avoidance. The breadth of children’s schema repertoires was positively associated with peer (but not teacher) ratings of their kindness, and virtues that attend to others’ vulnerability (compassion, inclusion) were the most indicative of children’s kindness from peers’ perspectives. Further, the breadth of kindness repertoires was associated with aspects of classroom ecology (e.g., peer acceptance), suggesting that positive classroom relationships may serve as sites for the cultivation of kindness schemas.
There are various ways in which, and reasons why, people can think that they matter. In three studies (total N = 1,528 US adults and undergraduates) we investigated perceptions of mattering overall, to other people (generally), to close others (like family and friends), in one’s society, and in the grand scheme of the universe. Each was a distinct construct, displaying unique patterns of association with psychological traits and mental health outcomes, including perceived meaning in life and suicidal ideation. We content-coded participants’ explanations of their overall perceptions, finding that most participants mentioned people and other Earthly concerns, whereas few mentioned the cosmos. In a randomized, controlled experiment, participants reminded of the size of the universe perceived themselves to matter less in the cosmos, but more to close others. Overall, results demonstrate important differences between forms of perceived mattering and suggest that social factors play an outsized role in overall perceptions.
Social Cognitive Theory
Frequency Distribution
Ordinal Logistic Regression (Socioeconomic Determinants of Mental Health among the
Ordinal Logistic Regression (Socioeconomic Determinants of Mental Health among the University Students with the mediating effect of empowerment and social media)
The Mental health development of youth is an ignoring factor in our societies, communities, workplace and even then, in the academic institutions. Every aspect of growth depends on the health and most probability on the mental health. The Purpose of this study to find out the socioeconomic determinants of mental health with the mediating role of empowerment and social media in the perspectives of university students. Data was collected from the university students, through simple random sampling technique from the different department of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Mental health is evaluated through the self-reported questions based on 12 items expressing the feelings, emotions, expressions, depression and anxiety and adopting the scale from poor to good mental health. Data on the socioeconomic determinants, such as parents' education, income, behavior, age and gender of respondents was collected through online survey. Empowerment level among the students was measured through three dimensions-decision making, self-confidence and self-esteem. Social media was measured through usage of three different media Facebook, YouTube, and TikTok. The current study found the positive and significant impact of age, gender, parents' good behavior, and respondents age on mental health in the perspectives of gender. In mediating role, empowerment and social media are supposed to be enhance the consequence of socioeconomic determinants of mental health. Mental health in youth can be enhance by focusing on the socioeconomic determinants which are the most effecting factors. Students' resonances to be more relaxed and mentally satisfied whenever they are 1959 Journal of Positive School Psychology empowered and well aware about the right usage of social media.
This article represents the first document co-citation on the purpose construct. Document co-citation is a bibliometric methodology that provides a clear, systematic structure for examining the intellectual foundations of a field or construct. Our analysis yielded several novel insights, including a few potentially troubling ones. For instance, it revealed that the origins of purpose, a construct that has deep roots in philosophy and significant implications for a variety of fields, derived almost exclusively from the study of psychology. Foundational work was primarily conducted by scholars in North America, and early conceptualizations of purpose were inconsistent. Originating documents often used the term interchangeably with meaning. These practices, which have persisted at least to some degree, are likely to yield inconsistent and unreliable conclusions. Implications of our findings as well as cautions and directions for future research are addressed.
Previous studies evidence the benefits of gratitude and psychoeducation to diminish the performing of aggressive behaviours. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a brief gratitude programme and a brief psychoeducational programme to prevent cyberaggression in adolescents. A sample of 483 adolescents (11–17 years old) participated in the study, being assigned to one of the following three groups: gratitude programme, psychoeducational programme and the control. Both programmes comprised four one-hour sessions. All participants completed the cyberaggression subscale of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIP-Q) at three time points: pre-test, post-test and three-month follow-up. Significant decreases in cyberaggression were found at post-test in the psychoeducational group and at the three-month follow-up in the gratitude group. These findings provide the first evidence of the benefits of gratitude training in adolescents to prevent cyberaggression over time.
Do supernatural attributions to God and the devil relate to a sense of meaning in life? We investigated this question by conducting a three-week experience sampling study (N = 75), in which we measured daily causal attributions for both positive and negative events and assessed daily meaning (n = 1,425 total daily reports). Correlational and multilevel path analyses revealed several reliable between-person associations. People who made more attributions to God (particularly for positive events) had higher meaning, and people with stronger religious worldviews who made more attributions to the devil/demons (particularly for negative events) had higher meaning. These findings were largely robust when controlling for relevant meaning and religious/spiritual covariates. We did not find evidence for within-person associations; daily changes in attributions and meaning were not related. Consistent and enduring attributions to God and the devil/demons may be particularly meaningful ways of understanding the world.
The aim of this paper is to analyze how vulnerable workers facing economic challenges during Covid- 19 pandemic. This study is also intended to know whether SSN’s is able to protects vulnerable workers during Covid-19 pandemic. This research use case study approach. Data collection was carried out with literature study, secondary data, and interviewing vulnerable workers, Biro Perencanaan Kementerian Sosial RI, and also Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional PPN/BAPPENAS. Data collection was conducted on May untill August 2020. The results of this research shows that SSNs is not able to protects vulnerable worker during Covid-19 pandemic. The presence of SSNs during Covid- 19 pandemic presenting new problems in the implementation among others are the inequality in aids distribution, uncertainty of the procedures and requirement to gets the aid, data of the recipient is not up to date, etc. The government needs to review the SSNs policy during Covid-19 pandemic and improve poverty data, so poverty data are integrated.
The research aimed to investigation on the violence in electronic media and its effect on aggressive behavior of students. Objective of the study was to identify the effect of electronic media violence on students behavior in the classroom. The study was descriptive in nature and survey research design was used. Population of the study was comprised 490 male and female students studying in 4th and 5th grades. Sample the study was comprised of 117 boys and 118 girls using convenient sampling technique. A questionnaire used for teachers with four point Liker-scale "Never to Always" and an observation checklist was used to observe aggressive behaviour of the students in school time. It was found that human relation break is more common among students than other types of violence. Moreover, the present study revealed that electronic media violence has strong effect on students' aggressive behaviour. it was recommended that teachers and parent adopt different strategies to over come students aggressive behavior it was also recommended that teacher suggest different informative programs and involve them in different games which they play in their home also so it may reduce the habbit of using electronic media and over come the aggressiveness of the students
Background: A common perception in Muslim society is there that, in old age, people see God (Allah) to close as well as they spend most of their time in worshiping and other religious as well spiritual based activities. While role of health and locus of health control is also playing such religious and spiritual practices. Aim of Study: To check the correlation between health locus of control, religious attitude, and spirituality among older Saudi Arabian adults. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive research design was used on the 109 older adults, who were selected through online questionnaires by using convenient purposive sampling technique. We used three questionnaires such as health locus of control, religious attitude scale and spirituality index. Findings & Results: It was found that older adults have a high level of religious attitude as 71.2% and spirituality as 80.1%. The correlation of the subdomain of health locus of control in its powerful others dimension has a low but statistically significant correlation with religious attitude (r =.278, p = and does not have a correlation with spirituality; thus, a level of high religious attitude makes it more likely that older adults have a locus of control over health powerful others at a high level (odds = 3.11, 2.21 –7.22). Conclusion: There is higher level of religious attitudes in Saudi older adults. While health locus of control has a significant impact in practicing religious activities as well as showing spirituality. Keywords: Adults, Attitude, Older, Religiosity, Spirituality, Locus of Control, Health, Jeddah.
We respond to Ballantyne’s feature article on intellectual humility from the viewpoint of being interventionists in psychology (Worthington) and political science (Garrett). Philosophers differ from interventionists in discipline, method, and goals. While, philosophers usually seek to describe what is true as uncovered by the methods of analytic (or existential) philosophy, interventionists seek to help diverse people solve problems, cope with unsolvable problems, or build virtue or character. Consequently, philosophers and interventionists often conceive of IH differently. In this article, we argue that interventionists benefit from mixed definitions of IH and would be constricted by a definition like the one favored by Ballantyne, which localizes the experience of IH within the individual as a pursuit of truth. We offer three examples that illustrate how a mixed definition of IH that recognizes the social nature of IH better equips interventionists to help the wide range of clients they serve.
The Variables for online service adoption and use
The Results of the Calculation
Students' academic advising support is considered important in students' success within a higher education institution. The students support service help students solve academic problems during their study period through direct consultation between students and academic advisors. Currently, such students' academic support services are available online to make the services easier to access. However, limited studies have been conducted to understand factors that affect students' motivation to adopt online academic support services within Islamic universities which practice strong Islamic values. Therefore, the aim of the study is to explore factors that influence Muslim students to adopt and use online academic advising support systems within an Islamic university in Indonesia. We tested five variables to find out factors for Muslim students to adopt and use an online academic advising support system. We recruited 160 students from four faculties within an Islamic university, and then we distributed a five-scale Likert scale online questionnaire. The results of our study show that variables perceived of use, perceived usefulness, perceived interactivity, perceived non-mahram avoidance, and perceived anonymity have significantly influenced the students' intention to adopt and use the online academic advising support systems. Our findings contribute to the understanding that online academic advising support systems can attract more Muslim students to the system within a university. The high rate of web-based academic advising support systems adoption and use might increase the student's academic success and increase the high rate of student retention. This study might contribute to the rampant adoption and use of web-based academic advising support systems within universities in the future.
Over the past 20 years, intellectual humility research has blossomed. Ballantyne’s (2021) target article argues that intellectual humility research is stymied by disagreements over assessment, terminology, and how to accommodate certain findings with others. In this commentary, I make a case that these struggles are a typical part of a broader research cycle. I use the General Aggression Model as an example of when researchers applied intellectual humility to develop an overarching theory of aggression and how doing so supercharged aggression research. I conclude by encouraging intellectual humility researchers to come together and formulate a general theory of intellectual humility.
PRISMA 2020 Flow Diagram for Article Selection
Summary of Main Criticisms and Critiques of Positive Psychology
The purpose of this systematic literature review was to explore the current critiques and criticisms of positive psychology and to provide a consolidated view of the main challenges facing the third wave of research. The review identified 32 records that posed 117 unique criticisms and critiques of various areas of the discipline. These could be grouped into 21 categories through conventional content analysis, culminating in six overarching themes or 'broad criticisms/critiques'. The findings suggested that positive psychology (a) lacked proper theorizing and conceptual thinking, (b) was problematic as far as measurement and methodologies were concerned, (c) was seen as a pseudoscience that lacked evidence and had poor replication, (d) lacked novelty and self-isolated itself from mainstream psychology, (e) was a decontextualized neo-liberalist ideology that caused harm, and (f) was a capitalistic venture. We briefly reflect on the findings and highlight the opportunities these criticisms and critiques present.
The use of the Internet of Things (IoT) in the healthcare industry has the potential to improve healthcare services and outcomes through the use of connected devices and technology. By collecting and analyzing a large amount of data from various sensors and devices, the combination of IoT and centralized cloud computing can enable healthcare professionals to remotely monitor patients in near real-time, accurately diagnose conditions, and provide more personalized and efficient treatment through the use of artificial intelligence. However, high latency, low storage, lack of geographical location awareness, network failure, and security and privacy issues remain challenges in the adoption of IoT and cloud computing in the healthcare industry. To address these weaknesses, there is increasing interest in using edge and fog computing, which brings cloud computing capabilities closer to IoT devices through the use of intermediary nodes or gateways to process and transmit data, rather than sending all data to a central cloud server. This can reduce latency, improve data security and privacy, and allow for more efficient use of resources. This paper provides a review of the state-of-the-art of edge and fog computing, its integration with the IoT, and the benefits and challenges of implementing the fog model in healthcare applications. It also covers various edge and fog computing architectures and how they can be used to improve emerging IoT applications, including potential future research directions related to fog computing, and AI in edge/fog layer in IoT-based healthcare applications.
This article is a response to Ballantyne’s summary evaluation of the intellectual humility (IH) literature. This response offers ideas for helping resolve existing conceptual disagreements through allowing ongoing empirical insight to inform conceptual refinement. In addition, options for overcoming the problems Ballantyne highlights with self-reported measures of IH are discussed.
Background: Healthcare services required effective intervention based on nursing care and services. In the early ages of advanced and scientific healthcare concerns. There were few excellent nurses who could perform scientific healthcare services to the patient. Therefore, to maintain healthcare decorum. It was important to address the excellence of healthcare performance among the nurses.
To improve rubberneck equipment, the IRCTC sent Rail Neer, a potable drinking water supply to railway workers. Rail Neer is handled, unloaded, and packed in the form of building stores. Factory and no automatic water treatment of the item in any category. The IRCTC represents quality and plays a key role in ensuring the management and effect of the highest quality rubberneck railway as a visitor to any demesne railway line. Good information should be verified if the creation is in-house under the full control and operation of the IRCTC. As of now,
Attitude is very complex and sticky construct. Pakistani sector educational institutions offer three educational streams; Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Chemistry is a painstaking subject for secondary school students. Students remain curious during the process of learning. Students move away from Chemistry understanding due to complications. The individuals show their poor attitudes towards learning Chemistry as well. The present research was framed to examine the students’ attitude towards learning chemistry at the secondary level by gender, academic stream, locale and school type. The nature of this study was descriptive and quantitative with a positivistic paradigm. 700 individuals were selected from 35 boy secondary schools and 35 girl secondary schools. Individuals were selected on the basis of multi-stage random sampling procedure. An adapted attitude scale was used for data collection comprised of seven factors. The questionnaire was piloted tested; the first draft was distributed to 50 male secondary schools and 50 female of 10th grade. The reliability and validity of the instrument were tested by using the statistical operations. The instrument was revised for the final instrumentation; two items were excluded from the final attitude scale and was consisted of 30 items. The researcher himself distributed and collected the data from the 700 subjects. Data were inserted in SPSS-24 for analyzing the data. Standard Deviation (SD), Mean, and independent sample t-test were applied for analyzing and the data. The results show that female students having better attitude than the male students; in the context of academic stream, biology students having better attitude than the computer students; in locale, urban students possessing more positive attitude than the rural students; furthermore, public school students possessing more positive attitude than the private school students towards learning chemistry at secondary level. Further research studies may conduct on the same construct in the future at primary, elementary, higher secondary, college and university level in different subjects.
The empirical study of virtue is plagued by imprecise definitions and assessment. Here we propose a three-stage, data-driven (‘bottom-up’) method to differentiate lay perceptions of virtues. Employing two virtues – generosity (as cooperation) and fairness (as impartiality) – as a case study, we present findings utilizing data from three studies (total N = 2,667). First, natural language processing of free-response data indicated that participants used different ‘topics’ (i.e. clusters of words) to describe behaviours representing generosity (topics: ‘charity’ and ‘kindness’) and fairness (‘equality’). Second, participants in a survey experiment rated behaviours expressing generosity and fairness differently across 6 out of 9 underlying features measured. Third, participants perceive that actors in vignette-based experiments engaging in behaviours expressing generosity versus fairness were motivated differently on 5 out of 6 motivations measured. Our findings support the distinction of the virtues of generosity (as cooperation) and fairness (as impartiality) and indicate the utility of our bottom-up method for assessing and distinguishing virtues.
Prior to the confinement caused by covid19, the face-to-face modality covered a series of aspects that were related to the academic performance of students and that, because of the migration to virtual education, gave way to other variables that now constitute the new causes of their success or failure. This research develops a longitudinal analysis of the evolution of the academic performance of students in the first levels of the Universidad Politécnica Estatal del Carchi, through a comparative statistical methodology based on neural networks that takes as moments of study two academic periods before and two after the pandemic. The research yielded a predictive model that offers a 78% of correct classification in relation to the main variables that can influence academic performance, being results that coincide to a great extent with the research taken as references.
Research on intellectual humility has accumulated rapidly. In this content analysis, we review existing published empirical work. We conducted searches using Google Scholar, ProQuest, and PsycInfo and found 59 articles with 134 samples. Most studies have focused on convenience samples and used similar measurement approaches – self-reports of intellectual humility. Nonetheless, some teams are beginning to move towards methods that can test causal implications of evolving theory, such as experimental methods or longitudinal studies. Furthermore, although most studies have focused on measurement issues, some scholars are beginning to venture out into applied work on intellectual humility. At least initially, researchers are gravitating towards areas where cultural ideology and commitment-related biases might put pressure on individuals to prioritize loyalty over truth seeking. Implications for future research are discussed.
Intellectual humility (IH) likely is most challenging when individuals are confronted with existential threats, a state we label existential humility (EH). Existential humility includes holding cherished beliefs regarding the meaning of life and death loosely enough to revise in light of evidence, as well as lower defensiveness following existential threats or reminders. We discuss the broader personality structure IH and EH, focusing on the Big Five factor of agreeableness as well as narcissism. We propose that the most diagnostic situations of the existence of intellectual humility – heretofore rare in the empirical literature – are in the realm of existential beliefs. Moving from existential arrogance to humility may require substantial self-change, though transcendent situations such as flow experiences, awe (e.g., wondrous vistas in nature), meditation, or even experience with psychedelics may be viable pathways toward greater existential humility.
Journal metrics
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4.29 (2021)
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Top-cited authors
Alex Mathew Wood
  • The London School of Economics and Political Science
P. Alex Linley
Jonathan Haidt
  • New York University
Willibald Ruch
  • University of Zurich
Sonja Lyubomirsky
  • University of California, Riverside