The Journal of Higher Education

Published by Johns Hopkins University Press
Online ISSN: 1538-4640
Print ISSN: 0022-1546
Publications
This longitudinal study examined whether the combination of having negative racial interactions and identifying with one's domain of study affects underrepresented racial minority freshmen. In line with stereotype threat theory, students reporting higher levels of this combination of experiences and attributes were significantly less likely to persist in their intended biomedical or behavioral science major.
 
In the 1980s the federal government established policies and regulations for scientific misconduct related to research supported by federal funds. The history of the development and the community criticism of the regulatory definition of scientific misconduct is reviewed.
 
Summary Statistics for Covariates [N in parenthesis] 
Using a representative longitudinal survey of Texas high school seniors who graduated in 2002, we investigate how college postponement is associated with four-year college expectations and attendance-focusing both on the length of delay and the pathway to the postsecondary system. Like prior studies, we show that family background and student academic achievement explains the negative association between delay and college expectations and that these factors, along with two-year college entry pathway, largely accounted for the negative association between postponement and enrollment at a four-year institution in 2006. Although delays of one year or longer are associated with significantly lower odds of attending a baccalaureate-granting institution four years after high school, the longest delays do not incur the most severe enrollment penalties.
 
In the United States Congress, attention to scientific fraud and misconduct has involved extensive use of oversight authority, whereby committees attempt to provoke but not require change. Because scientists and universities have failed to respond promptly to calls for self-regulation, Congress has imposed formal regulations and favors increased scrutiny of research and a reassessment of university-government-science relations.
 
This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists' subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm.
 
This article characterizes and traces the evolution of research misconduct policies developed by universities since the late 1970s. It argues that research universities have been slow to accept responsibility for research misconduct and suggests that they should examine their research environments and place more emphasis on research ethics education.
 
This article analyzes the roles of segments of the trans-scientific community in exercising social control of misconduct, the limitations on control, and implications for policy on misconduct and its control.
 
Individual psychopathology, anomie, and alienation are insightful but limited and untestable explanations of misconduct. Observing that public attention devoted to scientific misconduct has risen more rapidly than the amount of such behavior, a potentially more fruitful perspective grounded in recent theories of social control is suggested, and some of its implications for research and policy are explored.
 
Factor Loadings and Reliabilities for Dependent Variables (all surveyed in 1998)
Estimation of One-way Random-effects ANOVA Base Models
Estimation of the Final HLM Model for All Measures 
Percent of Variance Explained at Level-1 and Level-2 
This study examined whether or not students who either had higher levels of cross-racial interaction during college or had same-institution peers with higher average levels of this type of interaction tend to report significantly larger developmental gains than their counterparts. Unlike previous quantitative studies that tested cross-racial interaction using single-level linear models, this study more accurately models the structure of multilevel data by applying Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). The general pattern of findings suggests that higher individual levels of cross-racial interaction have positive effects on students' openness to diversity, cognitive development, and self-confidence. The results also show that even though a student’s own level of cross-racial interaction is a more direct and powerful way to realize developmental gains, simply being in an environment where other students are interacting frequently also contributes to students’ self-reported development.
 
Universities and public service education noting NASA requirements and programs
 
Comparing National Price Levels
Real E&G Expenditures Per FTE, 1929-1995 (1995-96 dollars)
Timepath of Real Product Category Prices, 1929-95
This article presents new evidence on the conflict between two competing explanations of the increase in college costs, the cost disease theory of William Baumol and William Bowen and the revenue theory of cost of Howard Bowen. Using cross-section data, the article demonstrates that the cost disease explanation is more important than the revenue theory.
 
A study of the "social dimensions of stress" in an American university. Ss were a group of graduate students. Stress situation consisted of doctoral examinations. Study deals with social interactions of these students during the stress period, their stress-adaptation mechanisms, and their reactions to success and failure. Author reviews the contributions of various scientific disciplines to the concept of stress and concludes that stress can best be understood within the framework of group interaction and influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Written about Asian Americans by an Asian American, this volume brings together up-to-date information about the developed abilities, academic achievements, educational aspirations, and higher education and career attainments of Asian Americans in the aggregate, as well as separately by subgroups. The information presented here challenges some widely held beliefs about minorities in general, and Asian Americans in particular. This is not a how-to book. Rather, the focus is on the reasons behind recent changes in the Asian American population. Presently just over 2% of the total United States population, Asian Americans are changing rapidly not only in numbers, but in racial and ethnic composition, socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and occupational levels. These changes happen not only through individual and cooperative efforts, but also via the dynamics of day-to-day interactions of Asian Americans as they encounter the myriads of social, economic, and political forces, international as well as domestic, of this complex society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This study tests the relationship between instructional resources and baccalaureate origins of women doctorates. It analyzes whether there are some institutional types that are more efficient than others. Our findings provide substantial support for the notion that the baccalaureate origins of women doctorates cannot be linked exclusively to the resources of their undergraduate institution. Rather, the focus of the undergraduate institution and its student population play an important, intervening role, influencing both the productivity and efficiency of institutions. Dollars and $ense Page 3 Introduction The need for more women and women of color within the faculty ranks has been widely recognized as an important goal within American higher education (see e.g., Blackwell, 1996; Cross, 1996; Nakanishi, 1996; Olivas, 1996). The shortage of women, and especially women of color, who have earned doctorates is frequently cited as one of the reasons that women are underrepresented among ...
 
Gives a detailed overview of research ethics in the social sciences. Topics include the treatment of Ss, deception and informed consent, disguised participant observation, and cross-cultural research. Specific examples of questionable research are cited, and working guidelines are offered. (23 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Predicting college grades of individual students is by no means exact, but overall, there is a moderately good correlation between a student's college grades and his or her previous school record and SAT [Scholastic Aptitude Test] scores. Such correlations vary in size from college to college, but it is more surprising that correlations averaged across colleges vary from year to year. For example, the average correlation of SAT scores with freshman grade average has decreased in recent years, following an earlier increase. Why is that? Have there been changes in the test? In the grade criterion? Only an integrated series of studies could disentangle the host of factors that might be involved in such correlational trends. Believing that a better understanding of trends in validity coefficients would be useful to colleges, the College Board and ETS [Educational Testing Service] decided to undertake the studies here reported. This volume comes in two parts. The results of individual research studies are reported in Part II (chapters 4-13). Chapters 1 through 3 in Part I are less technical and intended for a general professional audience. The purpose of Part I is to furnish useful background information, suggest a framework for thinking about the topic, and summarize what we have found. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Selected papers from the proceedings of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd University of Utah conferences on the identification of creative scientific talent. Papers are arranged according to: (a) criterion; (b) intellectual, personality, and motivational characteristics; (c) environmental conditions and specific situational determinants; and (d) theoretical analyses of process. (400-item bibliogr.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This book is intended to stimulate college and university communities to further examine the issues and dynamics involved in sexual relationships between students and faculty and serve as a resource during this process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
This book represents the authors' conviction that interpretive, normative, and critical perspectives be brought to bear in the analysis of moral development theory. From the book's inception, the purpose has been to set the stage for an introductory meeting ground that might engage those who are interested in reconciling the separate paths often taken by students in psychology, education, philosophy, and social criticism. Thus the objective is to bring together these divergent strands in moral development theory; consequently, thinkers whose contributions to moral development theory have been neglected are accorded more complete treatment. This edition . . . has added presentations and evaluations of social learning theory, hermeneutics and moral action, empathy and social cognition, cross-cultural human development, and psychosocial theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Guidelines for managers of university research groups cover securing resources, personnel, and services and choosing collaborators, as well as organizing, supervising, and controlling research activities. Attention is directed to: orientation of personnel; reporting mechanisms; boosting morale; the needs of different personnel; handling travel, publication, and purchasing activities; maintaining equipment and literature retrieval systems; managing secretarial and support staff; time management; and public relations. New to this revised edition of the guide are guidelines for research with animals, human subjects, and biohazards, and for performance evaluation, personnel problems, and budget management. The following types of grants are considered: free gift or grant-in-aid, grant, cooperative agreement, contract, fellowship, and scholarship. Information is also provided on: proposal preparation and common problems of grant proposals, databases on foundations and other granting agencies, periodicals that advertise openings for researchers, questions for conducting telephone interviews for postdoctoral and senior supervisor positions, and books for orientation of new researchers. A sample letter that might accompany a grant-in-aid check and a performance evaluation form for researchers are included. (SW)
 
In addition to describing the traditional college curriculum and comparing historical moments in curriculum change in America, this history defines other historic dimensions: prescription versus free choice, general versus specialized education, elite versus egalitarian education, mass versus individualized instruction, autocratic versus bureaucratic administration, subject-based versus competency-based curricula, and others. The origins of these concepts and the tensions existing between them are addressed. (MSE)
 
Christina Jungnickel and Russell McCormmach have created in these two volumes a panoramic history of German theoretical physics. Bridging social, institutional, and intellectual history, they chronicle the work of the researchers who, from the first years of the nineteenth century, strove for an intellectual mastery of nature. Volume 1 opens with an account of physics in Germany at the beginning of the nineteenth century and of German physicists' reception of foreign mathematical and experimental work. Jungnickel and McCormmach follow G. S. Ohm, Wilhelm Weber, Franz Neumann, and others as these scientists work out the new possibilities for physics, introduce student laboratories and instruction in mathematical physics, organize societies and journals, and establish and advance major theories of classical physics. Before the end of the nineteenth century, German physics and its offspring, theoretical physics, had acquired nearly their present organizational forms. The foundations of the classical picture of the physical world had been securely laid, preparing the way for the developments that are the subject of volume 2.
 
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Chicago, Dept. of Education, August 1984. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 519-530).
 
Based on the theory that higher education in America has been on the decline since 1953, the decadence and hopes for renewal in higher learning are examined. The following afflictions are cited as cause for the decline: (1) a purposelessness or loss of the objects of wisdom and virtue; (2) intellectual disorder: all integration and order of knowledge in flux and the "cafeteria-style" curriculum; (3) gigantism in scale; and (4) the weakening of primary and secondary schooling. The afflictions are seen as the products of two fallacies in education. Fallacy One is the notion that the primary purpose of higher learning is to promote utilitarian efficiency; to make people producers and consumers rather than people of knowledge. Fallacy Two is the notion that almost everybody ought to attend college. The chapters are devoted to such themes as "The Overthrow of Standards,""Academic Intolerance,""Universities for Defense and Matrimony,""Withered Authority," and "Academic Freedom and Teachers' Unions." Possible cures for the decline are offered, such as returning to a genuine liberal arts education. A "radical reaction" is called for to revitalize the imagination and the recovery of knowledge. (LC)
 
Reported are the results of an examination of career choices of medical students and physicians from 1958 to 1976. The project was undertaken to determine whether or not data collected at admission and matriculation could be used to predict the career choices of medical students. The report identifies and measures the relative importance of factors such as the preparation of students entering medical school, their values and lifestyle, the influence of their medical school, and the effects of government funding and the demands of society. Special emphasis is placed on identifying factors affecting the choice of primary care and/or practice in a medically deprived geographic area. Included also are special studies of career decisions by women students. (Editor/MSE)
 
Thesis (Ph. D. in Education and Human Development)--Vanderbilt University, 1991. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 301-307).
 
During my junior year at Grambling College, the campus was roiled by the release of an article in Harvard Educational Review. [One of the articles] launched a broadside attack against Black colleges essentially questioning whether these hard-fought for institutions deserved to exist. The article’s publication caused the handful of whites on the faculty to become noticeably uncomfortable and regrettably led some of the colleagues and students to question their fealty to Grambling. (Schexnider, 2003, 128)
 
This book explores three major imperatives of American higher education in the decades ahead. First, colleges and universities must respond to six critical challenges: minority participation; financing quality education; replacing quality faculty; affordability; institutional ethics; and national competitiveness. Second, strong leadership is required at both the institutional and state government levels; and third, the impact of changing regional economies will transform institutions located in burgeoning metropolitan areas and foster new forms of higher education. Seventeen chapters address these and other issues including: the community college perspective (in a chapter by George B. Vaughan); leadership of governors versus college presidents; U.S. higher education as a managerial model; multicampus governing boards; coordinating boards and the politication of U.S. higher education; new ways of serving hypergrowth regions (in a chapter by Edward L. Delaney and Donald M. Norris); and the distributed university. An appendix reports on a 1988/89 survey of 148 college and university presidents, governors, and others which identified respondents opinions concerning important issues, trends, challenges, and troubling patterns. References are provided for each chapter. (DB)
 
This book will provide administrators, educators, and counselors in secondary and higher education environments with significant data on the influences behind a student's decision to choose a particular college. Specifically, it provides descriptions of some temporal and behavioral aspects of the liberal arts science graduates' decisions to enter the sciences and to choose the liberal arts college: when students form vocational judgments about entering the science; at what stage of their education the choice of a specific field is made; and what graduates perceive as major influences determining such choices. Prepared under the auspices of the Research Corporation, the study considers five categories (biology, pre-medicine, chemistry, mathematics, and physics) of graduates from 49 private four-year liberal arts colleges of acknowledged high quality. Data were extracted from responses to a six-page questionnaire completed by 16,395 science majors graduated during 1958-1967. Findings show that nearly half of the science majors responding had decided their major by the time they were in the ninth grade, although the specific science was not usually decided upon until later. Pre-medical students made their decisions the earliest, closely followed by those majoring in physics. (Author/PR)
 
The inner structure of campus management is examined to reveal the human side of personnel management, public and student relations, budget planning, affirmative action, faculty politics, salary disputes, and tenure decisions. The analysis depicts the special situation that results from a dean's management of people who not only are the dean's academic peers--drawn from learned ranks of American society--but who also sit as the judges of their own managers. Chapters include: the study of academic management; the administrative temperament; the faculty and its politics; salary, promotion, and tenure; outreach: the university as urban service station; affirmative action: equity and what it means; money: how to get it, how to spend it; governance: running the store; and evaluating a dean. Appendices provide forms for student evaluation of professors, criteria for faculty evaluation, and criteria for evaluating a dean. (LC)
 
This book guides the novitiate (and those who aspire to be professors) through the intricacies of survival and gives much tongue-in-cheek advice on how to be good at professoring. The author explains the mechanics of the hiring process, unique to academia, in which supply greatly exceeds demand, and nobody seems to pay much attention to the matter of salary. He also explains the perennial debate between the importance-of-teaching faction and the importance-of-research faction, and suggests ways of striking a balance without too much bloodshed. A chapter on how to cope with day-to-day problems deals with assigning grades, advising students, handling romantic involvements, and avoiding committee assignments. (Author)
 
Written for deans in colleges and universities of all sizes and types, this book examines a number of management issues and provides advice on recognizing and solving problems that face academic administrators who have several departments or divisions under their jurisdiction. The book is divided into ten chapters: (1) The Perfect Dean; (2) Dividing the Budget among Academic Departments and Programs; (3) Department Chairpersons and the Dean; (4) Performance and Evaluation of Chairpersons through the Dean's Eyes; (5) Dealing with the Faculty; (6) Dealing with the Students; (7) Relations with Presidents, Provosts, Vice Presidents, and Other Deans; (8) Frustrations with Institutional Support Staff; (9) Interaction with the External Public: Alumni, Parents, Trustees, and Legislators; and (10) Epilogue: "How Am I Doing?" A bibliography and index are appended. (KM)
 
This paper provides a broad reexamination of the correlates of faculty age, incorporating several measures of research activity and other related professional achievement variables. The data are derived from a large-scale, nationally representative survey of college and university faculty members; analyses are based on a subsample of all doctorate level teaching faculty in seven major representative scientific areas--physics, biochemistry, earth sciences, chemical engineering, experimental psychology, economics, and sociology. While much of the research focuses either on one discipline or on a broad aggregate of diverse fields, the present study analyzes each discipline separately, consistent with earlier research, which has shown substantial cross-field difference in research-professional activities. Additionally, no single model of aging is proposed a priori. Rather, a series of plausible mathematical models are postulated and tested. The compelling conclusion is that career age (and possibly tenure status) is a poor predictor of research-professional activity. (Author/KE)
 
The evolution of collective bargaining in higher education and factors that lead academic bargaining from destructive conflict to cooperation are examined. Academic bargaining is viewed as a form of shared authority, but one with unusual institutional and organizational problems that may lead toward destructive, rather than constructive conflict. The specific nature of the context, situation, and persons involved in bargaining, and their effect upon the nature of conflict are considered, as are perceptions, behaviors, and communication patterns that are likely to result when groups are locked into traditional bargaining structures. Behaviors and programs that may assist in conflict management and lead the parties toward more creative and constructive bargaining are suggested. A number of dispute resolution techniques that have been developed in industrial bargaining and their application in academic settings are described, as are changes in the traditional bargaining relationship that can be made prior to the initiation of bargaining, or during the bargaining interaction itself. Tactical considerations in creative bargaining, ways of increasing the problem-solving potential in the bargaining institution, the uses of third parties, and other approaches by which behaviors of the parties can change unilaterally to promote creative bargaining relationships are examined. References are included. (SW)
 
"One of the best theoretical and applied analyses of university academic organization and leadership in print. This book is significant because it is not only thoughtfully developed and based on careful reading of the extensive literature on leadership and governance, but it is also deliberately intAnded to enable the author to bridge the gap between theories of organization, on one hand, and practical application, on the other." ?Journal of Higher Education
 
The status of efforts to achieve equality for women faculty members in higher education is considered. The method used by Jessie Bernard in "Academic Women" is replicated: presenting a wide variety of studies pertaining directly or indirectly to faculty women and then suggesting larger trends indicated by the findings. In addition, interviews were conducted with 20 female faculty members at a large, prestigious, northeastern research university representing a wide range of disciplines. Topics of discussion cover: career choices and the factors that lead women to these choices; the formal indicators of women's status in academe, such as salary, rank, and tenure; the differences in perceptions of women and men faculty members as well as their interpretation of their academic role; the informal relationships between academic women and their colleagues and sponsor/mentor relationships between women students and faculty members and between junior and senior faculty members; and marital status--the problems women face in reconciling career and family choices, and the institutional supports and barriers they encounter. (SW)
 
The quality of the professiorate is the critical determinant of the quality of the knowledge base, preparatory programs, and even practice in the profession of educational administration. The authors hope that this study will lead to a better assessment of the strengths and weaknesses now represented in the professoriate and to the implementation of steps to build on the strengths and to correct the weaknesses. Data are presented on the attitudes, backgrounds, and qualifications of the professors. An examination of the role orientations among faculty attempted to assess the degree of association with personal, professional, and institutional characteristics. A conceptual framework underlying the investigation was an adaptation of the notion of cosmopolitan and local role orientations among college faculty. The adaptation was the inclusion of a hypothesized third orientation among professors of educational administration, an identification with practitioners, and the field of practice. (Authors/WM)
 
Thesis--Purdue University. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 294-301). Microfilm of typescript.
 
Views of the deep-rooted assumptions and myths surrounding the role of women in academic institutions of the South are presented in scholarly articles, experience-based essays, and poems. Among the themes that are explored are the history of women's involvement in higher education, women's studies, women's status, racial stereotypes, alienation, and conformity. Contributions and authors are as follows: "A Different Kind of Being" (Sally Brett); "IWY: Breaking the Silence: A Fantasy" (Minnie Bruce Pratt); "Mary Munford and Higher Education for Women in Virginia" (Mary Gathright Newell); "Women's Studies at Vanderbilt: Toward a Strategy for the Eighties" (Elizabeth Langland); "New Women at Old Dominion" (Carolyn H. Rhodes and Fran Hassencahl); "A Delicate Balance: Academic Women in Arkansas" (Barbara G. Taylor); "Teaching Women's Studies at the University of Arkansas" (Margaret Jones Bolsterli); "Academic Women in Mississippi: Oktoberfest 1980" (Peggy W. Prenshaw); "Fair Harvard and the Fairer Sex" (Susan Read Baker); "Racial Myths and Attitudes among White Female Students at the University of Florida" (Faye Gary-Harris); "The Black Female Academic: Doubly Burdened or Doubly Blessed?" (Jacqueline Jordan Irvine); "Tilting at Windmills in the Quixotic South" (Irene Thompson); "She Who Laughs First" (Judith Stitzel); "To Delois and Willie" (Martha Mayes Park); and "Scratching at the Compound" (Mary Lou Kohfeldt Stevenson). The appended essay, "The Historical Perspective: A Bibliographic Essay" (Virginia Shadron, Eleanor Hinton Hoytt, Margaret Parsons, Barbara B. Reitt, Beverly Guy Sheftall, Jacqueline Zalumas, and Darlene R. Roth), presents a literature review of the history of both black and white women's involvement in higher education in the South. (SW)
 
University-based institutes and centers were examined in terms of their origins, structure, functions, characteristics, control, and their role in the university. It is suggested that institutes and centers enable higher education institutions to accept new responsibilities and pursue them in new ways. A combination of societal, professional, and institutional forces contributed to the rapid growth of institutes and centers, including the growing dependence of society on scientific and technological innovation and the related availability of funding for research and development. The functions carried out by institutes are usually more restricted than those of departments and usually are confined to one or two combinations, such as the performance of research, the administration of public service, or the facilitation of instruction and research. Three general types of institutes are identified: standard institutes, which resemble the typical bureaucratic organization; adaptive institutes which are more likely to use part-time and temporary personnel and to shift programs to meet changing resources and needs; and "shadow institutes," which are sometimes dormant but represent a capacity for meeting needs when they arise. Among the contributions of institutes are that they allow the institution to emphasize problem-oriented research or public service and that they are effective for interdisciplinary efforts. Recommendations to strengthen the role of institutes and centers within the university are offered. (SW)
 
A profile of the American college professor is presented, based on social science studies. The historical background is traced, with attention to the early development of the professorial role during the latter half of the eighteenth century, the progressive professionalization of the faculty during the nineteenth century, and the consolidation of the modern academic role during the post-World War I period. Demographic data on the growth and distribution of college faculty from World War II through 1979 are included. Attention is also directed to: choosing college teaching as a profession; securing an academic position and advancement; job changing between and within institutions; the norms that guide the academic career (academic freedom, professional autonomy, and the merit principle); career satisfaction; and retirement. Additional topics include: how faculty spend their time, with special attention to the research and teaching roles; faculty members' role in governance and in implementing educational innovations; job stresses and satisfactions; the teacher's personal and family life; and the special case of women and minority faculty. Appendices cover search and sampling procedures as well as data collection and analysis procedures. Chapter references are included. (SW)
 
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