Empirical evidence has accumulated documenting an association between childhood physical abuse and aggressive behavior. Relatively fewer studies have explored possible mediating mechanisms that may explain this association. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems mediate the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. A sample of 240 maltreated early adolescents (ages 9-11) and their caregivers were interviewed within 14 months of being removed from the home. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that caregiver- and youth-reported attention problems were partial mediators of the association between physical abuse severity and aggressive behavior. These associations were significant even after controlling for children's intellectual functioning, sex, age, and severity of other maltreatment types. Possible explanations for the detrimental impact of physical abuse on behavior are discussed, along with the implications of the current study's results for interventions aimed at reducing early adolescent aggressive behavior.
Early adolescence is a critical transition period for the maintenance of academic achievement. One factor that school systems often fail to take into account is the influence of friends on academic achievement during middle school. This study investigated the influence of friends' characteristics on change in academic achievement from Grade 6 through 8, and the role of students' own characteristics as moderators of this relationship. The sample included 1,278 participants (698 girls). Linear regressions suggest that students with academically engaged friends may achieve to levels higher than expected in Grade 8. However, when considering the significant, negative influence of friends' problem behavior, the role of friend's school engagement became nonsignificant. Low-achieving girls who had high-achieving friends in Grade 6 had lower academic achievement than expected by Grade 8. In contrast, high-achieving girls seemed to benefit from having high-achieving friends. Implications for theory and prevention efforts targeting young adolescents are discussed.
This article examined the impact of linguistic acculturation and gender on the substance use initiation of a sample of 1,473 Mexican heritage preadolescents attending 30 public schools in Phoenix, Arizona. It was hypothesized that linguistic acculturation operates differently as a risk or protective factor for young children than for older youth. The study used discrete-time event history methods to model the rate at which nonusing children initiate substance use. Alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and inhalants were studied separately while inhalant use was examined more closely. Results suggested that while linguistic acculturation is a risk factor for Mexican heritage preadolescents, this association depended on gender, the linguistic acculturation context (family, friends, or media), and the type of substance. For inhalants, higher linguistic acculturation with friends was inversely associated with drug initiation both for boys and girls. Implications for preventive science and future intervention research are discussed.
This study examined behavioral and emotional adjustment in family contexts in which there was high versus low demand for adolescents to serve as language brokers in a sample of 73 recently immigrated Latino families with middle-school-aged adolescents. Language brokering was conceptualized as a family process rather than merely an individual phenomenon. Multiple agents were used to assess language brokering and parent and youth adjustment. Results indicated that high language brokering contexts had negative associations with family stress, parenting effectiveness, and adolescent adjustment in terms of academic functioning, socioemotional health, and substance use. The findings are particularly important given the limited and mixed findings from formative research on language brokering, particularly in areas within the United States with emerging immigrant populations. Findings suggest the need for advancing practices that increase language and cultural supports for immigrant families and support parents' efforts to foster positive youth and family adjustment.
This study examined a stress-process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. We also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to children's experiences of stressful life events. With data from 738 Mexican American early adolescents, results generally provided support for the theoretical model although the relationships of neighborhood disadvantage to stressful life events and adjustment were weaker than expected. Additional research is needed to corroborate these results and determine why neighborhood disadvantage may have different relationships to adjustment for Mexican American early adolescents than for others.
We describe Mexican American 7(th) graders' expectations for future work and family roles and investigate links between patterns of future expectations and adolescents' cultural experiences and adjustment. Adolescents participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Five unique patterns of adolescents' future expectations were identified (N = 246): Career Oriented, Independent, Family Oriented, Early, and Inconsistent. Career Oriented adolescents had the highest socioeconomic status and contact with the U.S. (e.g., generation status) whereas Family Oriented adolescents had the lowest. Cultural orientations, values, and involvement also varied across groups. For example, Career Oriented adolescents reported significantly higher familism values compared to Inconsistent adolescents. Clusters also differed on adjustment: Career Oriented and Family Oriented adolescents reported higher parental warmth and less risky behavior compared to Independent and Inconsistent adolescents. Findings underscore the multi-faceted nature of adolescents' future expectations and the diversity in cultural experiences among Mexican origin youth.
Though peer socialization theories are prominent in the adolescent substance use literature, variability in the degree to which adolescents are vulnerable to peer influence is likely, and few studies have examined this issue. This study examines the association between perceived peer substance use/approval of substance use and adolescent intentions to initiate alcohol and cigarette use, and how social goals moderate this relationship. Results support the moderating role of social goals, and suggest important differences across alcohol and cigarette use. Peer use and approval of cigarette use was associated with future intentions to smoke for adolescents with strong agentic goals, and peer use and approval of alcohol use was associated with intentions to drink for adolescents with strong communal goals. These findings suggest that adolescent substance use theories and prevention programs focusing on peer socialization should consider individual differences in social goals and potential differences in peer influence across drugs.
Data presented here from a university clinic for unwed pregnant early adolescents suggest two paths to pregnancy: (a) some females, though unmarried, apparently want to become pregnant and have a child; (b) others, who do not want a child, nonetheless become pregnant due to unforeseen circumstances. We report some critical differences in reproductive behavior between those who wanted to get pregnant and those who did not. Implications are developed for theorizing about early adolescent pregnancy and for delivering pregnancy related services for teenagers.
Fifth-graders' (N = 162; 93 girls) relationships with parents and friends were examined with respect to their main and interactive effects on psychosocial functioning. Participants reported on parental support, the quality of their best friendships, self-worth, and perceptions of social competence. Peers reported on aggression, shyness and withdrawal, and rejection and victimization. Mothers reported on psychological adjustment. Perceived parental support and friendship quality predicted higher global self-worth and social competence and less internalizing problems. Perceived parental support predicted fewer externalizing problems, and paternal (not maternal) support predicted lower rejection and victimization. Friendship quality predicted lower rejection and victimization for only girls. Having a supportive mother protected boys from the effects of low-quality friendships on their perceived social competence. High friendship quality buffered the effects of low maternal support on girls' internalizing difficulties.
Global self-esteem, appearance satisfaction, and self-reported dieting are interrelated. In the current study, we examine the temporal ordering of global self-esteem and appearance satisfaction across the early adolescence transition, from age 10 to age 14, as well as the independent associations of self-esteem and appearance satisfaction on self-reported dieting at age 14. Participants were 130 firstborn European American adolescents (40% girls). Adolescents who were less satisfied with their appearance at age 10 reported declines in self-esteem from age 10 to age 14. Adolescents with lower global self-esteem at age 10 did not decline in appearance satisfaction. Girls, adolescents with higher BMI scores at age 10, and adolescents who were less satisfied with their appearance at age 14 all reported more frequent dieting at age 14. Implications for etiological and intervention models of eating problems in adolescence are considered.
The present study sought to extend empirical inquiry related to the role of parenting on adolescent sexual risk-taking by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify patterns of adolescent-reported mother responsiveness and autonomy-granting in early adolescence and examine associations with sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence. Utilizing a sample of 12- to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 4,743) from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97), results identified a four-class model of maternal responsiveness and autonomy-granting: low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting, moderate responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/low autonomy-granting, high responsiveness/moderate autonomy-granting. Membership in the low responsiveness/high autonomy-granting class predicted greater sexual risk-taking in mid- and late-adolescence compared to all other classes, and membership in the high responsiveness/ moderate autonomy-granting class predicted lower sexual risk-taking. Gender and ethnic differences in responsiveness and autonomy-granting class membership were also found, potentially informing gender and ethnic disparities of adolescent sexual risk-taking.
The authors examined whether early adolescents (N = 90) solicit self-enhancing feedback (i.e., positive feedback) or self-verifying feedback (i.e., feedback congruent with self-views, even when these views are negative). Sixth, seventh, and eighth graders first completed a self-perception measure and then selected whether to receive positive or negative feedback from an unknown peer in different domains of self. Results were consistent with self-verification theory; adolescents who perceived themselves as having both strengths and weaknesses were more likely to seek negative feedback regarding a self-perceived weakness compared to a self-perceived strength. The authors found similar support for self-verification processes when they considered the entire sample regardless of perceived strengths and weaknesses; hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) examined the predictive power of ratings of self-perceived ability, certainty, and importance on feedback seeking for all participants and provided additional evidence of self-verification strivings in adolescence.
The current study examines latent growth models of parental knowledge of boys' behavior from ages 10 to 15, and whether earlier child or family characteristics are related to intercept and growth in parental knowledge. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study on the precursors of antisocial behavior, 288 boys completed interviews at ages 10, 11, 12, and 15 years. Boys' reports started low, increased and plateaued at age 12. High levels of maternal responsivity in early childhood were associated with a high initial status in knowledge. Growth was predicted only by high levels of boys' prior externalizing problems. Results are discussed with respect to differences in factors that predict initial status versus growth in parental knowledge during the transition to adolescence.
Reports the findings of a survey of sex information among 1152 middle class US college students. They were asked to identify their initial sources of information on 12 sexual concepts. In addition, they indicated the age when they 1st learned these concepts and wrote a definition for each of the 12 terms. Results indicate that 99% of initial sex information is learned in the early adolescent years or earlier. Females tended to learn from more reliable sources than males although both learned more from peers than any other source. The overall accuracy in understanding sexual concepts was high, which is interpreted within this study as a positive indicator of early adolescents' learning about sex.
Correlations between adolescents' own antisocial behavior and adolescents' perceptions of the antisocial behavior of their best friends and friendship groups were examined in this study. The strength of those correlations was expected to vary as a function of the qualities of the dyadic friendships and group relationships. Perceptions of peers' antisocial behavior and dyadic friendship and group relationship qualities were collected through interviews with 431, 12- through 13-year-old adolescents. Measures of adolescents' concurrent and subsequent antisocial behaviors were obtained from the adolescents and their teachers. Adolescents who perceived their friends and groups as participating in antisocial behavior had higher self-reported and teacher-reported antisocial behavior ratings. Perceptions of best friend antisocial behavior were correlated more strongly with adolescents' own concurrent, but not subsequent, antisocial behavior when high levels of help, companionship, and security characterized dyadic friendships. The results are discussed in terms of peer influence and friendship selection processes.
We tested biosocial models that posit interactions between biological variables (testosterone, estradiol, pubertal status, and pubertal timing) and social context variables (family, peer, school, and neighborhood) in predicting adolescent involvement with cigarettes and alcohol in a sample of 409 adolescents in grades 6 and 8. Models including the biological and contextual variables and their interactions explained significantly more variance in adolescent cigarette and alcohol involvement than did models including only the main effects of the biological and contextual variables. Post-hoc analyses of significant interactions suggested that, in most case, moderation occurred in the hypothesized direction. Consistent with dual hazards models of adolescent antisocial behaviors, the relationships between the biological and substance use variables became positive and stronger as the context became more harmful. Considerations of adolescent substance use, and perhaps other problem behaviors, should recognize the possible role of biological variables and how their influence may vary by social context.
Although success in managing evolving peer relationships is linked to critical adolescent outcomes, little is known about the specific factors that lead to success or failure in peer relationship development across adolescence. This longitudinal study examines the role of adolescents' level of ego development as a predictor of the future course of several facets of friendship development in early adolescence. Ego development was assessed in a community sample of adolescents at age 13. Several facets of adolescent friendship were also assessed at 13 and then reassessed 1 year later, including adolescent intimate behavior during a supportive interaction with their best friends, adolescent reports of psychological security in their friendships, and peer-rated popularity. As predicted, ego development not only explained concurrent levels of peer functioning but also predicted markers of change over time in each of the assessed domains of peer functioning. Implications for ego development in increasing our understanding of individual differences in adolescent friendship development are discussed.
Adolescent ego-development trajectories were related to close-relationship outcomes in young adulthood. An adolescent sample completed annual measures of ego development from ages 14 through 17. The authors theoretically determined and empirically traced five ego-development trajectories reflecting stability or change. At age 25, the sample completed a close-relationship interview and consented for two peers to rate the participants'ego resiliency and hostility. Participants who followed the profound-arrest trajectory in adolescence reported more mundane sharing of experiences, more impulsive or egocentric conflict-resolution tactics, and less mature interpersonal understanding in their young adult relationships, and their young adult peers described these participants as more hostile. Participants who attained or maintained higher levels of ego development in adolescence reported more complex sharing of experiences, more collaborative conflict-resolution strategies, and greater interpersonal understanding, and their young adult peers rated them as less hostile and as more flexible.
This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found a small number of temporary effects of transition timing on problem behavior: Spending an additional year in elementary school was associated with higher levels of deviant behavior in the Fall of Grade 6 and higher levels of antisocial peer associations in Grade 8. However, transition effects were not consistent across waves and latent growth curve models found no effects of transition timing on the trajectory of problem behavior. We discuss policy implications and compare our findings with other research on transition timing.
This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age = 11.3) and their parents (912 mothers, 647 fathers) randomly selected from 28 rural/small town communities. Results indicated that depressed and comorbid groups were associated with significantly lower parenting quality and higher parent psychopathology compared to the nonelevated and anxious groups. This pattern was generally consistent across reporters (youth, mother, and father) and four domains of or related to parenting (support/warmth, conflict/anger, general child management (GCM), and parent psychopathology). Results highlight the importance of accounting for comorbidity when examining relationships between psychopathology symptoms and related variables such as parenting. Implications include the need to address relationships with parents when intervening with youth at risk for or experiencing elevated depressive symptoms.
The study explores how differences in rural community contexts relate to early adolescent alcohol use. Data were gathered from 1,424 adolescents in the sixth through eighth grades in 22 rural Northern Plains communities, as well as 790 adults, parents, teachers, and community leaders. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that community supportiveness, as perceived by adolescents, but not adults, was associated with less lifetime and past month alcohol use, and for past month use, this relationship was stronger than perceived peer drinking or parental closeness. Perceived peer drinking and parental closeness were not associated with past month use. Adolescents experiencing family economic strain did not report greater lifetime or past month use, but living in a disadvantaged community was associated with greater past month use. Relatively affluent adolescents reported greater past month use when living in a poor community than did poorer adolescents, highlighting relationship complexity between economic disadvantage and alcohol use.
This study examined associations among early adolescent romantic relationships, peer standing, problem behaviors, and gender as a moderator of these associations, in a sample of 320 seventh-grade students. Popular and controversial status youth were more likely to have a romantic partner, whereas neglected status youth were less likely to have a romantic partner. Similarly, youth perceived as conventional and unconventional leaders were also more likely to have a romantic partner than were non-leaders. Youth who had a romantic partner drank more alcohol and were more aggressive than were youth who did not have a romantic partner. Among those youth who had romantic partners, those who reported having more deviance-prone partners were themselves more likely to use alcohol and to be more aggressive, and those who engaged in deviant behavior with their partners used more alcohol. However, these associations varied somewhat by gender. These findings underscore the salience of early romantic partner relationships in the adjustment of early adolescents.
This exploratory study examines gender differences in the patterns of drug offers among a sample of 71 American Indian middle school students. Participants respond to an inventory of drug-related problem situations specific to the cultural contexts of Southwestern American Indian youth. They are asked to consider the frequency of drug offers from specific groups in their social networks and the difficulty associated with refusing drugs from various offerers. The results indicate that female and male American Indian youth differ in the degree of exposure to drug offers and the degree of perceived difficulty in handling such offers. Even after controlling for differences in age, grade level, socioeconomic status, family structure, and residence on a reservation, girls report significantly more drug offers than boys from friends, cousins, and other peers. Compared to boys, girls also report a significantly higher sense of difficulty in dealing with drug offers from all sources.
Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by social dominance orientation (SDO) and knowing a gay male. Gender differences in attitudes toward lesbians were partially mediated by SDO, while knowing a lesbian was not a mediating variable. Beyond their mediating roles, both SDO and knowing a member of the target group each significantly added to the prediction of attitudes toward each target group. Implications for policies to reduce victimization of sexual minorities in schools are discussed.
The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate conceptual and analytical model for researchers needing to evaluate measurement scales translated into multiple languages. Participants are 678 Mexican-origin early adolescents and their mothers. Measures of exploration and resolution achieve the highest levels of equivalence across language versions. The measure of affirmation achieves high levels of equivalence. Results highlight potential ways to correct for any problems of nonequivalence across language versions of the affirmation measure. Suggestions are made for how researchers working with linguistically diverse samples can use the highlighted techniques to evaluate their own translated measures.
This study examined the relationship between pubertal timing and delinquent behavior across two time points in a sample of 303 maltreated and 151 comparison adolescents aged 9-13 years at enrollment. The first aim was to examine the relationship between pubertal timing and delinquency for the total sample and then to test for gender differences using multiple-group models. The second aim was to examine the interaction effect of pubertal timing and maltreatment on delinquency as well as gender differences for this interaction effect. Results showed that earlier pubertal timing was related to higher delinquency and this relationship was not significantly different for males and females. Maltreatment did not moderate the relationship between pubertal timing and delinquency for the total sample; however, there was evidence of a three-way interaction. These findings highlight the need to examine contextual factors that may affect the amplification and direction of these relationships.
Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls.
We assessed the emergence of a South African identity among Black, Colored (mixed ancestral origin), White (predominantly English speaking), and Indian adolescents participating in a birth cohort study called "Birth to Twenty" in Johannesburg, South Africa. We examined young people's certainty of their self-categorization as South African, the centrality of their personal, racial and linguistic, and South African identities in their self-definition, and their perceptions of South African life and society today. These results reflect a historical opportunity for full citizenship and national enfranchisement that the end of Apartheid heralded for Black and Colored individuals. Black and Colored youth tend to be more certain about their South African-ness, have a more collective identity, and have a more positive perception around South Africa. In contrast, White and Indian youth are less certain about their South African-ness, have a more individualistic identity, and have a less positive perception about South Africa today.
This research evaluates the properties of a measure of culturally linked values of Mexican Americans in early adolescence and adulthood. The items measure were derived from qualitative data provided by focus groups in which Mexican Americans' (adolescents, mothers and fathers) perceptions of key values were discussed. The focus groups and a preliminary item refinement resulted in the fifty-item Mexican American Cultural Values Scales (identical for adolescents and adults) that includes nine value subscales. Analyses of data from two large previously published studies sampling Mexican American adolescents, mothers, and fathers provided evidence of the expected two correlated higher order factor structures, reliability, and construct validity of the subscales of the Mexican American Cultural Values Scales as indicators of values that are frequently associated with Mexican/Mexican American culture. The utility of this measure for use in longitudinal research, and in resolving some important theoretical questions regarding dual cultural adaptation, are discussed.
The present study investigated the role of identity in the relationship between family functioning and behavior problems in a sample of Hispanic immigrant early adolescents and their families. The sample consisted of 181 Hispanic immigrant adolescents (92 males, 89 females) and their participating caregivers (who were mostly mothers). Identity was measured using adolescent reports, whereas family functioning and early adolescent behavior problems were measured using both adolescent and parent reports. Correlational analyses indicated that previously obtained relationships among family functioning, identity, and behavior problems were replicated in the present sample. Structural equation models indicated that 20% of the relationship between family functioning and behavior problems operated indirectly through identity, and identity confusion partially mediates the relationship between family functioning and early adolescent behavior problems. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Data from a clinic sample of pregnant adolescents are analyzed for differences in fertility related variables between Mexican American and non Mexican. The independent variables are birthplace, ethnicity, and exposure to United States culture of Mexican and non Mexican adolescents. The dependent variables are talking about sex, pregnancy, birth control, hearing about birth control, and use of birth control. The data support the hypothesis that in the process of acculturation the fertility related behavior of immigrant Mexican adolescent females is affected by the indigenous United States Mexican culture rather than by United States Anglo culture. Implications for delivery of services are discussed. The delivery of fertility related services should take into account the cultural preferences of Mexican women, and should not involve coercion from legal or medical authorities. While liberation of Mexican American women, and accompanying changes in childbearing patterns may be desirable, these efforts should originate within the Mexican American community. Data is presented in tables on selected sample and subsample characteristics and compares fertility behaviors across ethnic groups, including Anglo, Black, US non-Mexican, and US Mexican.
Groups of adolescents were identified on the basis of developmental trajectories of their families' rules and their parents' knowledge of their activities. Characteristics of the adolescent, peer antisociality, and family context were tested as antecedents. In sum, 404 parent-adolescent dyads provided data for adolescents aged 10-16. Most adolescents were classified into groups characterized by low levels and reductions in family rules over time. However, low socioeconomic status and residence in unsafe neighborhoods increased membership in the group characterized by consistently high levels of family rules. Most adolescents were assigned membership in groups characterized by relatively stable moderate-to-high levels of parental knowledge of their activities. However, greater externalizing problems and peer antisociality, as well as residence in an unsafe neighborhood, increased membership in the group characterized by low and decreasing levels of knowledge. Results suggest that personal and contextual risk antecedes nonnormative decreases in parental knowledge, whereas contextual risk inhibits normative reductions in family rules.
The goal of this research is to examine the trajectory of school bonding over the middle school period and how factors such as gender, substance use, antisocial peers, delinquent behavior, and academic achievement affect this developmental process. Data from 4 waves of measurement of 2,902 adolescents are analyzed using hierarchical growth curve modeling. Results suggest that school bonding decreases in a non-linear fashion from Grade 6-8. However, school bonding development varies based on inter-individual differences. Boys have lower initial levels and greater decreases in school bonding than girls. Student deviant behavior, having antisocial peers, and low academic achievement are associated with lower levels of school bonding at Grade 6. Low grades and an increase in substance use are associated with a steeper decrease of school bonding over time. Increases in substance use and being male are also associated with a curvilinear pattern of school bonding. Implications for interventions are discussed.
Inner-city, low-income Black and Latino youth are at high risk for developing severe behavioral difficulties and dropping out of high school. After-school programs are excellent resources for targeting these issues, yet most focus on middle school populations, address either academic or socioemotional issues rather than a combination of efforts, and struggle to engage at-risk youth. This article presents feasibility data regarding mental health needs and participation in Project Step-Up, a secondary prevention high school program targeting socioemotional and academic domains with linkages provided to mental health resources for hard-to-engage youth. Results indicate that participants exhibit preservice mental health needs at greater rates than manifested in the general population, yet demonstrate attendance and retention rates exceeding those typically reported by after-school programs. Participation differences by race/ethnicity indicate Project Step-Up's success at engaging Black and Latino youth. Study limitations, curriculum revisions, and planned future evaluations are further discussed.
Associations among family relations, mother reproductive status, daughter reproductive timing, and well-being were examined in 144 mothers and their adolescent daughters. First, effects of mother reproductive status and daughter reproductive timing on reports of family functioning were explored. Mothers of early maturing daughters perceived less family conflict than did those with on-time or late daughters. Second, the correlates of mother and daughter well-being were examined. Maternal perceptions of family cohesion were associated negatively with maternal depressive affect and positively with maternal body image. Maternal dieting behavior and bulimic symptoms were higher in postmenstrual mothers. For daughters, maternal perceptions of family cohesion were associated negatively with dieting and bulimic symptoms, and positively with body image. The interaction between mother menstrual status and daughter age at first menarche also influenced daughter dieting. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for mother-daughter interaction during the adolescent years.
This study examined interactive relationships among ethnic identity, gender, time in the US, and changes in substance use outcomes among a school-based sample of 1,731 Mexican-heritage preadolescents (ages 9-13). Residual change multilevel models adjusting for school clustering and using multiply imputed data assessed changes from beginning to end of fifth grade in use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana and inhalants, and four substance use antecedents. Effects of ethnic identity were conditional on time in the US, and in opposite directions by gender. Among males living longer in the US, stronger ethnic identity predicted desirable changes in all but one outcome (substance offers). Among females living longer in the US, stronger ethnic identity predicted undesirable changes in alcohol use, pro-drug norms, and peer substance use. Interpretations focus on differential exposure to substance use opportunities and the erosion of traditional gender role socialization among Mexican-heritage youth having lived longer in the US.
Examines developmental trends in early adolescence (e.g., physical, intellectual, cognitive, psychological, and value development and sex differences). Social and educational implications are considered, and reasons for the lack of attention paid to early adolescence by sociological and psychological researchers are outlined. (34 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Describes the design and methods of a study of the mental health of adolescents and introduces 3 succeeding papers based on this research. In this study, 2 cohorts of 6th graders were followed through the 8th grade to investigate psychological development in the school, peer, and family domains; self-image and ego development; cognitive development, cognitive abilities, and school achievement; and gender identity. Instruments included the Bem Sex-Role Inventory and Group Embedded Figures Test. In the following papers in this issue, J. E. Schulenberg et al (see record
1985-18661-001) report the Ss' perceptions of school, R. A. Richardson et al (see record
1985-17090-001) describe Ss' perceptions of their families, and L. Crockett et al (see record
1985-17028-001) present Ss' perceptions of their peer group. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Characterizes past and present trends in research on adolescence and makes recommendations to foster the following: (1) basic programmatic research that relates directly to the major issues in psychosocial development during adolescence, (2) basic and applied research on the effects of organizations on adolescent behavior and development, (3) basic and applied research on various kinds of health education, (4) research on socialization for work and family roles, (5) research on the social perception of adolescence and its determinants, and (6) the establishment of at least 4 university-based regional centers of excellence for the study of adolescence. It is stressed that research attending to the distinctive features of the second decade of life is especially important in that it takes biological change, cognitive change, and changes in social definition seriously. (76 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Attempted to identify factors related to association with deviant peers during preadolescence and adolescence, using a sample of 210 families that included 74 4th-grade, 78 7th-grade, and 58 10th-grade boys. Data suggest that poor parental monitoring and discipline, inadequate child social skills, and the child's antisocial attitudes were related to associating with deviant peers. Data support the notion that the family, both directly via monitoring and indirectly via training social skills, plays an important role in peer selection during preadolescence and adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Bullying and victimization are prevalent problems in the area of adolescent peer relationships. Middle school students (
N = 4,263) in one Maryland school district completed surveys covering a range of problem behaviors and psychosocial variables. Overall, 30.9% of the students reported being victimized three or more times in the past year and 7.4% reported bullying three or more times over the past year. More than one half of the bullies also reported being victimized. Those bully/victims were found to score less favorably than either bullies or victims on all the measured psychosocial and behavioral variables. Results of a discriminant function analysis demonstrated that a group of psychosocial and behavioral predictors—including problem behaviors, attitudes toward deviance, peer influences, depressive symptoms, school-related functioning, and parenting—formed a linear separation between the comparison group (never bullied or victimized), the victim group, the bully group, and the bully/victim group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Successful functioning in a classroom setting requires students to interact effectively and form positive social relationships both with teachers and peers. Self-efficacy for success in schoolwork, therefore, should depend in part on students' perceptions of their social efficacy and on their endorsement of goals to be responsible class members and to form intimate peer relationships. Survey data from 753 fifth-grade students indicated that girls felt more efficacious in their interactions with their teachers and endorsed both responsibility and intimacy goals more strongly than did boys. No gender difference was found for social efficacy with peers. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that students' perceptions of their social efficacy both with teacher and peers and their endorsement of responsibility goals were related significantly to their academic efficacy after accounting for prior achievement and gender These findings indicated that such social perceptions are important for students'academic progress and that teachers should pay serious attention to students'social relationships in the classroom. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67648/2/10.1177_0272431697017002001.pdf
Why do some students avoid seeking help with their class work when it is needed? Investigated in this study were the relations between early adolescents' academic and social goals and reports of avoiding help-seeking and perceiving that help-seeking is a threat to self-worth. Surveys were administered to 443 fifth graders in 12 elementary schools. Being oriented to demonstrating ability (relative ability goals) and wanting to be associated with the popular group (social status goals) were related positively to perceiving threat and avoiding help-seeking. Being oriented to developing ability (task-focused goals) was related negatively to perceiving threat and avoiding help-seeking. Wanting to form positive relationships with peers (intimacy goals) was related negatively to avoiding help-seeking. There was a significant Grade Point Average x Relative Ability Goals interaction, indicating that lower-achieving students with relative ability goals were more likely to avoid help-seeking than were higher-achieving students. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67832/2/10.1177_0272431697017002003.pdf
Contributions of parental involvement in educational pursuits as well as math teachers' classroom behavior to students' motivation and performance in math were investigated. By the end of the first school term, 365 Slovene eighth graders reported on their parents' academic involvement (pressure, support, and help) and their math teachers' behavior in the classroom (support, academic press, and mastery goal). During the second term, the students filled-in the questionnaires on their motivational beliefs about math, and at the end of the school year, their final math grade was obtained from school records. Both of the social contexts significantly predicted students' outcomes. Students' perceptions of math teachers' behavior were predictive of both motivational beliefs and achievement in math, over and above the account of students' evaluations of their parents' involvement. Furthermore, parental academic pressure and support were directly (negatively) related to students' math grades. The contributions of parental pressure, math teachers' academic press, and teachers' mastery goal on math achievement were mediated through the students' self-efficacy in this school course. (Contains 2 tables, 2 figures and 5 notes.)
Previous research has demonstrated that adolescents make differential self-evaluations in multiple domains that include physical appearance, academic competence, and peer acceptance. We report growth curve analyses over a seven year period from age 9 to age 16 on the six domains of the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Children. In general, we find little change in self-concept, on average, but do find substantial individual differences in level, rate of change, and time-specific variation in these self- evaluations. The results suggest that sex differences and adoptive status were related to only certain aspects of the participants' self-concept. Depressive symptoms were found to have significant effects on individual differences in rate of change and on time-specific variation in general self-concept, as well as on some of the specific domains of self-concept.
Introduces six articles on interventions, practices, beliefs, and contexts designed to facilitate early adolescents' school achievement and overall development. The articles focus on middle school reform, separate schooling for African American males, ability grouping, teacher roles, interdisciplinary programs, and the role of cooperation and competition in education. (MDM)
This study examines the relation between conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent delinquency. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles were completed by 284 early adolescents (mean age 13.3) and their parents. Adolescents also completed a questionnaire on delinquency. Hierarchical regression analyses show that combinations of adolescents' and parents' conflict resolution styles are significantly related to delinquency. In adolescent-father relationships, the demand-withdraw pattern was found to be related to delinquency, and in adolescent-mother relationships the interaction characterized by mutual hostility was found to be related to delinquency. The results stress the interdependence of adolescents and parents in conflict resolution and demonstrate the need for investigating combinations of adolescents' and parents' conflict resolution styles.
This study examined perceived pubertal change in relation to characteristics of early-adolescent girls' moods; energy, and restlessness. Fifty-two girls aged 9.1 to 10.8 years reported their moods, energy, and restlessness on 12 days over the course of 1 month. Average levels, variability, and intensity of these constructs were calculated Measures of certainty about self and perceived pubertal status and timing were also obtained. Girls who felt they were experiencing pubertal changes reported more negative moods and nervousness, and more variable negative moods, nervousness, energy, and restlessness over the month than did prepubertal girls. They also experienced more intense negative moods, nervousness, and restlessness relative to the average levels of these constructs for the sample. The hypothesis that associations between pubertal status and moods were due to heightened feelings of uncertainty about self was not supported. Mechanisms by which pubertal development may be linked to moods and energy are discussed. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/66513/2/10.1177_0272431691112002.pdf
Perceived similarity of personality in same-sex friends was examined in a sample of 124 adolescents (63 girls). Adolescents rated themselves and a nominated friend (n = 42 reciprocated, 82 non-reciprocated dyads) on developmentally relevant personality items assessing autonomy, prosociality, and responsive caregiving. Results from hierarchical linear modeling and multiple regression analyses generally supported predictions: Greater perceived similarity was marginally positively associated with more favorable ratings of friendship quality and significantly negatively associated with conflict ratings in the friendship. Adolescents in reciprocated friendships rated themselves as more similar in personality and more positive in friendship quality than did non-reciprocated dyads. A mediational analysis revealed that the association between reciprocity and perceived similarity was mediated by positive friendship quality. These findings suggest that reciprocated friends' perceptions of being more similar in personality may in part be accounted for by their more favorable judgments of their friendship quality. (Contains 1 table.)