The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice

Online ISSN: 1526-3711
Publications
Article
The present study was conducted to assess the correlation of traumatic dental injuries and overjet among school going girls of age 11 to 17 years in Pune, India. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 2045 school girls aged 11 to 17 years, attending public elementary schools in Pune, India. The traumatic dental injuries were assessed according to Ellis and Davey’s criteria. Occlusion was recorded according to Angle´s classification and overjet was measured using a WHO 621 probe. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using Mann-Whitney test. There was a significant (Z -2.785) association between increase in overjet and occurrence of trauma. Children with increased overjet were 3.09 times more likely to have dental injuries. It can be concluded from the present study that a significant correlation exists between amount of overjet and prevalence of traumatic injuries among children. The percentage of trauma prevalence increases with the increase of overjet. Traumatic dental injury is not a result of disease but a consequence of several factors that will accumulate throughout life if not properly treated. One of the most important factors significantly contributing to traumatic dental injuries is the anterior overjet. Hence, correction of increased anterior overjet may help in prevention of traumatic injuries.
 
Article
This study aims to present both the features of 124 consecutive patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the results of a reversible, conservative, and low-tech treatment. One hundred fifty-eight records of consecutive patients treated in School of Dentistry at the Univag-University Center in Várzea Grande-MT, Brazil, 124 of whom were considered TMD patients, were examined. The following data were obtained: gender, age, main complaint, diagnosis, co-morbidities, type of treatment performed, and treatment results. The patients who received a successful treatment were contacted for reevaluation four to six years after the conclusion of treatment. Pain was the main complaint for 92.7 percent of the patients. The majority of patients were female (female:male ratio of 4.1:1), with a peak age range between 20 and 30 years. Roughly 59.7 percent of the patients were diagnosed as having a muscular TMD, 12.9 percent as an articular TMD, and 27.4 percent as a mixed TMD. The success rate for treatment was 91.7 percent, and there was a tendency toward the long-term maintenance of good results. The features of the 124 TMD patients treated were similar to those reported in the literature with regard to gender, age, and diagnostic prevalence. Most of the disorders were of a muscular origin, and there was a predominance of women between 20 and 30 years of age. The conservative, reversible, and low-tech treatment success rate for TMD can reach values above 90 percent. Therefore, there is no need for invasive, irreversible, expensive, or high-tech treatments for the majority of patients. The majority of TMD patients can benefit from reversible, conservative, and low-tech treatments such as parafunction control and therapeutic exercises that can be performed by any clinician once an accurate diagnosis has been made.
 
Schematic diagram of ELISA procedure Fig. 1: Armamentarium CA 125 ELISA kit with reagents  
Schematic diagram of ELISA procedure Fig. 1: Armamentarium CA 125 ELISA kit with reagents  
Article
Background: The mortality and morbidity associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) can be greatly reduced if tumor markers which can detect OSCC at an early stage are available. The use of saliva as an alternative to blood could provide a substantial advantage in sampling convenience. Cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) is a tumor-associated antigen found to be increased in epithelial tumors like oral, breast and ovarian cancers. Aim: To determine whether salivary CA 125 levels are increased significantly in OSCC patients than the control group. Materials and methods: Sixty OSCC patients and 60 healthy controls were taken for the study. Saliva samples from both the groups were collected, centrifuged and supernatant fluid were subjected to ELISA for assessment of CA 125. The mean salivary CA 125 values of OSCC patients and control group were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: The mean salivary CA 125 concentration of OSCC group was 320.25 and that of control group was 33.14. Thus, CA 125 was found to be significantly increased in the saliva of OSCC patients than the control group (p < 0.001). Also, there was significant increase in the CA 125 levels as the stage of OSCC increased. Conclusion: The convenience, reliability and noninvasive nature of salivary CA 125 testing makes it a feasible adjunctive diagnostic tool for detection of OSCC. Keywords: CA 125, ELISA, Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Saliva, Tumor marker. How to cite this article: Balan JJ, Rao RS, Premalatha BR, Patil S. Analysis of Tumor Marker CA 125 in Saliva of Normal and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients: A Comparative Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(5):671-675. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None.
 
Article
This study was undertaken to investigate and analyze the significance of dermatoglyphics in predicting the susceptibility of individuals to develop dental caries. This case-control study was conducted on 1250 children in the age group of 5 to 12 years from Chennai Corporation School, Vadapalani, Chennai. Out of 1250 subjects, 625 subjects were in the study group and the remaining 625 subjects were the control group. The study group included children with dental caries in 5 or more teeth based on the DMFT index performed and control group consisted of normal, healthy children without any dental caries. The finger and palmar prints of both hands were taken using a stamp pad. The fingertip patterns were analyzed according to the classical method and configurational types were classified according to the topological method. Statistical analysis was performed using nonparametric tests and t-test to compare the dermatoglyphic pattern changes between the study group and the control group and was applied for each variable, to compare the proportions, and p-value. (1) Dental caries susceptibility of an individual increases with an increase in the incidence of whorl pattern (83% correlation). (2) All the variables show statistically significant value, with a degree of divergence of specific dermatoglyphic patterns among study and control group. (3) The dermatoglyphic patterns are efficient and can predict in assessing the risk of susceptibility to dental caries in study group. The dental caries susceptibility of an individual increased with incidence of whorl pattern and it decreased with incidence of loop pattern. Clinical significance: The dermatoglyphic patterns may be utilized effectively to study the genetic basis of dental caries. In a developing country like India, it might prove to be a noninvasive, inexpensive and effective tool for screening.
 
Article
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is responsible for about 90% of oral malignancies and its incidence is increasing. Despite various treatment protocols, survival rate of OSCC is low. Chemotherapy that is used for treating this carcinoma in advanced stages is systemic therapy that destroys carcinogenic cells, and controls tumor metastasis. Chemotherapy is very toxic and has limitations, especially for patients in advanced stages. Considering positive effects of retinoid and vitamin D3 derivatives in treating some carcinomas, we decided to evaluate the effect of combination of these drugs on OSCC. In this study the effects of combination of 5-fluorouracil, 13-cis retinoic acid and vitamin D3 on cultured cell of OSCC have been evaluated. OSCC cells were cultured in culture media and different concentration of 5-fluorouracil, 13-cis retinoic acid and vitamin D3 were added to cultured cell as separately and in combinations. The effect of treatment on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis were evaluated by MTT and TUNEL assays respectively. Combination of 5-fluorouracil and 13- cis retinoic acid had the highest inhibitory effect on SCC cell proliferation. Combination of two drugs had more apoptotic effect than each of them separately, and combination of three drugs had more effect than combination of two drugs. Because combination of drugs had more inhibitory effect on cell proliferation than one of them and combination of three drugs had the most apoptotic effect than one of these drugs separately, these drugs may have synergic effect on OSCC. Combination of three drugs has more inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and apoptotic effect than one of these drugs.
 
Conditional Probability Formula.
Article
The purpose of the study was to determine the bilateral occurrence of dental caries in 12-13 year old and 15-19 year old Saudi school children. There were 673 children (324 boys and 349 girls) in the 12-13 year old group and 734 children (399 boys and 335 girls) in the 15-19 year old group with mean ages of 13.1 (SD 0.7) years and 16.4 (SD 1.2) years, respectively. All children were examined for dental caries using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for the diagnosis of dental caries. There were no significant differences between the caries prevalence of right and left sides for most teeth at the significance level of 0.05. Among 12-13 year old children, maxillary first molars (86.5%), mandibular central incisors (86.2%), and mandibular first molars (86.0%) showed very high (p < .01) caries bilaterality. Among the 15-19 year old children, mandibular first molars (91.6%), maxillary first molars (87.9%), and mandibular second molars (79.9%) showed very high (p < .01) caries bilaterality. The conditional probability for bilateral occurrence of caries was highest in first molars followed by second molars and central incisors. The bilateral caries occurrence and conditional probability for bilateral caries occurrence were significantly higher (p < .05) in 15-19 year old children as compared to 12-13 year old children. It was concluded caries bilaterality and the conditional probability for bilateral caries occurrence was high in the study population. Citation Wyne AH. The Bilateral Occurrence of Dental Caries Among 12-13 and 15-19 Year Old School Children. J Contemp Dent Pract 2004 February;(5)1:042-052.
 
Article
To assess the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children in Panyam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 school children and were examined for dental fluorosis and dental caries. This study shows that male students have a decrease in DMFT (Decayed, missing, filled, teeth) index and increase in Dean's index when compared with females. Among students with 13 to 15 years of age, 13-year-old student has increase in DMFT score when compared with other age groups and 14-year-old students has increase in Dean's score when compared with other age group students. The prevalence of dental caries decreased with the increase of fluorosis among the students examined. Patients with dental fluorosis show a decreased prevalence of dental caries.
 
Article
Pulp stones are nodular, calcified masses commonly appearing in the coronal pulp and occasionally extending in radicular pulp. Retrieval of pulp stones remains a challenge for the endodontist as complete cleaning and shaping of root canal system is the bases for successful endodontic therapy. The aim of this case report is to show the retrieval of long pulp stones measuring 14 and 9.5 mm by utilizing synergistic effect of ultrasonics and sodium hypochlorite from the palatal roots of maxillary molars. Such case has not been reported in the literature so far. Keywords: Pulp stones, Retrieval, Palatal root, Molar, Ultrasonic. How to cite this article: Nanjannawar GS, Vagarali H, Nanjannawar LG, Prathasarathy B, Patil A, Bhandi S. Pulp Stone-An Endodontic Challenge: Successful Retrieval of Exceptionally Long Pulp Stones measuring 14 and 9.5 mm from the Palatal Roots of Maxillary Molars. J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(5):719-722. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.
 
Article
To determine the prevalence rates of different occlusal characteristics of permanent dentition in 12 to 14 years old children in Bagalkot city and to determine the differences in occlusal characteristics in the same children by age and sex. A total of 1000 school going children between the age group of 12 to 14 years were selected in the study from Bagalkot city of India. All the occlusal parameters, such as molar relation, canine relation, overjet, overbite and crowding and spacing were recorded in a record sheet. The gender and sex difference was evaluated using Chi-square test. According to the classification of Angle, the prevalence of class I, II and III malocclusions was 17.8, 30.1 and 1.6%, respectively. Ideal occlusion was 3.2% where as normal occlusion was 46.8%. An overjet of at least 4 mm or more was present in 15.2 and 7.2% had a reverse overjet. A total of 9.2 had an increased overbite and 10.6% had open bite. Highly significant (p < 0.001) age differences were found for overjet, overbite and highly significant (p < 0.001) gender differences were found for crowding and spacing. Clinical significance: The study gives the prevalence of malocclusion amongst 12 to 14 years old in urban Indian population. The data can be used for may research projects and gives us a better understanding of malocclusion in urban Indian population.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 16 percent carbamide peroxide gel on mercury and silver ions released from admixed and spherical dental amalgams. A total of 96 amalgam discs were prepared from two different types and brands of dental amalgam (admixed and spherical). The samples were stored at room temperature in glass tubes containing distilled water for 24 hours. The specimens were then polished and again immersed in distilled water at room temperature and stored for one month. Samples of both types of dental amalgam were treated with carbamide peroxide 16 percent gel (Nite White, Discus Dental, Inc., Culver City, CA, USA) for 14 and 28 hours (experimental group) and compared to samples not exposed to the bleaching agent but stored continuously in distilled water. Mercury and silver levels of each solution were measured using the VAV-440 analyzer system. Mercury and silver ions released from the experimental group were significantly greater than from the control group (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the mean levels of mercury and silver ions in the two kinds of amalgams after treatment with 16 percent carbamide peroxide (p=0.119 for mercury and p=0.199 for silver). Increasing the storage time in the carbamide peroxide gel from 14 to 28 hours did not result in significant changes in the amount of ions released (p=0.329 for mercury and p=0.082 for silver). Also, the interaction effect between amalgam particles' shape (admixed and spherical) versus storage time (14 versus 28 hours) was not statistically significant (p=0.901 for mercury and p=0.951 for silver). Treatment with 16 percent carbamide peroxide gel increased mercury and silver ions released from admixed and spherical amalgams, compared to samples in the control group, but the difference between the two amalgams was not statistically significant. The amount of mercury and silver ions released from high-copper dental amalgams during bleaching with 16 percent carbamide peroxide is in the safe range of mercury intake for patients.
 
A to D: (A) No major alterations could be detected on clinical examination, (B) late root development of tooth 35 and radiolucent lesion between teeth 35 and 36, (C) angiography of right external carotid presenting normal appearance, (D) angiography of left external carotid showing the presence of an intraosseous HEM with high-flow, high-shunt, in the left mandibular ramus
A to D: (A) Mandible CT scan showing a slight increase of the left mandible and a lytic lesion in left mandibular body, (B) angiographic study in a lateral view of left external carotid showing the presence of the lesion and communications, (C) aspect of left carotid angiography after the fourth punction and (D) panoramic radiograph after first embolization
Article
Intraosseous hemangiomas in the jaws are rare lesions and may lead to several complications. The authors present a case of a 12-year-old girl with a radiolucent periapical lesion between tooth 35 and 36 where nocturnal exsanguinating bleeding started to occur from periodontal sulcus during orthodontic treatment. Diagnosis of an intraosseous hemangioma in the mandible was based on positive needle aspiration for blood, computed tomography and arteriography. At first the family chose to only follow-up the lesion but episodes of nocturnal hemorrhage were becoming more frequent and a treatment was requested. Embolization and dental extraction were performed in order to treat the lesion. After a follow-up period of 17 years no more cases of hemorrhage occurred and lesion regressed. How to cite this article Frizzera F, Beccalli I, Maia RMLC, Tonetto MR, da Silva Zanetti LS, de Barros LPA. Conservative Treatment of Intraosseous Hemangiomas in the Mandible: Case Report with a 17-Year Follow-up Period. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(3):376-380.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the dental age in Saudi children aged 8.5 to 17 years using the Demirjian method. Four hundred ninety panoramic radiographs of boys and girls were reviewed retrospectively. All children were placed in the age group closest to their chronological age. The dental age was scored on all seven left mandibular teeth by one examiner. Both boys and girls in age groups nine to 14 years showed advanced dental age compared to their chronological age which was found to be statistically significant except in age groups nine and 13 years. Saudi boys were 0.3 years and Saudi girls 0.4 years ahead, on average, of French-Canadian children as analyzed by the Demirjian method. The standard values for French-Canadian children provided by Demirjian vary slightly for application to Saudi children. As a result, new graphs and tables were produced to convert these maturity scores, calculated by the Demirjian method, to the dental age for Saudi children.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and assess other factors associated with geographic tongue in Thailand. One hundred and eighty-eight Thais with geographic tongue and 188 controls were interviewed regarding their medical history, symptoms, and the nature and migratory pattern of their lesions. Variations in the clinical appearance, lesion location, and any associated tongue fissures were recorded. The age range for the 188 subjects was 9 to 79 years. The highest incidence (39.4%) occurred in the 20-29 age group. Women were affected more than men (1.5:1). The leading group of medical conditions consisted of allergy-related disorders; however, the incidence of these problems among both subjects and controls was not significantly different (55.2% vs. 44.8%). Our results demonstrated a significant co-existence of geographic tongue and fissured tongue. Most of the geographic tongue lesions manifested a typical appearance consisting of a central atrophic area bounded by a raised white circinate line (69.1%) with multiple tongue sites affected (62.8%). The most common locations were at the lateral margins and tip of the tongue. The majority of our subjects (75.5%) were asymptomatic. The results of this study correspond with the findings of previous geographic tongue studies in other populations. Citation Jainkittivong A, Langlais RP. Geographic Tongue: Clinical Characteristics of 188 Cases. J Contemp Dent Pract 2005 February;(6)1:123-135.
 
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of nine tongue conditions and evaluate their relationship to oral hygiene status and personal habits in a Northern Iranian population. This descriptive study evaluated 1901 healthy subjects (1142 women, 759 men) >12 years who were referred to the Dental Faculty of Babol University during a period from February 2005 to July 2006. A questionnaire was designed according to the aims of the study. Each subject completed the questionnaire and received a complete dental and oral examination. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and Chi-square and Fisher's exact probability tests. Six hundred seventy-two (35.3%) of 1901 subjects had tongue lesions with a frequency of 38.6% in women and 47.7% in men which was statistically significant (P<0.0001). A strong association was found between tongue lesions and smoking (p<0.0001), black tea drinking (p=0.021), and poor oral hygiene (p<0.0001). Hairy tongue (p<0.0001), coated tongue (p<0.0001), and fissured tongue (p=0.014) conditions were significantly higher in males, while crenation of the tongue was more frequent in women (p<0.0001). This epidemiologic survey of adult dental outpatients of Northern Iran assessing tongue conditions and lesions found the frequency of these conditions in 47.7% of males and 38.6% of females in this population. Tongue conditions and lesions were more frequent among smokers, black tea drinkers, and those with poor oral hygiene. The results of this epidemiological survey can only be interpreted for the population studied and as such cannot be generalized to the wider population of Iran, but future studies should be designed to assess the frequency of these conditions on a countrywide basis. The results of this study suggest efficient oral hygiene programs and encouraging people to drink less tea and quit smoking may reduce tongue lesions in adult dental outpatients in Northern Iran.
 
Article
Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by a loss of cell adhesion result in acantholysis. Genetic factors and immunologic factors such as cytokines particularly IL-1α, IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β may counterpart to developing of Pemphigus. The aim of this study was to evaluate. The concentration of IL-1α, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β in serum of pemphigus vulgaris (PV) patients and normal individuals. In this analytic and descriptive study 25 patients with pemphigus vulgaris (in active phase) and 25 healthy per sons were examined. Serum samples of two groups were obtained and the level of IL-1α, IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β were measured by ELISA technique. The data were analyzed statistically by independent T test (α = 0/05). All cytokines tested, showed higher concentration in patient's sera comparing to healthy control individuals. The level of IL-1α (p = 0.004), TNF-α (p = 0.008) and TGF-β (p = 0.009) were statistically different in two experimental groups, There was no significant difference in IL-10 level (p = 0.605). Cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-10, TNF-α and TGF-β probably have a role in pathogenesis of PV. Further comprehensive studies are suggested to confirm these findings. Keyword: IL-1α, IL-10, pemphigus vulgaris, TNF-α, TGF-β. How to cite this article: Khozeimeh F, Savabi O, Esnaashari M. Evaluation of Interleukin-1α, Interleukin-10, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and transforming Growth Factor-β in the Serum of Patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris. J Contemp Dent Pract 2014;15(6):746-749. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None.
 
Article
Background and objectives: IL-1β is a potent stimulator of bone resorption and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal destruction. Therefore, this study was designed to compare the levels of IL-1β of chronic periodontitis patients with the healthy subjects. Another objective of this study was to correlate IL-1β levels with the clinical parameters of the periodontal disease progression. For this study, total 60 subjects were chosen (30- healthy and 30-chronic periodontitis). Simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), gingival index (GI), periodontal disease index (PDI), probing depth (PD), tooth mobility, bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded for all the subject. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected and subjected for ELISA for estimation of IL-1β. At the periodontal diseased sites, the IL-1β levels increased at least 2-fold as compared with healthy subjects. This increase was highly significant (p = 0.0000). Within the test group, IL-1β levels correlated positively and significantly with PDI, PD, BOP and tooth mobility. The correlations of IL-1β with PD (p = 0.000) and IL-1β with BOP (p = 0.0004) were highly significant. These data suggest that amount of GCF IL-1β is closely associated with periodontal status. This relationship may be valuable in monitoring periodontal disease activity. It could be stated from this study on IL- 1β that there seem to be a strong correlation between periodontal tissue destruction and IL-1β. Furthermore IL-1β level could also differentiate between active and inactive periodontal lesions.
 
Article
It has been notified to the Editorial Board, The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice (JCDP), that considerable script of the aforementioned article has been plagiarized from the article: Büttel L, Krastl G, Lorch H, Naumann M, Zitzmann NU, Weiger R. Influence of Post Fit and Post Length on Fracture Resistance. Int Endod J 2009;42(1):47-53. The same was confirmed after thorough evaluation and interpretation. In accordance to observe serious view in case of plagiarism, the Editorial Board, JCDP decided to take appropriate action against the act. Thus, it is herewith decided by the Editorial Board, JCDP to retract the title as addressed from the assigned issue.
 
The sizes and numbers of the 234 SFIs inserted in the 86 subjects.
The immediate provisional prosthetic result. 
The immediate periapical control (showing a gap between the provisional restoration and the abutment). 
The final prosthetic rehabilitation. 
The twelve months periapical control. 
Article
Spiral family implants (SFIs) are a new type of implant fixture with a conical internal helix and a variable thread design. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of a series of SFIs. A total of 234 SFIs were placed in 86 patients (55 females and 31 males, median age 53 years) during the period between May 2004 and November 2007. The mean follow-up was 13 months. Several host, surgery, and implant-related factors were investigated, and the Kaplan Meier algorithm and the Cox regression were used to detect variables associated with the clinical outcome. Only nine out of 234 implants were lost (i.e., survival rate (SVR) of 96.2%) and no differences were detected among the studied variables. SFIs have a high SVR similar to those reported in previous studies on different implant types. SFIs demonstrated a very high primary stability which offers the potential for use of a specific implant device for immediate loading. However, additional studies are necessary to verify their outcome on the medium/long period.
 
Article
Bond strengths of bonded composite resins to tooth substrates vary depending on when they were measured. Most bond strengths reported in the literature are a result of one hour, 24-hour, or longer periods of time that do not simulate actual clinical practice when occlusal adjustment and finishing and polishing procedures are performed within seconds after restoration placement. There are many different ways to measure the bond strength of direct esthetic restorations to various dental substrates. This research uses a method published previously that compares immediate and 24-hour bond strengths of a single-bottle dental adhesive and a self-etching primer adhesive to prepared enamel, unprepared enamel, and prepared dentin substrates. Significant differences were found between immediate and 24-hour bond strengths, but there were essentially no differences between substrates or adhesives. Citation Talic YF. Immediate and 24-Hour Bond Strengths of Two Dental Adhesive Systems to Three Tooth Substrates. J Contemp Dent Pract 2003 November;(4)4:028-039.
 
Article
Recently, a novel antibacterial fluoride dentifrice containing stannous fluoride and sodium hexametaphosphate (Crest ® PRO-HEALTH™) was introduced. A digital plaque image analysis (DPIA) technique was used to quantify in situ plaque formation in a population carrying out a phased intervention protocol that included: (1) an initial treatment regimen including toothbrushing with standard sodium fluoride dentifrice in conventional bid brushing, (2) a second treatment regimen where a modified hygiene regimen was applied using standard sodium fluoride dentifrice including a period of 24 hours of non-brushing, and (3) a third treatment regimen where the 24-hour non-brushing regimen was continued using the antimicrobial stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice. The quantitative evaluation of plaque formation was assessed in morning measurements following either standard evening hygiene (treatment period 1) or 24 hours since brushing (treatment periods 2 and 3). Post-brushing plaque measurements were also taken in each treatment regimen. Sixteen subjects completed all three treatment regimens with no side effects or oral complaints. Morning plaque coverage in treatment period 1 was 13.3%. Plaque coverage significantly increased in treatment period 2 when pre-bedtime brushing was discontinued, with 24-hour growth covering 18.4% of the dentition. Intervention of the antimicrobial stannous fluoride/hexametaphosphate dentifrice in treatment period 3 provided significant inhibition of plaque regrowth over 24 hours (15.2% coverage, a 17% reduction vs. sodium fluoride dentifrice control). These results support the strong retention and lasting antimicrobial efficacy of high stabilized stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrices. Citation White DJ, Kozak KM, Gibb RD, Dunavent JM. A 24-Hour Dental Plaque Prevention Study with a Stannous Fluoride Dentifrice Containing Hexametaphosphate. J Contemp Dent Pract 2006 July;(7)3:001-011.
 
A and B: 2D:4D pattern seen in females (A) normal mandible, (B) prognathic mandible A B 
Article
Objectives: To compare 2D:4D ratio which is determined by testosterone levels with patients having orthognathic, retrognathic and prognathic mandibles. Materials and methods: The study was performed at Chennai, on 320 subjects of which, 60 subjects (32 males and 28 females) had retrognathic mandible; 55 subjects (25 males and 30 females) had prognathic mandible and 205 subjects (98 males and 107 females) had normal mandible. All the subjects had a normal maxilla and were in the age group of 18 to 25 years. 2D:4D ratio was determined using the photocopies of the ventral surface of right hand made with vernier calipers of 0.01 mm accuracy. Statistical analysis was undertaken using Student's t- test, ANOVA test and TukeyHSD test. Results: (i) Low 2D:4D is seen in subjects with mandibular prognathism, (ii) Among females, low 2D:4D is seen only in prognathic mandible. Conclusion: These findings highlight the fact that testosterone plays an important role in mandibular growth. Thus 2D:4D, a least invasive and reproducible procedure can be used as an early marker for mandibular progathism, and as a diagnostic tool in correlating the mandibular growth with causal relations between hormones and craniofacial development.
 
Article
To conduct a clinicopathological review of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to analyze it with respect to gender, age at diagnosis, clinical presentation, lesion location, and histological grading. Information on the clinicopathological characteristics of SCC was obtained from pathology reports of 342 cases. The male to female ratio was 1:1 and the incidence increased with age. Among the patients 4.7% were younger than 40 years and males were predominant in this subgroup. The alveolar ridge and gingiva were the most commonly affected sites (50%). The majority of the SCC cases presented as ulcers or masses. Swelling and/or pain were the first signs and/or symptoms in most patients (52.6%). The age at diagnosis in relation to the site of occurrence varied. Conventional SCC was the most common subtype (88%). Well-differentiated SCC was the most common histological grading (78.6%). In the present study, the incidence of SCC was age-related and showed equal gender distribution. Routine examination of the oral cavity by dental practitioners and other health care providers aids in the early detection of premalignant and malignant oral disease. Dentists can play a significant role in disseminating information regarding oral cancer.
 
Article
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of time after treatment with a 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent on the shear bond strength between composite resin and sound enamel and dentin. Eighty dental slabs - 40 enamel (E) slabs and 40 dentin (D) slabs - were embedded, flatted, and divided into four groups (n=10). In G1 the E and D slabs were kept in artificial saliva for 14 days. For the G2, G3, and G4 groups the E and D slabs were submitted to bleaching treatment with a 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching agent. At different times after bleaching treatments (G2=immediate; G3=seven days; G4= fourteen days), composite resin cylinders were made using an adhesive system. Tests were performed in a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min to obtain the values in MPa. For enamel, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn Method showed G1 differed significantly from G2 (G1=13.40 a; G2=6.64 b; G3=16.76 a; G4=11.64 ab). For dentin, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests showed that G1 differed significantly from G2 and G3 (G1=12.11 a; G2=4.97 b; G3=8.67 c; G4=11.86 ac). It is recommended adhesive restorative procedures in enamel be delayed for seven days post-bleaching treatment with 35% hydrogen peroxide, while restorations in dentin should be delayed for 14 days following bleaching treatment.
 
Article
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate esthetic improvement with the use of 35% hydrogen peroxide clinical bleaching as related to the different grades of enamel fluorosis in vivo and to study adverse effect of clinical bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide on teeth and gingiva. Materials and methods: A total of 60 children of different grades of fluorosis were included in the study. With 35% hydrogen peroxide-based dual activated bleaching system, in-office vital teeth bleaching was carried out for each subject. Clinical evaluation for improvement in esthetics, effect on teeth and gingiva were performed for each child during preoperative, immediate postoperative and later 6 months postoperative period. For evaluation and comparison, all the collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Although in all the subjects, partial shade relapse was seen over a period of time, good homogeneous and esthetic results were seen in very mild and mild cases. A total of 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching has no adverse effect on teeth and gingiva. Conclusion: Comparing all the three groups who participated in the study, 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleaching seems to be very effective in very mild and mild forms of fluorosis. Clinical significance: In very mild and mild forms of fluorosis, in-office vital tooth bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide is the most conservative and effective approach in esthetic improvement. Keywords: Fluorosis, Randomized clinical trial, 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office beaching. How to cite this article: Shanbhag R, Veena R, Nanjannawar G, Patil J, Hugar S, Vagrali H. Use of Clinical Bleaching with 35% Hydrogen Peroxide in Esthetic Improvement of Fluorotic Human Incisors in vivo. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(2): 208-216. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.
 
Photomicrographs of untreated enamel, amplified 2000 and 4000 K× 
Photomicrographs of enamel bleached with 35% HP + 1.3% NaF at 7.0" 
Average (mean ± SD) Knoop hardness values for each group before (initial) and after (final) treatment
Photomicrographs of enamel bleached with 35% HP + 1.3% NaF at pH 7.0 
Photomicrographs of enamel bleached with 35% HP + 2% NaF at pH 5.5 
Article
Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different sodium fuoride (NaF) concentrations and pH values on the Knoop hardness (KHN), surface roughness (SR), and morphology of bovine incisors bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP). Materials and methods: Sixty-five bovine incisors were fragmented (5 mm(2) × 2 mm) and distributed in 5 groups: Control (unbleached), Low NaF/Acidic (35% HP + 1.3% NaF, pH 5.5), Low NaF/Neutral (35% HP + 1.3% NaF, pH 7.0), High NaF/ Acidic (35% HP + 2% NaF, pH 5.5), and High NaF/Neutral (35% HP + 2% NaF, pH 7.0). KHN analysis was performed with a microhardness tester under a load of 25 gf for 5 seconds. The average SR was obtained with a rugosimeter. KHN and SR were analyzed before and after treatments. For morphological analysis, specimens were dehydrated and gold-sputtered, and scanning electron micrographs were obtained and analyzed by 3 examiners with a double-blinded technique. KHN and SR results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). Results: Only the Low NaF/Acidic and Low NaF/Neutral groups showed significant differences between the initial and final KHN values. All bleached groups presented significant differences between the initial and final SR values. Among the bleached groups, the least and most morphological changes were shown by the High NaF/Neutral and the Low NaF/Acidic group, respectively. Conclusion: Treatment with 35% HP and 2% NaF at pH 7.0 promoted the least changes in morphology, hardness and roughness among the bleached groups. Clinical significance: In-office bleaching with high-concentration HP and 2% NaF at neutral pH promoted the least changes in enamel hardness, SR, and morphology compared to other treatments.
 
Article
The study was aimed at esthetic and functional results as well as patient tolerance after reconstruction with reconstruction plate. The follow-up ranged from 1 to 4 years. A retrospective study of 36 patients who had mandibular reconstruction with AO/ASIF stainless steel reconstruction plates after oncologic resection was evaluated. The indications and postoperative outcomes were studied. At the end of study, 24 of 36 patients (67%) still had the plate in place. Around three (8%) plates were fractured. Nine (25%) plates got exposed leading to surgical intervention. Surgical results were satisfying, particularly when looking at delayed healing or long-term tolerance. Esthetic (79% rated results as good or acceptable) and functional results of this reconstruction were satisfying. We conclude by saying that reconstruction plate provides a solution for safe and rapid mandibular reconstruction for patients with poor prognosis or poor condition. This method also preserves the possibility of secondary reconstruction. The reconstruction plate may be a good clinical choice for safe and rapid mandibular reconstruction.
 
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the etching effects of a self-etching primer with 37% phosphoric acid on enamel by using a scanning electron microscope. Bond strength and the site of bond failure were also determined for brackets bonded using SEP and 37% phosphoric acid. A total of 60 maxillary premolar teeth were used for this study and they were divided into four groups. First two groups were used for studying the different types of etch patterns obtained and the next two groups were used to test the bond strength with the help of Universal testing machine. After debonding, the amount of residual adhesive was assessed according to adhesive remnant index using a stereomicroscope. The majority of etch patterns obtained in the 37% phosphoric acid group were type II, whereas in the SEP group, type IV pattern was more common. There was no statistically significant difference between mean bond strengths obtained with the SEP group and the phosphoric acid group. Use of SEP results in less amount of residual adhesive on tooth surface after debonding. SEP produces more conservative etch pattern compared to 37% phosphoric acid. Use of SEP for bonding provides similar and clinically acceptable bond strength compared to use of 37% phosphoric acid etching technique and requires less clean-up procedures hence, reduces enamel loss. Clinical significance: Use of 37% phosphoric acid for orthodontic bonding yields high bond strength but, causes enamel loss during both etching and debonding. SEPs not only provide adequate bond strength with a more conservative etch pattern but also enable easy debonding, thereby reducing the enamel damage.
 
Article
Aim: Aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate dimensional accuracy of newely introduced elastomeric impression material after repeated pours at different time intervals. Materials and methods: In the present study a total of 20 (10 + 10) impressions of master model were made from vinyl polyether silicone and vinyl polysiloxane impression material. Each impression was repeatedly poured at 1, 24 hours and 14 days. Therefore, a total of 60 casts were obtained. Casts obtained were scanned with three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner and measurements were done. Results: Vinyl polyether silicone produced overall undersized dies, with greatest change being 0.14% only after 14 days. Vinyl polysiloxane produced smaller dies after 1 and 24 hours and larger dies after 14 days, differing from master model by only 0.07% for the smallest die and to 0.02% for the largest die. Conclusion: All the deviations measured from the master model with both the impression materials were within a clinically acceptable range. Clinical significance: In a typical fixed prosthodontic treatment accuracy of prosthesis is critical as it determines the success, failure and the prognosis of treatment including abutments. This is mainly dependent upon fit of prosthesis which in turn is dependent on dimensional accuracy of dies, poured from elastomeric impressions. Keywords: Accuracy, Elastomers, Repeat pours, Impression, 3D laser scanner. How to cite this article: Pandita A, Jain T, Yadav NS, Feroz SMA, Pradeep, Diwedi A. Evaluation and Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy of Newly Introduced Elastomeric Impression Material using 3D Laser Scanners: An in vitro Study. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(2):265-268. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.
 
Comparison of pre-and post-treatment scores in A, B and C groups by Wilcoxon matched pairs test
Article
Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and BioPure MTAD when used as a fnal rinse against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods: Sixty single-rooted premolars were biomechanically prepared, inoculated with E. faecalis and divided into various groups. These were then irrigated with the test irrigants and tested microbiologically for growth of E. faecalis immediately after irrigation and after 48 hours. Results: Statistical analysis showed that there was a signifcant difference between the antibacterial activities of BioPure MTAD, 2% CHX and 5.25% NaOCl at 5 minutes; however, the antibacterial activities of the three irrigants were comparable after 2 days of irrigation. Conclusion: The present study concludes that BioPure MTAD is as effective against E. faecalis as 5.25% NaOCl and more effective than 2% CHX. CLINICAL SIGNIFCANCE: E. faecalis is one of the most resistant intracanal species and a possible cause of root canal failure. Many authors have stressed the importance of using antimicrobial irrigants during chemomechanical preparation to ensure complete disinfection. Therefore, various irrigating solutions have been used during and immediately after root canal preparation to remove debris and necrotic pulp tissue and to eliminate microorganisms that cannot be reached by mechanical instrumentation.
 
Article
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate retrospectively maxillary sinus functions and complications by using generally accepted diagnostic criteria with lateral window and osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) procedures followed by dental implants placement. Materials and methods: A group of 60 patients in whom a SFE with the two procedures (lateral window and OSFE) followed by dental implants placement had been performed were evaluated retrospectively for sinus functions and complications from the time of procedure up to 24 months using a questionnaire, conventional clinical and radiographic examination. Results: Number of patients suffered dizziness accompanied by nausea immediately after OSFE was more than the lateral window procedure and the symptoms disappeared within 2 to 4 weeks. Maxillary sinus membrane perforations occurred and small for 4 out of 79 procedures, two cases for OSFE and two for lateral window procedure had been repaired. No more complications had been detected for all the patients up to 24 months. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, SFE with lateral window and osteotome procedures followed by dental implants placement did not interfere with maxillary sinus function and no obvious complications had been detected up to 24 months. Clinical significance: The clinician performs SFE with either lateral window or osteotome procedures needs to understand the difficulties and morbidity arising in the event of complications and must be able to correctly judge the individual risk and the presence of modifying factors that may cause these complications.
 
Article
To reevaluate all cases previously diagnosed as calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) from the archives of the Department of Oral Pathology at Mashhad Faculty of Dentistry from 1978 to 2008. Clinical histories and microscopic slides of all cases diagnosed as COC were reviewed and analyzed statistically. The information about patients such as age, sex, clinical features, radiographic view and other necessary data was gathered from biopsy files. The majority of cases occurred in mandible and four cases were peripherally. Thirteen cases were associated with other odontogenic tumors and 11 cases were odontoma type. In two cases, recurrence was reported after surgical treatment which underwent malignant transformation. Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (CCOT) in Iranian population occurs in younger age group with slightly male predilection and more mandibular, unicystic and simple type. It is better to address the noncystic CCOT lesions with their specific terms in order to make histopathological characteristics clear.
 
Article
A slowly growing gingival enlargement of the right anterior maxilla was observed in a 56 year-old woman. The clinical features, differential diagnosis and novel management approach are discussed. See if you can make the diagnosis.
 
Article
A 39-year old African American male noticed the presence of a brown, slightly rough asymptomatic lesion on the inside of his left cheek. There was no history of trauma, undue force to the side of his face, or any recent dental treatment.
 
Article
A 55-year-old white male was referred by his dermatologist for evaluation of an asymptomatic dark brown lesion on the mandibular facial attached gingiva.
 
Article
A 66-year old white male was referred with a chief complaint of multiple painful oral and pharyngeal ulcerations (Figure 1). He stated his symptoms began four months earlier with the occurrence of a mild sore throat, which was followed by the development of numerous ulcers throughout the rest of his mouth. Because of the pain from these lesions, the patient suffered from dysphagia and resultant weight loss.
 
Article
A healthy 25-year old Caucasian man presented for a routine dental examination. He was unaware of a subtle expansion involving the right posterior mandible, which was bony hard and nontender. Radiographic findings prompted an immediate referral of the patient to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for diagnosis and management of the jaw lesion. What is your diagnosis?
 
Article
A 72-year-old male presented with a raised lesion in the area of the maxillary right tuberosity. The patient had become aware of the lesion only recently when his upper complete denture would not seat properly.
 
Article
This 61-year old Caucasian male presented with a chief complaint of sensitivity of the left buccal mucosa for approximately eight to nine months (Figure 1). The patient noted discomfort when eating spicy or acidic foods.
 
Article
A 14-year-old Caucasian female was referred by her orthodontist with a non-expansile radiolucent lesion associated with impacted tooth #31.
 
Article
Citation Eljack SA, Reich R. AAOMP CASE CHALLENGE: A Nonulcerated, Slowly Growing Mass of the Mandible. J Contemp Dent Pract [Internet]. 2009 Sept; 10(5). Available from: http://www.thejcdp.com/journal/view/aaomp-casechallenge---a-nonulcerated_-slowly-growingmass-of-the-mandible.
 
Article
A 44-year-old man presented with a diffuse, asymptomatic swelling of the lower lip which he claimed had been present for nine months. The patient reported a previous episode of swelling that occurred in the same location but then resolved. He was not experiencing pain, facial nerve palsy, tenderness, or pruritus associated with the lesion, and he was afebrile. No history of trauma to the area was admitted. Antihistamines and aclometasone dipropionate cream .05%, prescribed by his dermatologist, had failed to reduce his swelling.
 
Top-cited authors
Khalid Almas
  • University of Connecticut
Luciana Reis Azevedo
  • Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR)
Antonio Lima
  • Universidade Federal do Paraná
Maria Angela Naval Machado
  • Universidade Federal do Paraná