The Journal Of Hand Surgery

Published by Elsevier BV

Print ISSN: 0363-5023


Population structure
  • Article

June 1984


10 Reads

Peter J. Donaldson

Detection of a 0.5-mm-thick thorn using ultrasound: A case report

June 1995


46 Reads

A 41-year-old, right-handed woman presented with thumb pulp swelling of 48 hours duration and increasing pain. The swelling had begun 1 day after she punctured the ungloved right thumb pulp with a thorn as she was trimming roses. Physical examination showed a firmly swollen, red, tender, and warm thumb pulp. Thumb interphalangeal joint flexion was slightly limited by pain but no pain was present over the flexor sheath. X-ray films showed soft tissue swelling but no foreign body or bone changes. The patient was treated for felon by incision and drainage, oral cephalosporin, and soaks. Cultures grew Staphylococcus aureus; a fungal stain was negative. The wound remained inflamed, and a retained thorn was suspected. A computed tomography (CT) scan was contemplated, but ultrasound examination was chosen to rule out a thorn in the thumb pulp. A 10-MH linear array transducer was used (Acoustic Imaging, Phoenix, AZ). Ultrasound examination revealed a .5 mm object anterior to the distal phalanx in the depths of the thumb pulp radially (Fig. 1). The patient was taken to the operating room where the thorn was located using the ultrasound probe placed in a sterile plastic bag. A linear incision down to the distal phalanx palmar radial cortex was made under 3.5-1oupe magnification. Small amounts of inflamed and hem

Influence of vessel clips on vascular patency in microarterial grafts less than 0.5 mm in external diameter

August 1985


9 Reads

Autogenous interpositional microarterial grafting of 140 saphenous branches of albino rat femoral arteries with an external diameter of 0.3 to 0.5 mm (mean 0.45 +/- 0.06 mm) resulted in an immediate patency rate of 100%. The patency rate observed at 72 hours was 64.3%. The late patency rate was related to blade tip pressure of the double approximator clip used in the microanastomosis. The patency rate with a clip with a blade tip pressure of 22 gm was 52.7% and that with a clip with a blade tip pressure of 2 gm was 77.3%. When arterial occlusion lasted less than 30 minutes, the late patency rate was 76.9% to 78.3%. If arterial occlusion lasted for as long as 1 hour, the late patency rate of vessels occluded by a clip with a blade tip pressure of 22 gm dropped to 27.8%. These results demonstrate that an interpositional microarterial graft as small as 0.5 mm in external diameter is clinically feasible.

FIGURE 1: Preprocedure photographs of hand with Dupuytren contracture affecting the index PIP joint and ring finger MP and PIP joints. Patient is attempting full active extension of fingers.  
FIGURE 2: After needle aponeurotomy photographs of hand: index and ring fingers released.  
TABLE 3 . Fasciotomy Recurrence Rates
TABLE 4 . Fasciectomy Recurrence Rates
Results of Needle Aponeurotomy for Dupuytren Contracture in Over 1,000 Fingers
  • Article
  • Full-text available

April 2012


1,097 Reads

To critically review the efficacy, recurrence rate, and complications of needle aponeurotomy (NA) for the treatment of Dupuytren contracture. This was a retrospective study of the results of NA for the treatment of Dupuytren contracture. We included in the study all patients who had NA performed for metacarpophalangeal (MP) or proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint contracture of 20° or greater between March 2005 and May 2008. There were 474 patients with 1,013 fingers treated. The average age was 62 years (range, 33-92 y). Pre-procedure MP joint contracture averaged 35° (range, 15° to 95°), and PIP joint 50° (range, 15° to 110°). Immediately postprocedure and at least 3 years after treatment (range, 3.0-6.2 y), we measured MP and PIP joint contractures and reviewed records for complications. MP joint contractures were corrected an average of 99% and PIP contractures an average of 89% immediately postprocedure. At final follow-up, 72% of the correction was maintained for MP joints and 31% for PIP joints. The difference between the final corrections for MP versus PIP joints was statistically significant. When we compared the final results of patients age 55 years and older versus under 55 years, we found a statistically significant difference at both MP and PIP joints, with greater correction maintained in the older group. Gender differences were not statistically significant. Needle aponeurotomy provided successful correction to 5° or less contracture immediately postprocedure in 98% (791) of MP joints and 67% (350) of PIP joints. There was recurrence of 20° or less over the original postprocedure corrected level in 80% (646) of MP joints and 35% (183) of PIP joints. Complications were rare except for skin tears, which occurred in 3.4% (34) of digits. This study shows that NA is a safe procedure that can be performed in an outpatient setting. The complication rate was low, but recurrences were frequent in younger patients and for PIP contractures. Therapeutic IV.

Radial artery cannulation in 1,000 patients: Precautions and complications

December 1977


51 Reads

A review of 1,000 radial artery cannulations performed over a 2-year period showed that, with careful selection of patients, by means of the Allen test and Doppler studies, and with the apparatus used, only two serious complications were encountered; embolectomy was necessary in one and arterial reconstruction in another. Twenty-four percent of patients had evidence of diminution of flow, but in none did it persist for more than 2 weeks. Critical factors in reducing complications were a short period of cannulation, use of a Teflon catheter, and a continuous arterial line flush system.

The Detailed Anatomy of the 1,2 Intercompartmental Supraretinacular Artery for Vascularized Bone Grafting of Scaphoid Nonunions

March 2008


278 Reads

Thanapong Waitayawinyu


Cassandra Robertson


Simon H Chin




Thomas E Trumble
To describe the configuration of the 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery (1,2 ICSRA), including the location of the perforators, and to discuss the clinical use of the 1,2 ICSRA for vascularized bone grafting of scaphoid nonunions. Thirteen fresh-frozen cadaveric forearms were used to evaluate the variations in the anatomy of the 1,2 ICSRA. After injection of red latex, the 1,2 ICSRA and its perforators were characterized and measured. Pedicle length and distal reach of the transposed 1,2 ICSRA pedicle was evaluated. We noted the relationship of the 1,2 ICSRA to the dorsal scaphoid branch of the radial artery. Another 10 specimens were injected, frozen, and sectioned to evaluate vascular penetration into the dorsal distal radius. The 1,2 ICSRA branched from the radial artery 1.9 mm proximal to the tip of the radial styloid (range -6.3-3.2 mm), on average. The average pedicle length was 22.5 mm (range 15-31 mm), which permits its application for both dorsal and volar scaphoid. The relationship between the origin of the 1,2 ICSRA and the dorsal scaphoid branch was categorized into 3 types, including--separate, combined, and shared. The average number of perforating vessels arising from the pedicle was 5.5 (range 3-7), with an average of 2.75 (range 1-7) perforators overlying a 1 by 0.5 cm block of the distal radius bone graft. A graft located between 8-18 mm proximal to the articular surface of distal radius would incorporate the greatest numbers of perforators. The most notable vascular penetration of the distal radius was demonstrated at 10.0 mm proximal to the radial styloid. The detailed anatomy of the 1,2 ICSRA presented in this study may guide in planning and dissection to maximize the vascularity of a pedicled bone graft based on this vessel for the management of scaphoid nonunions.

The Outcomes and Complications of 1,2-Intercompartmental Supraretinacular Artery Pedicled Vascularized Bone Grafting of Scaphoid Nonunions

April 2006


97 Reads

Over the past decade vascularized bone grafts that use a 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery (1,2-ICSRA) pedicle have gained popularity in the treatment of scaphoid nonunions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate critically the outcome, complications, and failures of 1,2-ICSRA-based vascularized bone grafting at our institution to understand better the appropriate indications, methods, and possible contraindications. From January 1994 through July 2003, 50 scaphoid nonunions in 49 patients were treated with 1,2-ICSRA-based vascularized bone grafts. A retrospective review of the clinical and radiographic information was performed. Two patients were lost to follow-up study. Nine female and 38 male patients averaging 24 years of age were followed-up for an average of 7.8 months. Thirty-four scaphoid nonunions went on to union at an average of 15.6 weeks after surgery. Complications occurred in 8 patients and consisted of graft extrusion, superficial infection, deep infection, and failure of fixation. Univariate risk factors for failure included older age, proximal pole avascular necrosis, preoperative humpback deformity, nonscrew fixation, tobacco use, and female gender. Although previous researchers have concluded that vascularized bone grafts based on the 1,2-ICSRA are efficacious in the treatment of scaphoid nonunions, we determined that a successful outcome is not universal and depends on careful patient and fracture selection and appropriate surgical techniques. Therapeutic, Level IV.

The 1,2-Intercompartmental Supraretinacular Artery Vascularized Bone Graft for Scaphoid Nonunion: Management and Clinical Outcome

January 2014


130 Reads

To evaluate the clinical outcome of 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery pedicled vascularized bone graft for scaphoid nonunion (SN). A retrospective study was performed to evaluate patients with SN and treated with 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery pedicled vascularized bone graft between 1997 and 2010. Functional measures, quality of life by Short Form SF-36 questionnaire, and analysis of risk factors were included. Out of 39 patients who were eligible for the study, 11 were lost to follow-up. Out of the remaining 28 patients, union was achieved in 21 (75%). The mean length of follow-up was 63 ± 45 months. In hands with scaphoid union, the grip strength and the radioulnar active range of motion were less than the contralateral side but greater compared with patients with nonunion. Active extension-flexion was less compared with the noninjured hand but similar to patients with nonunion. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score decreased from 58 to 23 in dominant hands and from 46 to 13 in nondominant hands. Smoking was found to be a risk factor for nonunion. Patients with scaphoid union tended to higher scores in 8 domains of SF-36-Item Health Survey quality of life without significant difference. Surgical treatment of SN with 1,2-intercompartmental supraretinacular artery pedicled vascularized bone graft provided a union rate comparable with other vascularized bone graft techniques. Previous scaphoid reconstruction with standard iliac crest bone graft was not associated with higher risk for secondary nonunion. There was an upward tendency seen in DASH score and quality of life after scaphoid union. Therapeutic IV.

Use of the 1,2 intercompartmental supraretinacular artery as a vascularized pedicle bone graft for difficult scaphoid nonunion

June 2002


147 Reads

Fourteen patients with established scaphoid nonunion were treated with vascularized pedicle bone grafting. All nonunions healed at a mean of 11.1 weeks (range, 8-16 weeks). Wrist motion was minimally affected by surgery. Intercarpal and scaphoid angles were improved after surgery, particularly in patients with preoperative humpback deformity who had previous interposition grafting. Outcome, based on a self-assessment questionnaire administered at a mean 30 months of follow-up (range, 19-53 months), showed 2 excellent, 7 good, 4 fair, and 1 poor result. Three patients showed progressive radioscaphoid arthrosis. Vascularized bone grafts are indicated in proximal pole fracture nonunions, in the presence of avascular necrosis, and after conventional grafts. Radiocarpal arthritis, if present before surgery, is a poor prognostic sign.

Diagnostic Comparison of 1.5 Tesla and 3.0 Tesla Preoperative MRI of the Wrist in Patients With Ulnar-Sided Wrist Pain

October 2008


271 Reads

The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 1.5 Tesla (T) and of 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are correlated with wrist arthroscopy findings in patients presenting with ulnar-sided wrist pain. The records and diagnostic MRI scans of 102 patients who presented between 1997 and 2006 with ulnar-sided wrist pain were evaluated. Preoperative MRI scans at 1.5T (n = 70) and 3.0T (n = 32) were evaluated by 2 experienced musculoskeletal radiologists with different levels of experience who were blinded to the arthroscopic findings. Preoperative MRI findings for the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), scapholunate, ulnotriquetral, and lunotriquetral ligaments were recorded and compared with findings at diagnostic arthroscopy. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for both the 1.5T and 3.0T preoperative MRI scans. Statistical comparisons were made using chi-square test and JMP 6.0 software. A tear of the TFCC was identified retrospectively on 1.5T images in 49 of 58 patients and on 3.0T images in 15 of 16 patients. Compared with the gold standard of arthroscopy, 1.5T wrist MRI in this patient population had a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 75%, and an accuracy of 83% for reader 1 for the detection of a tear of the TFCC. In the same patient population, 3.0T wrist MRI had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 88%, and an accuracy of 91% for reader 1. For reader 2, the improvement in sensitivity for the lunotriquetral ligament between the 1.5T and 3.0T images was statistically significant. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 3.0T wrist MRI for the TFCC is consistently higher compared with those of 1.5T wrist MRI. The trend suggests that 3.0T wrist MRI provides improved capability for detection of TFCC injuries. Given the available sample size, however, the confidence intervals around the point estimates are wide and overlapping. Further studies are needed to confirm or refute our results of the estimated sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy parameters.

Distal Interphalangeal Joint Arthrodesis for Degenerative Osteoarthritis With Compression Screw: Results in 102 Digits

April 2012


44 Reads

To assess objective and subjective outcomes of distal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis with a headless compression screw for degenerative osteoarthritis. We retrospectively analyzed 102 cases of distal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis performed with headless compression screws on 59 patients. We included only primary cases of degenerative osteoarthritis with a minimum follow-up of 7 months. We identified appropriate bone coaptation and hardware positioning on postoperative radiographs in all digits. The mean follow-up period was 26 months (range, 7-67 mo). In 89 of 102 cases, patients were fully satisfied; in 9 cases, they were satisfied. Four complications occurred: 2 cases of prominent hardware, 1 complex regional pain syndrome type 1, and 1 symptomatic bony callus on the fused joint. Secondary surgery was required in each of these 4 cases. No nonunion, malunion, nail dystrophy, pseudarthrosis, or infection occurred. All arthrodeses healed. Distal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis with headless compression screws was shown to be safe and effective in cases of degenerative osteoarthritis, with a low complication rate.

Kerr CD, Sybert DR, Albarracin NS. An analysis of the flexor synovium in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: report of 625 cases. J Hand Surg Am.17(6):1028-1030

December 1992


13 Reads

This study was undertaken to determine the presence or absence of tenosynovitis in persons with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Eight hundred thirty-five consecutive operations for carpal tunnel syndrome were retrospectively reviewed, and 625 cases of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were identified. Of these 96% (601) had a synovial tissue histologic diagnosis of benign fibrous tissue without inflammation, 4% (23) showed chronic inflammation, and 0.2% (1) revealed evidence of acute inflammation. We believe that tenosynovitis is not a part of the pathophysiologic process in chronic idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. Further histologic analysis of the flexor synovium for pathologic changes other than inflammation is needed.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Upper Extremity: Descriptive Data and Outcome in a Population-Based Series of 108 Adult Patients

August 1999


36 Reads

We report a population-based, 29-year review of 108 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the upper extremity who had a minimum follow-up period of 3 years. Fifty tumors were localized in the upper arm, 8 in the elbow, 40 in the forearm, and 10 in the hand. Thirty-four tumors were subcutaneous and 74 were deep-seated. The median tumor size was 6 cm. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma was the most common histotype (n = 43), and grade IV (on a 4-grade scale) was the most common malignancy grade (n = 54). All but 6 patients underwent surgery; limb-sparing surgery of the primary tumor was performed in 89 patients. Twenty-four patients were given adjuvant radiotherapy; 11 received adjuvant chemotherapy. Inadequate local treatment was more common in patients treated outside the tumor center. Local recurrence occurred in 15 of 28 with inadequate local treatment and in 16 of 74 patients with adequate local treatment (20 of the 39 patients treated outside the center and 11 of the 63 patients treated at the center). At the latest follow-up visit, 32 patients had developed metastases, giving a 5-year metastasis-free survival rate of 0.72. In a multivariate analysis, tumor size larger than 5 cm and vascular invasion emerged as independent prognostic factors. Patients without these 2 factors had excellent survival. When compared with soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremity or trunk wall, tumors in the upper extremity were smaller at the time of diagnosis and had a higher 5-year metastasis-free survival rate.

Results of Surgical Treatment of Dupuytren’s Disease in Women: A Review of 109 Consecutive Patients

December 2007


42 Reads

Dupuytren's disease is not as commonly reported in women as in men. Our literature search yielded only two such studies. The purpose of this study was to further examine the presentation and surgical outcome of Dupuytren's disease in women, including complications and to compare these outcomes to a similar cohort of men and to previous studies of Dupuytren's disease in women. A retrospective case series review was undertaken, and we identified all women who were admitted for surgical correction of Dupuytren's disease since 1990. Comparison was made with men operated during the same period. Pre- and postoperative measurements for lack of extension at the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint were made by the senior author. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS Inc., Chicago, Il) was used for statistical analysis. The t test was used to compare the two groups. One hundred nine women were identified, with 119 operated hands, out of a total of 657 patients operated. Comparisons were made with 548 men. The average age at presentation was 63 years in women, and there was no significant difference between the two groups. One hundred five of the patients had digital involvement. The little and ring fingers were involved most frequently. Thirty-four had involvement of the MCPJ. Mean preoperative contracture was 35 degrees . Mean postoperative contracture was 1 degrees . Proximal interphalangeal joint involvement was seen in 66 patients. Mean preoperative contracture was 42 degrees . Mean postoperative contracture was 7 degrees . Distal joint involvement was identified in only 4 digits. There was no statistical difference with the men as regards digital involvement and joint involvement; however, correction at the PIP joint was significantly lower. Fasciectomy was performed in 107 cases (90%), fasciectomy and local flap in 7 cases (6%), and dermafasciectomy in 5 cases (4%). The most common complication was digital nerve/artery injury (6 patients), and disease recurrence rate was 22%. These were statistically similar to the men. Dupuytren's disease is less prevalent in women but its symptomatic presentation is similar to that in men, with more severe involvement of the PIP joint and a similar recurrence rate. The surgical outcomes, however, were equivalent with regard to final contracture correction, recurrence, and complication rates.

Reduction osteotomy for triphalangeal thumb: An 11-year review

February 1992


23 Reads

Since 1977 we have operated on 13 of 15 triphalangeal thumbs in nine children (five boys, four girls). Follow-up ranged from 22 to 134 months (mean, 65 months). Total active motion averaged 63 degrees at the interphalangeal joint and 79 degrees at the metacarpophalangeal joint. There was no evidence of instability or laxity of ligaments. Reduction osteotomy was insufficient to shorten grossly long thumbs of two patients, and it was necessary to shorten the metacarpal. Premature closure of the phalangeal physis occurred in two thumbs but did not result in inadequate length; one postoperative pin-tract infection resulted in nonunion that required reoperation. This long-term experience supports reduction osteotomy for triphalangeal thumbs because it addresses the deformities and preserves both motion and stability.

Trapezoid Fractures: Report of 11 Cases

April 2012


74 Reads

Trapezoid fractures are rare. Mostly single cases reports appear in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review 11 patients treated for trapezoid fractures at our center. We reviewed all trapezoid fractures that presented over the past 10 years at our institution. We reviewed case notes regarding mechanism of injury, fracture pattern, mode of diagnosis, and time to diagnosis and treatment. We treated 11 patients for trapezoid fractures over the 10-year period. A correct diagnosis was made in 5 cases on initial evaluation. Most trapezoid fractures were diagnosed on computed tomographic scan. The fracture plane was predominantly sagittal. Coronal fractures could not be diagnosed on plain radiographs. Fractures of the trapezoid should be suspected from the mechanism of injury, in particular, axial force, and from local tenderness. These fractures may be underdiagnosed. We recommend computed tomography rather than plain radiography alone in case of clinical suspicion. Diagnostic IV.

Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Analysis of 11 Scaphoid Waist Nonunions

April 2012


26 Reads

To virtually assess nonunions of the scaphoid waist using 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) reconstruction for the amount of displacement of the distal fragment and the postfracture reduction position using the intact opposite scaphoid for reference. We generated 3-dimensional reconstructions for 11 nonunions of the scaphoid waist and the contralateral intact scaphoids based on CT. The mean age of the patients was 25 years and the time from injury to the CT scan was 2.4 years. We used the mirrored 3-dimensional model of the healthy scaphoid to guide virtual reduction of the nonunion and calculated the amount of displacement of the distal pole fragment from prereduction to postreduction. We compared the results with the intrascaphoid angles calculated using single CT slices. The scaphoid nonunions showed a mean flexion deformity of 23°, an ulnar deviation of 5°, and a pronation deformity of 10°. Mean translation was 0.9 mm volarward, 0.2 mm radialward, and 3.3 mm distalward. After reduction, all scaphoids showed a bony overlap on the dorsoradial side; the mean volume of this region was 3% of total bone volume. There was no correlation between the degree of displacement and the intrascaphoid angle measurements. Preoperative planning for scaphoid reconstruction is usually performed using conventional radiographs and single CT slices. However, by synthesizing the information from the CT into a 3-dimensional reconstruction, an exact analysis is possible. This method also allows quantification of prosupination displacement. The postreduction area of dorsal bone overlap may be due to appositional callus formation. Simple volar opening of the scaphoid allows correction of angulation deformities but results in lengthening of the scaphoid. Correct reduction of the scaphoid fragments is often only possible if the dorsal appositional callus is resected.

Predictors of carpal tunnel syndrome: An 11-year study of industrial workers

August 2002


68 Reads

In 1984 we initiated a study of factors associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in industrial workers by using a case definition based on both symptoms and electrophysiologic findings. Medical history, lifestyle factors, and symptoms were assessed by interview, and electrodiagnostic studies were used to measure median nerve function. Job tasks were classified by both interview and direct observation of work activities. Follow-up evaluations were conducted in 1989 and 1994-1995. The analytic sample consisted of 111 women and 145 men free of CTS in 1984 who were examined at both subsequent contact points. In logistic regression analyses, greater age, female gender, relative overweight, cigarette smoking, and vibrations associated with job tasks were found to significantly increase risk for dominant-hand CTS, whereas presence of an endocrine disorder was marginally related to reduced risk for CTS. These findings were generally similar when analyzed separately for men and women. Similar to other chronic noninfectious diseases, personal factors may play an important role in determining risk for CTS.

Localized nodular tenosynovitis: Experience with 115 cases

June 1984


53 Reads

One hundred fifteen cases of localized nodular synovitis (giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath) were reviewed. The optimal treatment for these lesions is unknown, and a high recurrence rate exists. Growths arose from most of the synovial sites of the hand, including joints, capsular ligaments, and tendon sheaths. Deformation of the bone surface was commonly seen; however, bone invasion was uncommon. The histologic features may vary, but the lesions are always benign and do not metastasize. Treatment consisted of thorough local excision and adjacent joint exploration when appropriate. Recurrence occurred in 10 cases (9%) with one to five additional surgical procedures needed to eradicate the lesion.

Technique of Olecranon Bone Grafting for Surgical Fixation of Scaphoid Fractures (vol 36A, pg 1220, 2011)

July 2011


150 Reads

Currently described sources of bone graft, such as iliac crest and distal radius, for supplemental fixation of scaphoid fractures are suboptimal. In our experience, olecranon bone has the advantage of providing a convenient source of corticocancellous block graft that can be harvested within the same sterile operative field used for fixation of the scaphoid fracture, and it also causes less postoperative pain compared to that obtained from iliac crest. Here, we describe our surgical technique for harvest and use of olecranon bone graft for fixation of scaphoid fractures.

Garcia-Elias M, Lluch AL, Stanley JK: Threeligament tenodesis for the treatment of scapholunate dissociation: indications and surgical technique. J Hand Surg Am 31(1): 125-34

February 2006


2,975 Reads

Different surgical techniques have been proposed to treat traumatic scapholunate instability. Deciding which treatment is best for each individual case is not easy. In this article we report an algorithm of treatment based on a number of prognostic factors that may help in this matter. We also report on the promising results obtained using a new technique, the 3-ligament tenodesis, for the treatment of nonrepairable complete scapholunate ligament rupture, causing a reducible carpal malalignment without secondary osteoarthritis. This technique incorporates features from 3 previously described techniques.

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