The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention

Published by Valley International
Online ISSN: 2349-2031
Publications
Article
The study aimed to determine the implication and position of granting Right To Build status to the Commanditaire Venootschap based on Circular Letter 2/SE-HT.02.01/VI/2019 concerning the Granting Right To Build for Commanditaire Vennootschap (CV). In the implementation, circular letter has not been able to provide certainty and clear legal auspices regarding the CV that can apply for Right To Build (HGB). This study used a normative juridical research method, namely library research by collecting primary, secondary and tertiary legal materials such as books, legal scientific papers, other literature materials that explained the study to be discussed. Based on the result of the study, the position of the circular letter in the hierarchy of law and regulation, as well as the norms in it, the granting Right To Build for a CV was contrary to existing rules. Circular letter referred to the Basic Agrarian Law (UUPA) and Government Law (PP) No. 40/1996 is as the basis for granting the Right To Build for CV contrary to the law itself. CV cannot be compared to a legal entity. According to the author, the circular letter did not guarantee legal certainty because of the registration of the Right To Build for CV by mentioning on behalf of all allies in the CV personally (individuals), while the completeness documents in the name of CV. The implications of the circular letter can cause confusion and various potential risks. The CV cannot fulfill the elements as a legal entity, and the position of the circular letter was not in the hierarchy of statutory regulations because it was only limited to a technical guideline for a general regulation. If active and passive allies from a CV wanted to apply for land rights, it would be safer if an upgrade is made from a CV to a Limited Liability Company (PT). Additionally, it provided an opportunity for allies to be free from responsibility to personal property. Related to the discussion of CV, it is better to have further study on the discussion of the Bill that regulates CV business entities in order to have a clear legal shade.
 
Article
This study examines the relationship between firm growth and firm size using a time series dataset of 17 manufacturing industries in Nigeria from year 2000 to 2011. We tested for the validity of GIBRAT’s law on firms Growth and size .Our result shows that, the relationship between firm growth and size of manufacturing industries in Nigeria exits, but very sensitive with respect to the various definition of the variables employed. The growth rate is defined in terms of firms Value of production (ie Turnover), while the firms size was defined in terms of firms wages and salaries as well as firms Return on Assets. In estimating the growth rate, we controlled for other factors which directly influence the sampled firms such as capital structure, Technological innovation, strategic planning, expectations and attitude of managers. The rate of firms’ entry and exit amongst manufacturing firms in Nigeria prompted this study. The OLS regression model used emanated from the neo-classical theory.
 
Article
Raffles introduced government directly in Java and tried to do various things that he considered useful for his government. It abolished the slave trade, forced labor and permanent surrender of cash crops, and gave farmers the freedom to choose their own crops to grow. Later he also introduced the land tenure system, which abolished the unpopular forced farming system established by the Dutch, in which crops were grown and handed over to the government. In addition, he ordered the restoration of the Borobudur temple and other temples, and allowed research related to these cultural buildings. During his reign, Raffles increased his knowledge of Javanese customs, history, beliefs, geography, and natural history and compiled information for a book which he would later publish. This has a very big influence when it is associated with the end of the British rule in Java, it has a direct and indirect impact on the development of information and appreciation of the reception of art and culture observers of the indigenous Javanese population from Europe. Keywords: Raffles, Java, art, culture, landrente, picture plate
 
Article
The problem of narcotics has become a very serious threat to all countries in the world, including in Southeast Asia. Indonesia as part of the Southeast Asian region sees the phenomenon of abuse and circulation of narcotics in the country as a serious threat that must be fought. The Covid-19 pandemic has not dampened the illicit narcotics business. Narcotics Abusers during the Covid-19 Pandemic have the right to obtain rehabilitation efforts through an assessment process, the Narcotics Law aims to ensure the arrangement of medical and ssocial rehabilitation efforts for abusers and narcotics addicts. An addict and a victim of narcotics abuse is a victim of narcotics so he deserves to be called a sick person. As a result, an addict and a victim of narcotics abuse must undergo treatment by admitting it to a medical and / or social rehabilitation institution.
 
Results of Validity Test
Results of Reliability Test
Article
The change of consumers’ behaviors during pandemic is a challenge for livestock products producers to survive among sector threats that are often unpredictable by producers. Such change demanded the producers to be more adaptive and sensitive to consumers’ behaviors, so that most of producers used traffic analysis as basic to identify the consumers’ behaviors in diverse condition. High level of technological use during pandemic is an opportunity for the producers to optimize platform used by majority of the market segmentation. The research purpose was optimizing marketing strategy via Instagram as improvement of SMEs-scale Mozarella marketing performance. The research methods used were survey and interview with consumers who use Instagram, 100 peoples, and then analyzed using Multiple Regression as basic in composing strategies. Results of the analysis showed that 87% TAM positively affected on intention of the consumers to purchase Mozarella cheese via Instagram. Indicator that dominates high effect of both elements is ease to use. It indicates that consumers who majority are native digital consumers, prefer to use Instagram because they are pro to Instagram features, which is assumed to be easy for landing page when they have purchasing transaction.
 
Article
Pandemics are the global outbreaks of infectious disease which widespread human-to-human infection. In past, many significant pandemics like Spanish flu, Ebola, SARS, Hong Kong Flu, Zika were reported. The pandemic related crises affect all avenue of life and have been associated with enormous negative impacts on economy, industries, environment, health, social life, national and global security along with significant social and political disruption. This article will explore the effects of pandemic in future by providing a key feature summary with consequent discussion on the expected impacts of COVID pandemic on global economy, social life, global health system, trade, travel, education, food, different industries, global security, and developing trends in future.
 
Article
Since the outbreak of the first case of the Covid-19 coronavirus infection in early March 2020 to break the chain of spread, the government has taken a policy by limiting community activities that have an impact on economic and business training to reduce losses, business actors have made efficiency, among others by laying off workers or Even carrying out mass layoffs of employment, the role of all parties concerned in HI (employers, workers, or government) is needed to prevent or reduce mass layoffs and employers to reduce losses can still carry out efficiency. This study aims to analyze the shared perceptions of employers, workers, and the government to prevent mass layoffs in Indonesia. The method used in this research is a descriptive analysis using a normative juridical approach. This study concludes that in the perspective of interests, each party has different interests, namely the interests of employers to make efficiency to reduce losses, the interests of workers do not occur mass layoffs, the presence of Collective Labor Agreement (PKB) among them is to integrate and coordinate these different interests. So as not or to minimize the conflict between interests. for this reason, PKB must protect the interests of all parties in HI by limiting the interests of the parties in HI, namely, on the one hand, the PKB must safeguard the interests of employers in carrying out efficiency to reduce losses, on the other hand, PKB must protect the interests of workers, so that mass layoffs do not occur. Employers to make efficiency can only be done by limiting or reducing the interests of workers 'rights both in terms of labour legislation and terms of employment, and PKB also limits employers' interests to reduce workers' rights, namely reducing the rights of these workers. This can only be done as long as the entrepreneur has suffered losses for 3 (three) consecutive years as evidenced by a financial audit from a public accountant, the government's interest, in this case, the institution responsible for the human resources sector for strength in the legality aspect, can ratify the PKB. Therefore, from a systems perspective, all parties with interest in HI have a very close attachment and synergize with one another in harmonizing the implementation of HI (industrial peace) in the end during the Covid-19 pandemic through PKB can create a shared perception between the interests of entrepreneurs, workers and government
 
Article
The purpose of this article is to analyse UK’s national space legislation, the Outer Space Act 1986, based on a developed analytical framework. Based on the analysis of the UK’s national space legislation, the Outer Space Act 1986, it can be concluded that the Act does not fully contain the provisions needed to fulfil the UK’s key international obligations, and as such is insufficient to meet the UK’s key international obligations. Those key international obligations require the UK to control the space activities that those under the UK’s jurisdiction wish to undertake and to continue supervising them through to their end, require the UK to be internationally responsible and liable for all space activities carried out both by its governmental agencies and non-governmental entities, require registration of the UK’s space objects within its national registry and require the UK to encourage international cooperation amongst the participants of its space-related activities.
 
Article
Oil exploration and exploitation has been on-going in the Niger Delta region in several decades. This has had disastrous effects on the region’s biodiversity and socio-economic environment. More importantly, the peoples’ sources of livelihood have been greatly affected due to pollution resulting from gas flaring and oil spills from explorative and exploitative activities. In the face of all these, there are existing laws and policies aimed at controlling and preserving the environment from total destruction. The main focus of this paper is the evaluation of the impact of the national policy on environment particularly the Federal Government Policy on the “Guidelines and Standards for Environmental Pollution Control, 1991” as a regulatory instrument for environmental management in Nigeria. The findings based on secondary data reveals that policies as guiding principles and regulations are essential but the enforcement of these policies have not been effective enough to attain the desired objectives for which they are enacted. The paper posits that the lack of enforcement of the policy on the guidelines and standards for environmental pollution control in Nigeria in the Niger Delta region has resulted in the continuous degradation of the region’s environment, producing very severe hardship on the people as this directly affect the economic sources of survival. The country’s dependence on crude oil revenue buttresses the lackluster approach by the government to environment law enforcement in the Niger Delta region. Thus, oil spillages and gas flaring is continuing in the Niger Delta region.
 
Article
In this article the author undertakes a comparative analysis of local government in Zambia between the periods 1991-2010 and 2011-2020. The author examines the motivations and objectives of the decentralisation reform measures undertaken during the two periods. After examining the motivations and objectives of the reforms the author proceeds to undertake a comparative analysis of the performance of decentralisation policies and reforms during the two periods using the parameters he develops in the conceptual and theoretical section of the paper. For most of the period under discussion (since 2002), devolution has been the preferred focus of the decentralisation reforms.Apart from the launch of the DecentralizationImplementation Plan (DIP)in December 2009, there was no progress with regard to the devolution of functions to the local level during the period 1991-2010. By and large, the districts in Zambia during the period 1991-2010 remainedunaccountable and unresponsive to the needs of the local populations.Local government during this period continued facing the same problems that limited its capacity in the pre-1991 period to deliver local services and play any meaningful role in fostering local democracy and local development.The period 2011-2020 has witnessed more progress than the previous period with regard to preparatory work for devolution. For instance, several devolution plans have been prepared. However there has been little progress with regard to implementation except for one devolution plan that has been implemented. With regard to performance, Local government during the period 2011-2020 has continued to face the same problems that limited its capacity in the previous periods.Theauthor cautions against neglecting the issue of Homogeneity and Heterogeneity when designing decentralisation reforms. He argues that previous decentralisation reforms in Zambia have failed because the reforms have treated local authorities as a homogeneous group and prescribed one-size fits all solutions. He emphasises that Local Authorities are not homogeneous but heterogeneous. They differ in, inter alia, economic/resource base, population, geographical base, local responsibilities and institutional capacity. Thus Local Authorities should be graded according to their capacity and devolution be undertaken in a phased approach and follow readiness of Local Authorities using the capacity criteria.In conclusion the author points out thatthere is need to address the issue of capacity assessment of Local Authorities as an essential component of the process of devolution. He also points out that there is need to address the shortcomings that have been identified in the approved Devolution Plans. The author observes that the shortcomings,challenges and factors that have accounted for Zambia’s unsuccessful attempts at decentralisation since independence and dismal performance of local government with regard to fostering development are well known and have been well documented. He advises that these shortcomings, challenges and factors will have to be addressed and resolved in an honest and objective manner in order for decentralisation reforms to have any realistic chance of succeeding to achieve the intended objectives
 
Article
High unemployment rate in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to persist with a current rate of 6.14% in 2016, 6.28% in 2017, 6.16% in 2018, 6.17% in 2019 from 6.18% in 2020 (World Bank, 2020). Several factors account for the high unemployment rate including poor infrastructural facilities such as power supply which discourages entrepreneurial activities, poor standard of education resulting in unemployable youths, corrupt political environment which channels funds for productive activities into private pockets, high population growth rate, neglect of the manufacturing and agricultural sector and insecurity of lives and property. The resultant effect include high crime rate, high rate of depression due to long state of hopelessness, loss of skills by the unemployed, low economic growth, high poverty rate and increased rural-urban migration. Several programs are implemented by the government towards curbing high unemployment rate which can be categorized into 3 groups: infrastructural development, promotion of entrepreneurial activities and encouraging foreign investors. Hence this study assesses the impact of entrepreneurship start-ups on reducing unemployment in the sub-Saharan Africa region using a sample of 10 countries for the period 2006-2016. The study applied traditional panel data methodology of pooled OLS, random effect and fixed effect, and finds a positive relationship between the two variables thus suggesting that if entrepreneurship is well harnessed it can sufficiently reduce unemployment in the region.
 
Article
This paper aims at comparing legislation regarding criminal acts against religion and religious life as well as religious facilities in the National Criminal Code (RKUHP) drafted in July 2018 with the new Dutch Criminal Law (Wetboek van Strafrecht) in 2014. This research was carried out through normative juridical research methods and legal comparisons. The type of data used in this study is focused on secondary data further divided into primary, secondary and tertiary legal materials. The data collection in this study was conducted with a study of documentation and literature study, while the data analysis method in this study was qualitative and descriptive. The results of the study show that the legislation regarding criminal in fact acts against religion and religious life and religious facilities in the positive law in Indonesia, especially in the draft version of the national Criminal Code (RKUHP) in July 2018, which is a reflection that Indonesia adheres to the concept of the Pancasila law as a religious nation state, where all lives in Indonesia must be based on the trust in the One Godhead. The legislation policy (as the most strategic stage in the prevention of crime by using criminal law facilities) relating to criminal acts against religion and religious life and religious facilities in the July 2018 version of the Criminal Code (RKUHP) is based on the theory of Religionsschutz Theorie, Gefuhlsschutz Theorie and Friedensschutz Theorie. This is conducted solely because religion is a legal interest that must be protected. Insults or other similar things can interfere with religious life and endanger the peace and security of living in a society as well as endangering national unity and security. The results of the study also show that the legislation regarding criminal acts against religion and religious life and religious facilities as stipulated in the draft version of the national Criminal Code (RKUHP) version of July 2018 unlikely refers to the development of legislation regarding "Godslasteringswet" in the Netherlands. It is because the current legislation on "Godslasteringswet" in the Netherlands apparently is not regulating much about criminal acts against religion and religious life and religious facilities (legislation policies in the Netherlands are more inclined to humiliation and discrimination based on religion or at least disruption to activities worship). Thus, it can be stated that the legislation regarding criminal acts against religion and religious life and religious facilities is a typical legislative policy, and thus is in accordance with the needs of the Indonesians as a multi-religion nation
 
Article
The studies goals was determine the cause of death from 3 factor of delaying that are the delaying in decision making, delaying in reaching health facility and delaying of getting adequate service in the health facilities. The study was conducted in 9 district /cities representing eastern, western and central in Aceh province and there was maternal mortality. Research start from April to Oktober 2016. The sample was all the mothers who experience death in 9 district/cities amounted to 45. Research instrument in the form of quistioner given to family, midwife, midwife coordinator and village head. Research design is deskriptif explorative. Maternal deaths 57.7% were used by bleeding during the pregnancy/childbirth. The mayority maternal death sare due to delays that occurring during pregnancy/childbirth, postpartum, either late in decision making (97.8 %), late referral (95.6%) and delayed access to health facilities (91.1%). Decision making by head of family is influenced by traditional beliefs so that it is the main factor of maternal mortality. Key word : Maternal death, late in decision making, late referral, delayed access ro health facilities.
 
Article
Africa and in fact all of the globe is experiencing unprecedented and fast-paced changes at virtually all fronts; political, ecological and economic, among others. The almost inseparable twin phenomena of globalization and digitalization have created what can best be described an Heraclitean global society of constant flux; a society of constant change that reminds us of the Greek Logos of Heraclitus. The continent Africa in particular finds itself in a constantly evolving globe where time is of the essence and where no one waits for the other to catch up. Africa in the 21st century exists within a framework of global competitiveness and knowledge economy; a world where what you bring to the global table determines or defines your identity or place in the global village. The germane question is: is the continent Africa ready to take its place in the emergent globalized society of the 21st century? Put differently, is the continent Africa on the path to sustainable development? Are the dynamics playing out on the contemporary African continent supportive of the kind of roadmap capable of engendering growth and development? Against the background of the prevalent and contemporary experiences of xenophobia and xenophobic attacks in Africa, the paper attempts to interrogate the phenomenon xenophobia vis-à-vis the desideratum for sustainable development in Africa. The paper comes in three overlapping parts. In the first part we conceptualize the phenomenon xenophobia. With particular reference to South Africa, the second part of the paper discusses the content and consequences of the African experience of xenophobia and xenophobic behaviors and tendencies. Against a background of the need to address the threats poised by contemporary xenophobic trends and tendencies, the paper, in the third part, develops an epistemological construct xenophilia as a veritable opposite to counter narrative to xenophobia. The fourth and concluding part of the paper prescribes a xenophilial framework, which the paper argues provides a veritable tool for positioning Africa for development in the 21st century.
 
Article
Microfinance institutions provide services to raise income and consumption levels of families, reduce income inequality thereby, creating opportunities for investment in assets such as human and social capital development. The paper provides empirical evidence on how microfinance services contribute to developing human capital of beneficiaries to reduce poverty in Ghana. Cross-sectional approach was employed to gather data from 363 beneficiaries of Sinapi Aba Trust (SAT) microfinance services in 2012, using both quantitative and qualitative tools. Findings indicate that microfinance services enable beneficiaries to expand their human capital assets. Aside the beneficiaries own efforts, SAT included education programmes that added up to enhancing beneficiaries outlook regarding the non-financial aspect of poverty reduction. SAT services provided awareness creation and sensitisation workshops to inform beneficiaries about topical issues that were development oriented for beneficiaries and their households. The study among others recommended that, government, sponsors and managers of microfinance should collaborate to pull resources for human capital development of beneficiaries.
 
Article
Radio is a very important medium in creating awareness of issues. The extent to which radio stations in Abia State, Nigeria are making farmers to be aware of climate change was examined in this study. The study majorly adopted the survey research design. A total of 80 copies of questionnaire were administered: 25 to crop farmers in each of the three Senatorial Zones of the state; and the remaining 5 to the 5 radio stations in the state. The questionnaire was divided into parts A and B: A for the crop farmers; and B for the radio stations. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and Chi-square statistical techniques. The results revealed that 78% of the farmers have low or no knowledge of climate change. Similar result was obtained in the testing of hypothesis one, where H0 was rejected implying very low knowledge of climate change by the farmers. Only 2 radio stations out of 5 in the study area have programmes on agriculture where climate change issue has ever been discussed. With regard to source of awareness of climate change, only 20% of the respondents got it though the radio while 52% got from personal observation. H0 was accepted in the testing of hypothesis two, implying that climate change has adversely affected the yields of crops in Abia State. The farmers are adapting to climate change by planting fast maturing varieties of crops; early or late planting of crops; increasing mulching of crops to conserve moisture and reduce heat; and staking of crawling crops. It is therefore concluded that food security in the study area is being threatened as very few crop farmers are aware of climate change. Radio stations in the state that are without agricultural programmes where climate change is discussed should introduce one. Keywords: Radio Station, Awareness, Climate Change, Crop Farmers, Abia State.
 
Article
Free shares distribution for maximising owner's wealth is one of the very important scientific studies that raised the concern of scientists and researchers in the field of finance. There are several theories that have been advanced to explain why companies go for stock dividends. In previous studies, it is evidential that abnormal returns and trade volume are significantly affected negatively or positively around bonus issue announcement dates. Informed investors market wealth is affected to a greater extent around this event. The purpose of this study is to test whether the investor can gain or lose an above normal return by relying on public information impounded in a bonus issue announcement. Using risk adjusted event study methodology, the study followed upon returns and trading related to companies shares traded in Egyptian exchange that made free distribution (free shares) to shareholders, during the period determined by the researcher from (September 2008) to (September 2014). In this study, the researcher aims at measuring the significant effect resulting from free distributions in Egyptian exchange by identifying significant effect an extraordinary returns and extraordinary trading. Based on Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test for difference between abnormal trading arising from declaring free distributions, there are significant differences between abnormal trading from (-13 : +13) at significant level 5% to prove that the market is affected by informational content resulting from declaration of making free distributions to their shareholders. In addition, there are no significant difference between abnormal trading in the researched period (-15 : +15) at significant level 5% which proved that market is not effected by informational content arising from disclosing information of companies declaration of free distributions to shareholders, therefore, these information disclosure had no effect on increasing abnormal returns of these companies shares.
 
Article
Marital life has usually been almost unbearable for women in African fiction. During the last decades, their status has been changing very fast. In Beyond the Horizon by AmmaDarko, Mara, after having undergone maltreatment, carelessness and domination from her husband Akobi in Africa as well as in Europe, has ended up sending him to prison. This article attempts to explore how somefemale characters are endowed with the necessary courage to report the ill-treatment they have undergone to the right person or authority in order to take a revenge and have things changed for themselves. As pointed out by the study, Marahas proved that change must originate from her not from anybody else. In order to be able to closely explore how Mara, as the embodiment of empowered women in the contemporary African fiction has improved (herself), it has been thoroughly evidenced such aspects as naivety, illiteracy and most importantly economic dependence of the female characters as the main factors working in an adverse way against them both in fiction and society.
 
Academic Performance In Mathematics
Significant Difference in the Pretest and Posttest of Academic Achievement in Mathematics
Significant Difference in the Pretest and Posttest of Life Satisfaction in Mathematics
Article
Positive education takes the study of happiness and wellbeing to inspire and help learners, schools and societies to progress. This study investigated the significant differences in the means of the pretest and posttest of students’ academic achievement and their life satisfaction in Mathematics. The relationship of students’ academic achievement and their life satisfaction in Mathematics was also measured. A total of one hundred twenty students (60 in the experimental group and 60 in the control group) from the two secondary schools in Maguindanao, Philippines living in a hostile environment were chosen and involved in the study. Results showed that there is a significant difference in the means of the pretest and posttest results of academic achievement of students in Mathematics both in the control and experimental group. The means of the pretest and posttest results of students’ life satisfaction in Mathematic were only significant in the experimental group of one school. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between the academic achievement of students and their life satisfaction in Mathematics. The practical implication of the findings suggests that positive education intervention is also an effective strategy to improve academic achievement. Life satisfaction on the other hand is subjective and perceived differently by the learners.
 
Article
This study aimed to find the effectiveness of visual manipulative in teaching music among grade 10 students in Juan R. Liwag Memorial High School. Forty-five students were used in this study. Pre-test and post-test were administered to the respondents. Data were recorded. The respondents were subjected to the intervention using visual manipulative and pre-test and post-test were provided for them to measure the improvement of their academic performance. Results of pre-test and post-test were analyzed using paired sample t-test. Based on the data gathered with regards to the score of the students after giving the intervention-visual manipulative, it showed significant difference in terms of post-test scores. There is a significant difference in the post-test between the students who were subjected in the intervention- visual manipulative.
 
Article
The evolving reality of many adult children emigration from Nigeria may create an ‘empty-nests’ for many elders in the future; especially among the older academics. With a qualitative approach, this study conducted 60 in-depth interviews to: establish the proportion of older academics in the Southwestern Nigeria in relationship to their children living abroad; assess the general effects of such journeys on the emigrants and their parents, and finally, to seek ways of monitoring emigration abroad to deter an ‘empty-nest’ situation. The interviews revealed that less than one-fifth of the older academics had children abroad, a result of stronger “pull factors” from countries abroad than the “retention factors” in Nigeria, and jealousy among the children.
 
Number and Percentage of Respondents by Gender
Interpretation of Min Score
Article
21st century technology and skills in education are two of the key issues in research over the years. Mobile learning has shown great potential of 21st century technology in education today. Technological developments such as mobile learning have changed the way students communicate, learn, think, and share information among them. This study was conducted to look at the acceptance of mobile learning among form 6 students in geography subjects. The quantitative method was used in this study involving 137 form 6 student from Pre University center located in the district of Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. All students taking geography subjects were taken as samples. Questionnaire was used as an instrument in this study, referred and modified from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to determine the level of acceptance of mobile learning among form 6 students in Geography subject. The study involved a form 6 student from Pre University center located in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. The results from statistical analysis show that the acceptance level of students on mobile learning is in the high level.
 
Map of Budhhijibi Shahid Minar Complex, Mirpur Source: Developed by author, 2017 with the help of DAP, 2014 and Budhhijibi Complex Office 
Article
A number of socio-psychological factors cause accessibility problems of public open spaces such as parks and playground. However, for ensuring a healthy urban life, some open spaces are essential as taking breath to give a child some fresh air, a little scope of giving the chance of playing. A public open space becomes successful only when it is accessible to each and every person of society. Accessibility is now not only the concept based on the close proximity but also the most important concern for people to make any open space successful with its purpose. Class dynamics and public versus place dichotomy are creating all the possible changes of accessibility condition at any public space. Since this study tries to focus on public accessibility rather than place accessibility, all factors like social, economic, cultural and environmental factors for creating inaccessibility and prohibiting people from using the open space have been identified and analyzed in detail. Factors like social, economic, cultural and environmental factors are responsible for deciding a person’s decision to use an open space. This research is an attempt to find out all the prohibiting factors that influence a person to go a community open space.
 
Top-cited authors
Obayori Joseph
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Duran Corebima Aloysius
  • State University of Malang
Lê Giang
  • Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HCMUT)
Shivany S
  • University of Jaffna
Hobri Hobri
  • Universitas Jember