The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences: Annual Review

Published by Common Ground Publishing
Print ISSN: 1833-1882
The study, conducted in an Indian organization, aims to examine differences, if any, across genders in the use of face threatening acts (FTAs) while reporting incidents of upward influence (UI). The nature of incidents reported for use of UI entails the possible use of FTAs, that is, challenging the positive or negative face of the target to achieve certain desired objectives. Given research evidence on the differences in communication styles between men and women, we examined the possibility of any such differences in the use of FTA in reported speech within an organization. No significant differences were found between women and men in the use of FTAs. When the target was of the opposite gender as the agent, the latter was more likely to use either bald on-record or on-record with redressive action strategy for influencing. In cases where both the interactants were of the same gender, the agent generally used FTAs such as on-record with redressive action and solidarity politeness to gain compliance. A combination of UI strategies was employed in such instances.
The objective of the study is to analyze the sub-federal administrative regulation in Russia: registration procedure, licensing and certification. Two questions are addressed: 1) what are the consequences of the sub-federal initiatives in the procedures of registration, licensing and certification? and 2) what are the motivations of the regional politicians behind these methods of the regulation? The methodology used is empirical analysis testing of the contradicting predictions of different theories. The conclusion is that the sub-federal authorities in Russia were acting out of self-interests.
Over the past three decades, there has been a rising concern about the ability of social theories to address the idea-construction (ideational) processes in social and political movements. This article argues that in spite of the recent growing emphasis on the cognitive dimension of collective action, many theoretical attempts and the studies influenced by them evidence significant shortcomings in explaining the (trans)formation of ideas and ideologies in social movements. These shortcomings stem from a failure at the metatheoretical level, that is, their failure to hold an integrative and interdisciplinary approach to comprehending the relation between changing social structures, dynamic patterns of experience and the social consciousness of actors. In proposing a solution, the article starts with defining the ideational landscape of social movements by introducing the concept of 'activist knowledge'. Then, it will argue for the necessity of developing an integrative, interdisciplinary, meta-theoretical framework through a radical reconstruction of old metaphors like agency and structure in the light of the recent global changes.
This paper examines the relationships among commonly used 'learning' terms that have been derived from different disciplinary traditions. These terms include sense, meaning, development, understanding, development and speech. Each of these terms is taken to be problematic because of the assumptions about relationships among activity, speech and mental representations. The theoretical starting points for the paper are (1) Piaget's ideas about the struggles involved in assimilation and accommodation as learners make sense of new experiences in their development, (2) Vygotsky's ideas of the spontaneous and scientific development of sense and meaning and their roles in the development of thought and language and (3) Bartlett's ideas about the dynamic and contextual nature of schemas. The data for the paper are taken from research on how people make sense and meaning in everyday activity. The paper seeks to tease out differences among these commonly used terms and to unmask some of the confounding that is involved. It concludes by addressing the problem of building relationships between different ways of making sense and meaning. © Common Ground, John Stevenson, Irena Yashin-Shaw, All Rights Reserved.
Comparison of non-tissue Cultured and Tissue Cultured Banana by Farming Households Growing Tissue-cultured Bananas
Factors Influencing Adoption of Tissue-cultured Banana in Maragua
Factors Influencing the Continued use of Tissue-cultured Banana in Maragua
Increasing agricultural productivity is one of the important adaptations for farming households to enable them to attain sustainable livelihoods in times of crisis. Adoption of appropriate agricultural technologies is key to increasing productivity and rural household income. Yet several factors influence the adoption of agricultural technologies, which may constraint the technology¿s potential contribution to development and poverty reduction. This study investigated the factors influencing the adoption of tissue-cultured bananas in the context of HIV/AIDS in rural Kenya. It adapted the sustainable livelihood approach and studied the assets, livelihood activities, strategies and outcomes of the farming households. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect the data. Qualitative methods included key informant interviews, focus group dis¬cussions, and in-depth interviews, while a survey among 254 banana-farming house¬holds provided quantitative data. The sample was stratified according to use or non-use of the tissue-cultured banana. Within each stratum, both HIV/AIDS-affected and non-affected house¬holds were selected. The results indicate that adoption of tissue-cultured banana is highly related to the house¬hold¿s availability of savings, possession of farm equipment and security of land tenure. Households¿ HIV/AIDS status does not seem to influence continued use. How¬ever, the death of an adult household member does negatively influence this. The more adult household members lost through death the less likely a household is to continue using tissue-cultured banana plantlets. Farming households that have contact with extension services are also more likely to adopt tissue-cultured plantlets. However, extension service providers are faced with challenges in providing information on appropriate technology for HIV/AIDS-affected households. Diversification of income-generating activities is positively related to tissue-cultured banana adoption.
Government agencies in Western societies are being required to be more responsive to public demands for enhanced service delivery. Under neo-liberal settings, however, there has been a general contraction of funding to agencies-at the very time their operations are coming under scrutiny in terms of efficiency and effectiveness. This places them under increasing pressure to deliver services in new ways, including 'joined up' and 'whole-of-government' modes. The question being raised is 'how might government agencies work more collaboratively in the delivery of public services'? In 2004 a major, threeyear, interdisciplinary research project commenced in Central Queensland, Australia, to examine how government agencies in the region could enhance public sector outcomes through collaboration. Known as the Engaged Government Project, the research involved the Australian Research Council, the Queensland Government, the Local Government Association of Queensland, and social scientists and postgraduate students from four universities. One of the findings of the study was that the 'cultures' of particular agencies strongly influenced the extent to which their interaction, through collaborative ventures, produced favourable outcomes. The study also suggested ways that their collaborative performance could be enhanced. This paper will present empirical findings from the study, identifying the elements of agency culture that both supported, and hindered, cross-agency collaboration. It will discuss the settings that can promote positive interactions between agencies. Finally, it will briefly describe a decision-making tool that was created as a direct result of the project. This can be used by agencies to help decide, in an objective fashion, if and when inter-agency collaboration should be attempted. This tool-the Issue, Context and Stakeholder Analysis (ICASA) system-has stimulated worldwide interest.
Although Australian Government officially rejected a paternal assimilation strategy as public policy in the late 1960s, its policy increasingly encourages Indigenous people to adopt 'mainstream' values and objectives. This paper examines contemporary Australian policy directions for their desire to promote conformity. By exploring recent policy responses to Indigenous affairs it considers the resistance that ideologically-imposed objectives foment in subject populations. The paper highlights the weakness of coercive approaches to public policy. The discussion concludes that imposed problem definitions and solutions will not satisfy the needs that liberal traditions uphold as the social agenda of western democratic Government. More importantly, they fail to address the needs and aspirations of Australia's Indigenous people in any meaningful way.
"Testing a general premise regarding the emergence of regional disparities in agricultural labour productivity is done by considering agro-ecological zones of the Brahmaputra valley as stable regional frame. Collecting sub-division wise statistics of agricultural attributes such as crop area, crop yield, crop production prices and labour intensity from the Office of Agriculture, Government of Assam, Guwahati, the values of labour productivity are calculated for two points of time (the early as well as late 1990s) and the inter and intra zone variations in the labour productivity are interpreted. It is found that the scenario of low level of labour productivity with its higher inter zone variations which were reduced marginally during the 1990s is prevalent in the areas of lower and middle Brahmaputra valley. On the other hand, the scenario of higher productivity with the fast increase in its high degree of inter as well as intra zone differences is observed in the areas of its Central Brahmaputra valley and Upper Southern plains. The inter zone variations in labour productivity in the zones situated in the lower parts of valley were recorded moderately low in the early 1990s with its marginal decrease during the 1990s as increasing pressure of agricultural work force mounts in these zones."
The paper revisits an old social research paradigm to provide extension to interdisciplinary work on new discourses of racism. A review of this interdisciplinary work is provided, applying its effects in Indigenous - non Indigenous Australian contexts. Second, inter-group attribution research is introduced as an interesting pathway to understanding the claimed unique new forms of racism, within the racially based explanations of 'new racists'. Sixty two University undergraduates were divided based on their new racism attitudes and asked to provide explanations for the positive and negative social behaviour of an Indigenous out-group actors' behaviour. The findings show traces of old racism are prevalent in the accounts provided by the new racists and the argument is made that new racism is not too distant from its counterpart old fashioned discourse.
The homeless have been subject to considerable scrutiny, historically and within current social, political and public discourse. The aetiology of homelessness has been the focus of a large body of economic, sociological, historical and political investigation. Importantly, efforts to conceptualise, explain and measure, the phenomenon of homelessness and homeless people has occurred largely within the context of defining “the problem of the homeless” and the generation of solutions to the ‘problem’. There has been little consideration of how and why homelessness has come to be seen, or understood, as a problem, or how this can change across time and/or place. This alternative stream of research has focused on tracing and analysing the relationship between how people experiencing homeless have become a matter of government concern and the manner in which homelessness itself has been problematised. With this in mind this study has analysed the discourses - political, social and economic rationalities and knowledges - which have provided the conditions of possibility for the identification of the homeless and homelessness as a problem needing to be governed and the means for translating these discourses into the applied domain. The aim of this thesis has been to contribute to current knowledge by developing a genealogy of the conditions and rationalities that have underpinned the problematisation of homelessness and the homeless. The outcome of this analysis has been to open up the opportunity to consider alternative governmental possibilities arising from the exposure of the way in which contemporary problematisation and responses have been influenced by the past. An understanding of this process creates an ability to appreciate the intended and unintended consequences for the future direction of public policy and contemporary research.
There is an increasing recognition that development can bring with it complex problems, particularly when social and natural systems interact. This paper explores research methodologies that address such problems by utilising and integrating expertise from a number of different disciplines, and discusses how the social sciences can contribute. It does this by firstly analysing existing research methodologies and then through a detailed discussion of a research project that addresses sustainable tourism planning to the Ningaloo Coast, a remote tourist destination in Western Australia whose major attraction is a 300 kilometre long fringing coral reef. The paper identifies four features that are likely to become widespread within research projects that address issues of sustainable development: a common understanding of the dynamics of systems aimed at addressing complexity; an encouragement of group learning through collaboration; a pragmatic approach that aims to address problems facing managers and affected groups; and the incorporation of different disciplines as needed to address problems. The paper concludes by identifying how the social sciences can both be equipped to engage with large research projects that integrate a number of disciplines and strengthen such research approaches
SEQ is Divided in Four Regional Zones and is Made up of Eighteen Councils. This Map Shows the Pre- 15 March 2008 Amalgamation of Council Changes which is used in this Study (Queensland Government, 2005) 
SEQ Graph Showing the Index of Sustainable Functionality (ISF), Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI), Gross Regional Product (GRP) and Population 
ISF Results for the Four Sub-Domains of NORSROC, WESROC, SouthROC and Brisbane 
The ISF of SEQ Stacked Percentage of each Perspective Weighted within its Relating System 
Over a 25 year span, using five year increments, the index of sustainable functionality (ISF) was applied to measure sustainability within the region of South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. This study uses functionality by relating it to the level of sustainability within the measured geographical region and utilising methodologies that expand upon the concepts of a dual weightings approach. The dual weightings approach integrates an expert panel and a community-based viewpoint that operate independently of each other to calculate the weightings component of the application. The ISF of SEQ is formulated using novel equations that show higher precision of changes in sustainability via functionality trends. The results of the overall trend for the geographical region of SEQ indicate an intermediate level of functionality which is mostly amounted to related concerns of economic progress and lack of social awareness; while, the natural state of the region is not in severe threat of dysfunctionality which suggests a promising attentiveness to environmental concerns and the like. The use of the ISF in this manner aids in providing a solid basis for achievements and concerns at the community level, offers a historical record as a point of reference as a management tool and presents personal with a view forward on present and future sustainability practices at all levels of government, private enterprise and public institutions. This field of research emphasis' quantitative sustainability, integrated within various levels of qualitative means, can be an important and highlyinfluential piece of the sustainability puzzle. Yes Yes
Contemporary natural resource management is inherently complex and influenced by the changing nature of government, community partnerships and diverse agendas. Consequently, research to support natural resource management is most effective when integrative and adaptive. This paper describes a study undertaken in the Natural Resource Sciences (NRSc) Business Unit of the Department of Natural Resources and Water (NRW), Queensland, Australia, to develop a framework for enhancing integrative research in their predominantly biophysical science. A collective view of 'integrating sciences' was developed and identified five different dimensions of integration for improving the way they do their science business. These are (1) the integration of scientific (biophysical, social and economic) outputs into policy and decision making, (2) supporting community needs with science, (3) further research on the principles and practice of integration and development of research approaches, (4) communication, and (5) the integration of local with scientific knowledge. The study's findings, including significant challenges for integration within the organisation, highlight the social nature of enhancing integrative science approaches. A further exploration of the five dimensions focuses on the contribution and role of the social sciences and social processes underpinning this integration framework.
Life as a Series of Transitions between States, States 1 and 2 (and each Succeeding State) take Place in Succeeding Instants of Time  
Alternative Transitions from an Initial State (in Twins for example), The actual Transition that occurs is Determined, at Least in some cases, by Random Threshold effects at Synapses or Neuromuscular Junctions  
Free will and individual responsibility are cornerstones of the justice system and widely accepted as axiomatic. In the present work we use predicate calculus to illustrate that there is a clash of assumptions between biological theory and these axioms of justice and ethics. This creates a conflict with the justice system, for from the assumption that self-consciousness and free will determines actions, punishment is legitimised whenever social, moral and legal norms are violated.If we accept that voluntarist and determinist assumptions are mutually exclusive and necessarily generate either separate or incoherent working spaces in current models, the discussion about such models requires a third space for deliberation. A third space for dialogue offers an opportunity to generate fresh approaches, with implications not only for remodelling our current concepts of justice, but also for re-modelling our current approaches to science.
Division level (level-3) predicted lines fitted by univariate models with random intercept and fixed slope. In each plot from top to bottom the lines correspond Rajshahi, Khulna, Barisal, Dhaka, Chittagong, and Sylhet division respectively.
Parameters and odds ratios of univariate single level logistic model and univariate multilevel model predicting the probability of contraceptive use with random intercept and fixed slope using PQL-2 method
Parameters and odds ratios of single level multivariate logistic model and multilevel multivariate model predicting the probability of contraceptive use with random intercept, random slope for POR and fixed slope for others using PQL-2 method
This study examines the selected determinants of contraceptive prevalence among 10-49 aged ever-married women in Bangladesh and their true impact on the contraception prevalence rate (CPR). It applies a multilevel logistic regression analysis to draw valid conclusions about the effects of the selected determinants on CPR using the 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) contraceptive binary data which is a multistage stratified cluster data. Instead of standard single level logistic model, multilevel logistic regression model has been utilized since the data follow a hierarchical structure. Also the comparison between single and multilevel model has been done to investigate the necessity of multilevel effects. The findings suggest that age of the women, number of living children, education, religion, media, place of residence and wealth index have significant multilevel effects on CPR. The study has finally suggested integrating a strong awareness program that targets the 10-49 aged currently married women in Bangladesh in those divisions (level-3) and clusters (level-2) where the particular determinant of contraceptive use has been found to be less effective.
This paper seeks to deconstruct the concept of political correctness (PC). Evidence is produced to suggest that PC is routinely drawn upon in the media as an interpretive framework. It is argued that this framework resonates with many readers. The hegemonic position of what is labelled an anti-PC discourse, it is argued, can in turn encourage a perception that issues relating to equality and diversity issues are at best trivial and at worst a minefield to be steadfastly avoided. The paper critically challenges this anti-PC discourse and puts forward an explanation for its ascendancy. It is not possible to reclaim the concept because of the negative connotations of PC. We need therefore to be reflexive and move beyond political correctness.
Globalisation is a dynamic process which impacts differentially on various cultures around the world. It permeates cultural boundaries and in the process results in the spread of western ideologies and values across the world. This article strongly argues that globalisation poses a challenge to Islamic cultural identity due to several reasons: (a) globalisation promotes media to propagate the hegemony of Western culture, (b) it regenerates local culture to replace it with the Americanised secular one, and (c) it challenges the collective Islamic ways of life, values, behavioural patterns, and principles. However, scholars have argued that globalisation promotes cultural integration by removing cultural barriers and stimulating a healthy cultural exchange. Such arguments have encouraged American cultural hegemony globally. Conversely, as a result of cultural exchange, the dominant American culture is being manipulated in the Muslim world, replacing Islamic culture. Thus, Islamic culture is being seriously challenged by globalisation. Therefore, Muslims around the world require awareness of the dreadful consequences of cultural globalisation, and the strength to retain the absolute Islamic cultural trait prescribed by God.
After the analysis of the Chinese intellectual property system in aspects of the legislation, the execution and the law abidance, this article proves that the Chinese intellectual property system is still more or less influenced by its traditional culture. The passive transplantation under the external power and the law instrumentalism mindset in traditional political culture result that there is a little bit radical ideology in the process of Chinese intellectual property legislation. In execution level, the strong administration and weak judicature in traditional political culture and the Confucianism both play the important role in affecting China’s Double Track System. Moreover, the law abidance comprises two aspects which are the obligations and the rights. After the process of accession of WTO and the experiences on international intellectual property conflicts between China and other Western countries, Chinese public know the intellectual property much better than before. However, the acknowledge of the intellectual property for most Chinese still stay in the stage of piracy and anti-piracy rather than know the real meaning of IP. Many people are still affected by Confucianism. In Confucianism, there is no concept of private property on spiritual properties. Meanwhile, the Confucian scholars also think that it is a good thing to share their minds in public. The rule of “Li” in Confucianism results that it is difficult for the public to arise the strong consciousness of standard of right. They also do not think that the action of piracy is as same as stealing other people’s real properties such as cash. More importantly, the intellectual property legal system suffers continual influences coming from this strongly traditional culture, which not only results that the typical intellectual property objects can not be protected by intellectual property law in China very well, but it also embeds a bomb for protection of folklore by intellectual property system in the future.
Many diversity, concentration and entropy metrics are analogous, sharing common origins in ecological science, engineering, mathematics, and communications theory. The difference in terminology depends upon the discipline in which the metrics are applied. The forthcoming article defines the concepts of concentration, diversity and entropy. The various indices used to measure these natural phenomena are examined and their origins identified. Selected examples of their application are reviewed. The aim is to provide a background to concentration metrics that have been applied in different fields of study, thus aiding the identification of topics where they might be used for future research.
We examine the impact of ownership structure, as measured by privatization, and regulation on economic growth in developing and transition economies. Using several econometric specifications, including fixed effects, and taking into account regional differences and time periods, we estimate a cross-country panel growth model using the extended and new data sets on privatization and regulation for 1988-2007. Our results indicate that while the impact of privatization on growth is largely neutral, regulation tends to have a positive and significant impact on growth performance.
Human service graduates require a range of skills and competencies to address the complex, changing and diverse social care needs of service users and communities. This paper reports a curriculum evaluation study that gathered the views of graduates and employers regarding current professional requirements and knowledge needs. Data collected via focus groups, industry forums and a questionnaire were analysed to identify the level of graduate and employer satisfaction with the existing curriculum of an Australian university's human service degree program in terms of addressing graduate and industry needs. While findings were generally positive we received valuable feedback with respect to the importance of critical evaluation and the role of the practicum in preparing students for employment as well as insight into a range of practical skills that beginning professionals feel would enhance their ability to improve the delivery of professional social care services.
Why do certain complex ideas — e.g., scientific, political or economic theories — spread in society, become a matter of debate, while others do not? How and why does the content of complex ideas change the more they are debated by the wider public? How does communicating expert knowledge affect public discourse and political decision making? I argue that in order to identify and possibly predict the social fate of a complex idea, one must explore how lay people understand it. Drawing on cognitive theory and historical research, I propose a theory that describes the social diffusion of complex ideas as a consequence of how lay people construe the relation between those ideas and their perceived real-world contexts. In contrast to the conventional view, the theory suggests that changes to the conceptual content of a complex idea are not an inevitable tradeoff of the spreading process; instead, these changes are what make the idea salient at the individual level, and therefore foster its social diffusion. The article includes a short summary of the historical investigation from which the theory has emerged.
Information results from observing and recording (and making) facts whose value is a function of the novelty they convey. Despite its frequent association with knowledge, information is not concerned with lasting truths or statements that have enduring value but with transient facts that recount details of a world in a perpetual move. Information can be used to build up knowledge and it emerges as information against the background of what is (un)known but is distinct from knowledge. The most vivid example of the role of information in contemporary life is provided by stock markets and the news that enters them in the form of price changes, constantly in a need of updating. The importance of capturing the numerable and transient details underlying contemporary life, with the view of using them to inform action, is intrinsic to modern institutions. However, such an importance has acquired rising momentum, thanks to the growing economic and social involvement of the technologies of information and communication and the unprecedented amount of information they capture and circulate. Thus viewed, technological information is both an expression of the predisposition that late modern societies and economies exhibit towards the present and a fundamental vehicle though which such a predisposition becomes socially embedded.
The sociology of development has undergone significant changes since modernization theory attempted to explain the relative prosperity and poverty of nation-states. This article provides and overview of the major approaches to development theory, beginning with modernization theory and including dependency theory, world systems theory and neoliberalism. Additionally, this article compares each theory, while identifying the key assumptions, relevant unit of analysis, the main causal relationships, and relevance of history for each.
Pre-revolutionary historians (Rozhdestvenskii, e.g.) drew a sharp distinction between the temporary possession of the conditional pomest'e and the permanent ownership of the alodial votchina. The cadasters from Shelonskaia province in northwestern Russia, where the system began, undermine this distinction. Seventy-seven (60%) of the 128 Shelonskaia estates held by servingmen in 1539/1540 were "old" because the original family held the land for more than a generation. V.B. Kobrin (Vlast' i sobstvennost' v srednevekovoi Rossii, 1986) found the same continuity of possession in central Muscovy. Modern Russian historians (A.A. Danilov, Istoriia Rossii, 1995) agree the pomestie was "hereditary in fact, while . . . votchina holders were obligated to serve." Multiple linear regression uncovers the relative influence of the complex set of factors behind the continuity of possession. They include the landlord's income, nearby family members, and each parcel's average distance from the family seat (the index of fragmentation). The difficulty of traveling suggests the geographic distance of the family seat from Novgorod, Porkhov, Staraia Rusa, and Kursk was a factor. Since the pomeshchik had to support his sons' service after their enrollment at the age of fifteen, the availability of nearby land (pridachas) was important too. The multiple linear regression coefficients computed from the 1540 Shelonskaia census data covering all of the province's pomesties show the influence of the above independent variables on the rate of turnover (one for "old" and two for "new" estates). The partial correlation coefficients indicate the availability of additional land (0.47) and income received from the peasants' dues (0.33) exercised the strongest influence on the rate of turnover. The older estates' landlords received higher incomes and had larger pridachas to support their sons' service.
The paper outlines some of the approaches and issues taken in a complex, multi-layered case-study. The study aims to analyse the impact of competing and contesting social discourses related to gender and social class on generations of women both attending and teaching at a Protestant, private girls' school in Perth. In a retrospective historical framework, it explores the nuanced concept of 'femininity' and how this has been translated to students and staff. The study is premised on the assumption that in order for women to relate to patriarchal structures, they have had to resort to the complex task of constantly reformulating and reshaping their identities, often having to accommodate ambivalent impulses and imperatives. The long-term effect of this incessant renegotiation has had a major impact on the type of education offered to women in a private, single-sex school. The view that schools are agents of socialisation where the curriculum and para-curriculum may simultaneously entrench and interrogate gender stereotypes already apparent in society is central to the study (Hargreaves, 1982). The paper introduces some of the salient characteristics of the educational institution, the overriding conceptual framework related to curriculum development and identity formation, the main aspects of the research design and its appropriateness for evaluating the impact of contending social discourses that intersect with gender and class. Finally, it points to emergent themes, implications and the significance of the study.
One of the most important and complex aspects of Nadine Gordimer's thought is her ongoing attempt to find a voice that is appropriate to describe the experiences and histories of Southern Africans, who have been historically oppressed, dispossessed and exploited. The objective of this paper is to show how, in July's People (1981), Gordimer argues for the ability of the disempowered subaltern to "speak back" through the reversed relationship between July, the Native servant, and his European master and mistress, the Smales. Taking Spivak's theory of the Subaltern as a framework, this paper revisits the thorny issue of whether or not the subaltern can speak for himself against his master. The paper argues that Gordimer, by writing July's People, attempts to recover the silenced voice of the "subaltern" and repressed "colonial subject," the Black Servant, July, and, thus empowering the "subaltern" in such a way that might make the marginalized subaltern visible under colonial and postcolonial rule.
The "crowding-out" debate or the argument that "fiscal discipline" will bring private investment to a growth path as a result of a decrease in real interest rates is appealing and an important discussion within Economics. More recently, the crowding-out debate was put in the forefront as an aftermath of the Clinton Administration economic boom legacy. However, we conclude based on data from the experience of the US economy during this period of extraordinary "fiscal discipline" that the evidence does not validate the typical Crowding-out arguments.
This paper is a study of exogamous and endogamous marriages among Italians and Mexicans living in Texas. The theoretical rationale of the work is that the rate of exogamy is a standard by which to measure the degree to which an ethnic group has adapted to and acculturated with a core group. Italians and Mexicans were selected for the study because a majority of both groups represent stark differences in the importance of their ethnic identity. Mexicans place a higher priority than Italians do on social and cultural characteristics such as language, religion, and ancestry. This study is based on the constructionist approach to the study of ethnicity. The constructionist approach emphasizes the contingency and fluidity of ethnic identity, treating it as something which is made in specific social and historical contexts.
Foreclosure plague is widespread in this decade of very challenging national, state, and local economies, depicting high and long-term depression and protracted double-digit unemployment rates. This decade has also witnessed, in absolute and relative terms, an increasing trend in persons in poverty, families in poverty, extremely low-income renters, persons in housing needs, and pervasive and insidious home foreclosures. The subprime and abusive lending practices had been prevalent in Atlanta urban neighborhoods and counties, leading to menacing foreclosures that affect disproportionately the minorities and elderly, which constitute a set of homeowners particularly ill-equipped, illprepared and ill-suited to handle them. The pervasive and waves of the current alarming home foreclosures, as well as the concomitant problems, unarguably beg for aggressive mitigating policy options dealing with the subprime and predatory lending practices and mortgage frauds. © Common Ground, Richard Johnson, Joe Kotrlik, All Rights Reserved, Permissions.
Social role theory suggests that males and females are categorically placed into appropriate masculine or feminine gender roles. Previous gender research in media and sport identifies that male and female athletes are portrayed differently in the mass media, and are perceived differently by the media audience. However, much of this research focuses on mainstream or summer sports, and very little research has analyzed both verbal and visual cues in the media. Therefore, the televised coverage of men's and women's snowboarding (a masculine sport) and men's and women's figure skating (a feminine sport) in the 2010 Winter Olympic Games was analyzed to identify masculine or feminine gender cues. Both visual cues (camera angle, interaction with others, wardrobe) and verbal cues (sex of the commentator, commentary theme, and the use of social role adjectives) were analyzed. Findings from this research suggest that athletes participating in gender-appropriate sports (i.e. male athletes participating in masculine sports) are verbally and visually portrayed differently than athletes participating in gender-inappropriate sports (i.e. male athletes participating in feminine sports). Furthermore, male and female athletes participating in the same winter sport are also portrayed differently.
When they said that the past is another country, they must have been imagining Canada in 1967. That summer, Canada hosted Expo'67, an extravagant and futuristic international exposition, enchanting the world with its cosmopolitan eclecticism. Intimately Canadian, this occasion also celebrated the country's 100th birthday and symbolized a turning point for Canada into a more inclusive and multicultural society; many Canadians argue that, in fact, Expo'67 came to define Canada itself. But what exactly was Expo'67, how did it enchant the world, and how did it come to define Canada as an inclusive and multicultural place? This article argues that the documentation - that is documents and documentary practices - of Expo'67 helped the ideas of Canadian inclusiveness and multiculturalism to emerge. First, Exp'67 was one grand document: it was an assemblage of documents that, when put together in a unified whole, allowed for the idea Expo'67 to emerge. Second, practices with these documents, from their production, deployment, handling, reading, inscribing, and use, helped spread the idea of Expo'67 to the world, allowing those individuals not in Montreal experience Expo themselves. And, third, the promotion of these documents within and across Canada helped entrench the idea and fact of the country being an inclusive and multicultural society. Applying documentation theories to Expo'67 - Bernd Frohmann's constitutive effects of documentation, Bruno Latour's map, Niels Windfeld Lund's documentation of an art museum exhibit, as well as Janine Marchessault's concept of the 'media city' and Benedict Anderson's idea of the 'monument'-helps illuminate the numerous roles and effects that documentation had on this spectacular occasion. Documentation was an integral component of Expo'67, and without it, Expo'67 would have been only a transient dream rather than a physical reality working upon the international dreams of the world and the national imaginings of Canada.
According to the Ohio Academic Content Standards for Social Studies "...effective social studies necessitates an interdisciplinary approach because inquiry into any real-world matter related to citizenship is holistic and multidisciplinary in nature." As a university professor of students who will become art teachers, one of my goals is that they learn to make holistic learning connections between the visual arts and other school subjects. This paper will describe an in-depth research project in which I collaborated with a 6th grade teacher of youngsters in a low income, primarily nonwhite, urban neighborhood. Drawing and other hands-on activities were used to enhance learning of the teacher's interdisciplinary social studies curriculum. Outcomes of these learning activities and recommendations for thematic approaches to cross-curriculuar learning are reported.
The challenging of traditional nation-state borders alongside the rapid development of tourism as an industry has resulted in the rise of cosmopolitan tourism strategies which target an intensified marketing of national identities. As contrasted to previous views that regard tourism as a divisive, exclusionary, and isolationist process, cosmopolitanism views it as a formed indispensible interconnection that makes people envisage the world as a whole. This cosmopolitan mindset makes it easier for the tourism industry to subvert conventional constraints like geographical distance. Following the multimodal discourse analytic method, I examine the official website of the Department of Tourism (DOT) and how the Philippine tourism industry has capitalised on the cosmopolitan framework. The paper argues that the strategies of the DOT are very much motivated by cosmopolitan factors like the internationalisation of tourist markets vis-à-vis the development of a pan-regional competition. With that nuance, I also argue that in order for these strategies to be fully situated in the realm of the global vs. local dichotomy, it is obligatory for the DOT to not only construct a national identity for the Philippines-it also has to ensure that this identity is responsive, from local to international economic forces. This paper looks at the process of "internal globalisation" (Beck 2000) as seen in the development and continuous promotion of Philippine tourism.
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