Research suggests family disturbance is highly correlated to adolescents running away from home. However, given methodological challenges, few studies assess parent report of the family situation and instead, rely primarily on adolescent self-report. This article reports the findings of parents' and runaway adolescents' reports on several behavioral dimensions. Substance-using runaway adolescents completed measures about their family environment and adolescent problem behaviors. Of 119 adolescents, 49 of their parents also completed measures at intake. Adolescents perceived a more negative family environment than did their parents, and parents rated their youth as having more externalizing problems than did the youth themselves. Findings are consonant with prior research showing a relationship between parental distress and child problems. Contrary to prior findings, this sample of parents did not report significant alcohol use, and there was no relationship between their use and their child's use. Implications for future research and family therapy are discussed.
Postmodern organizations share a number of common characteristics: turbulent external environment and upheaval; diversity in the workforce; high rates of relocations, transfers, and job modifications; greater worker autonomy; interdependence in semiautonomous work groups; preference for highly skilled generalists; fewer managers and a flatter, more flexible organizational structure; and the need for a clear organizational vision or mission. Coaching may help, but not resolve a slump. Managers rally various groups of players to the cause within the prevailing context of teamwork. The permeable boundaries of baseball allow leadership to confront the central dialectic of postmodern organizations: autonomy and interdependence. This article goes on to discuss why transformational leadership is so important. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The author summarizes and provides an annotated bibliography based on 18 years of writing the ‘‘For Couples’’ column in The Family Journal. Articles are organized utilizing Jay Haley’s (1973) four ways of assessing couples including: understanding and respecting personality differences; role perceptions; communication skills; and problem-solving skills. The author also describes eight guidelines and recommendations for others writing about couple relationships.
Alan J. Hovestadt, EdD, is the immediate past president of the 24,000 member American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) and a long-time IAMFC member who served as an IAMFC founding board member when ACA first granted IAMFC divisional status. Recently, Dr. Hovestadt was one of seven recipients of the prestigious American Counseling Association's Presidential Award and was honored at the 2008 ACA Conference in Honolulu, Hawaii. Given Dr. Hovestadt's prominence within both AAMFT and IAMFC and his long-time marriage and family counselor educator identity, the authors' believed that an interview with Dr. Hovestadt would be of significant interest to The Family Journal readerships. Thus, Dr. Hovestadt graciously participated in an interview with Drs. Ken Coll, Michael Sunich, and Gerald Juhnke on November 20, 2007. In the interview below, Dr. Hovestadt responds to questions related to his (a) AAMFT Presidency experiences and accomplishments, (b) perceptions related to professionals aligning themselves either with AAMFT or IAMFC, (c) thoughts related to pressing legislative concerns that would be of specific interest to IAMFC members and The Family Journal readership, (d) perceptions related to marriage and family training changes, and (e) advice for those seeing to become counselor educators with specialization in couples, marriage, and family counseling.
This descriptive pilot study examined parental abductions through a retrospective view from the abductee. The purpose of this pilot study was to help mental health professionals better understand the psychological consequences that result from a parental abduction in order to help the victims when they return home. A multiple choice and short answer questionnaire was developed for this pilot study and administered through phone interviews. A total of 13 people participated in the study. Effects identified in this study by the abductees included loss of trust with the opposite sex, trouble making and keeping friends, feeling like they were in a dream-like world, trouble recalling important aspects of the abduction, and trouble sleeping and concentrating after the abduction.
Presents an interview with Dr. Bradford Keeney, an internationally acclaimed teacher of psychotherapy and cultural healing practices who has spent three decades studying diverse healing cultures throughout the world. (Contains 10 references.) (GCP)
Family counselors often counsel families where children are at increased risk of maltreatment. Yet there exists a paucity of free, brief, face-to-face, standardized, assessment instruments designed for family counselors to assess child abuse. To address this paucity, the authors created The Juhnke, Henderson, Juhnke Child Abuse and Neglect Risk Assessment scale. The scale is an evidenced informed instrument that considers 20 child maltreatment risk factors identified by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) Office of Child Abuse and Neglect. The primary purpose of the scale is to facilitate a thorough maltreatment assessment and to generate guidelines that can be used, in conjunction with clinical judgment, to aid in the creation of an effective child protective agency report and potentially facilitate effective intervention.
Children with hearing loss are considered a low-incidence disability population, yet abuse among this population is up to 4 times that of children who are typically developing. The needs among this population are significant, but resources in communities across the nation are few. The authors discuss barriers to disclosure, school-based concerns, and problems with the current child welfare system. A case study offers readers insight into the experience of children with hearing loss in the system. Finally, specific recommendations for marriage and family counselors are offered to improve the foster care experience of children with hearing loss.
The authors conducted the Adult Attachment Inventory (AAI) with 17 parents of adult substance-using children. Qualitative analysis identified common patterns in the histories including minimization of affect in their families of origin. Intergenerational implications for counseling are discussed.
The authors examine the role of Bowen family systems theory in predicting physical child abuse potential. Relations between differentiation of self, perceptions of personal problem-solving skills, and child abuse potential were tested in a sample of 210 single young adults who were not yet parents. Greater differentiation of self—that is, lower reactivity, emotional cutoff, or fusion with others, and better ability to take “I” positions in relationships—along with better problem-solving skills, predicted lower physical child abuse potential. Those undecided with respect to college major reported lowest levels of differentiation and highest child abuse potential. Implications for counseling, limitations, and directions for further research are discussed.
Given the growing population of Latino immigrants in the United States, it is critical for counselors to understand pre- and postimmigration social contextual factors affecting the mental health of this heterogeneous ethnic population. The objective of our cross-sectional, retrospective study was to investigate the potential protective influence of preimmigration family cohesion on drug/alcohol abuse just prior to migration among 527 Latino young adults (age 18–34 years). Multivariate Poisson regression indicated that preimmigration family cohesion was inversely related with harmful/hazardous alcohol consumption, the frequency/quantity of alcohol use, and illicit drug use when controlling for the potentially confounding sociodemographic factors of gender, age, education, income, marital status, and immigration status (documented or undocumented). Associations between family cohesion and drug/alcohol use behaviors varied between Central American immigrants and Caribbean/South American regional groups. Preimmigration findings offer a fuller contextual understanding of the lives of Latino young adult immigrants and support the importance of family cohesion as a buffer against drug/alcohol abuse.
Previous research on Korean-born adoptees suggests that exploring one’s ethnic identity may increase one’s psychological well-being. Existing research also suggests that some adoptees may not engage in ethnic identity exploration because they wish to avoid feeling different because of their adopted status. The current study sought to integrate these findings and investigate associations between experiential acceptance of adoption-related thoughts and feelings, ethnic identity, and psychological well-being in a Korean-born adoptee population (N = 91). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that experiential acceptance significantly contributed to both psychological well-being and development of a positive ethnic identity. Clinical implications for therapists and families are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of pregnancy of women in Taiwan after undergoing at least three cycles of assisted reproductive technology (ART) over a period exceeding 3 years. Fifteen previously infertile female patients diagnosed with primary infertility participated in this study within 1 year of delivering a baby. Participants were between the ages of 31 and 44 with an average age of 39.41. They had been married an average of 11.33 years and had undergone an average of 5.25 years of infertility treatment. A phenomenological qualitative method with in-depth interviews was employed for the collection of data. Our findings reveal that the safety and health of the fetus is the primary concern of previously infertile pregnant mothers. Other concerns include physical/physiological changes, psychosocial reactions, the transition of identity during pregnancy, insights gained through pregnancy and labor, and the impact of Taiwanese society on the pregnancy. The post-infertility pregnant women in this study endured a great deal to conceive through ART, safeguarded the health of their fetus, and managed their reactions. Practitioners of couple and family counseling should offer assistance to post-infertility pregnant women through psychological counseling and consultation to help them deal with their biopsychosocial reactions and identity transition.
The use of role-play and reflecting teams have been established as acceptable practices in the education of counselors-in-training. However, the current counseling literature does not identify the range of emotion experienced by students, as they participate in experiential activities. This manuscript identifies the emotions experienced by students during the use of a 10-week-long role-play in a family theories course, whereby the students played various roles including that of co-counselor, family member, reflecting team member, and observation team member. Implications for the training of counselors and the importance of future research are explored.
Foster youth face a number of challenges as they transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Emancipation for foster youth occurs between the ages of 18 and 22, during which those successful in this transition are required to make well thought out decisions and act in their own best interest. However, few foster youth have learned the skills necessary to act as self-advocates. This in-depth phenomenological study explored the perceptions of three emancipated foster youth who were judged to be more effective self-advocates than their peers, concerning how prepared they felt to act as self-advocates. Research findings highlight the fact that many emancipated foster youth are rarely taught self-advocacy skills explicitly but rather learn the skills themselves through trial and error or happenstance and suggest ways that therapists can make the process. Research findings also suggest that acting as a self-advocate may enhance the educational choices and familial relationships of transitional foster youth.
The present article features two problem-solving activities for couples for improving their relationship. The first is called The One Hour Conference. It consists of a suggested format for couples to dialogue both areas of concern and perceived strengths in their partnership. The second activity is a developmental six-step model in which the specific skills of cooperation, autonomy, intimacy, encouragement, and balance are highlighted. A case study and 15 additional problem-solving activities featured in past “for couples” columns conclude the article.
This article consists of three different activities that couples can complete together: Relationships are viewed contrasting the metaphor of the letter A with the letter H, eight healthy characteristics of couples by the Timberlawn Group are presented, and seven principles of marriage according to Gottman and Silver are included. Couples are invited to complete questions based on the concepts and discuss them with their partner.
Since the events of September 11, 2001, the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants World Refugee Survey has reported that globally, refugees are moving about the world in numbers that are unparalleled. Cambodians are one community of refugees that are a growing part of the Asian American population; they have been spread out across the country in primarily poor urban areas and have few support services available to them, remaining a fairly invisible group in the United States. In this article, the authors examine Cambodian pre- and postimmigration history, culture, and refugee experience. Because family is the center of life for Cambodians, the authors stress that healing must occur within its context. As an illustrative guide, the authors present portions of two actual case studies involving multigenerational Cambodian refugee families.
Twenty-one participants were interviewed about their experiences of parenting as intercultural couples, to understand how they navigate cultural differences within the family. Intercultural couples are defined in this study as heterosexual couples who have different sociocultural heritages with distinct cultures of origin as identified by the participants. All couples identified that either they or their parents were born and raised in a different country of origin from that of their partner’s. A grounded theory method was used for data analysis resulting in the development of a typology of cross-cultural parenting. The diverse strategies used by intercultural parents to negotiate diversity based on their cultural differences and their degree of mutual acculturation emerged to support this model. These strategies of adaptation included assimilation, cultural tourism, cultural transition, cultural amalgamation, and dual biculturalism. This framework can be used by mental health professionals to better understand how many couples may adapt to cultural differences to form healthy families.
Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the related concepts of binge eating and obesity. Several family factors that have been implicated as contributing to problematic eating practices among children will be discussed, including family functioning, parental modeling, parental pressure, and the impact of low socioeconomic status. Finally, implications for counselors who work with families struggling with food addiction will be presented.
This article describes the use of attachment theory in conjunction with therapeutic letters to facilitate conversations in family counseling pertaining to the role of attachment needs in the maintenance of parent–child relational problems. The authors explore how letters can be used to supplement therapeutic endeavors in addressing attachment related patterns associated with parent–child conflict. Therapeutic tasks related to the application of attachment theory and associated letters are discussed.
This article presents an alternative approach to informed consent that addresses unique concerns regarding confidentiality in marital and relationship counseling. Professional ethics codes rarely provide therapists with specific guidance on how to respond to clients who wish to keep secrets from their spouse or partner. Moreover, scholars writing about confidentiality frequently offer contradictory advice on how to ethically treat those couples presenting with secrets. This article suggests that regardless of one’s viewpoint on the issue of secret keeping in counseling, therapists best serve couples by advising them at the onset of treatment of the counselor’s policies regarding confidential communication. In addition to discussing issues regarding privacy and confidentiality in couples counseling, this article presents one example of an informed consent document designed to address this important concern.
This study investigated perceived parental rejection, family cohesion and adaptability, and levels of trait anger and anxiety and their relationship to the etiology of aggression in adolescents who have been adjudicated for assaultive crimes. An attempt was made to translate these psychological constructs into a theory-based model from the principles of individual psychology by Alfred Adler. This study supports Adler’s aggression theory, which established that aggression may begin with feelings of inferiority or anxiety within the family. When these feelings of anxiety increase, some adolescents may use anger as a safeguard to their selfesteem. Adler described this use of anger as the compensatory movement and suggested that anger used to overcome feelings of inferiority results in aggression. This intense anger appears to direct attention, interests, perceptions, and memory into paths of impulsive aggression.
The present study examines adult attachment as a mediator, explaining the association between dyadic adjustment and depressive symptoms. Participants included 188 women and 35 men (N = 223) with a mean age of 28.9 years (SD = 9.95 years; range = 18–66 years). Results replicated previous research by demonstrating a significant association between poor relationship adjustment and depressive symptoms. However, the authors extended prior work identifying avoidance as a mediator of the relationship between each Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) subscale (i.e., Satisfaction, Consensus, and Cohesion) and symptoms of depression. On the other hand, attachment anxiety mediated only the relationship between the cohesion subscale of the RDAS and depressive symptoms but was not influential in the association between satisfaction or consensus and symptoms of depression. Implications for the clinical treatment of depression among adults are discussed.
The structure-related validity and internal consistency reliability of the translated version of the Adlerian Parental Assessment of the Child Behavior Scale (APACBS) which would be referred to as the Lithuanian APACBS (LAPACBS) was the focus of the research study. A factor analysis was performed using a sample of 246 Lithuanian parents. It revealed a four-factor construct related to the parental assessment of child’s behavior: (a) responsible behavior subscale; (b) emotionally charged behavior subscale; (c) school task subscale; and (d) peer relationship subscale. Furthermore, the adequate levels of internal consistency of the LAPACBS subscales as well as the entire instrument were demonstrated. Cronbach’s αs ranged from .62 to .90 and the correlational analysis showed moderate-to-strong relation between the four subscales with absolute values of Pearson correlation coefficient ranging from .26 to .69. However, further research with a more balanced gender and geographical representation is needed on the analysis of the psychometric properties of this research tool.
The system of foster care that is currently in operation throughout the United States can present many challenges for counselors as they work with families toward positive outcomes. This article will endeavor to describe common issues and struggles currently facing children and families experiencing foster care and how these difficulties might influence the counseling process, as it relates to the goal of reunification from an Adlerian theoretical perspective. One of the most complex issues facing families and counselors is the commonly sought goal of reunifying children with family members following a placement in foster care. An Adlerian family counseling model will be presented to provide a framework to assist counselors in facilitating this delicate and sometimes capricious process.
An adapted version of Lamb’s model was used to examine types of paternal involvement (positive engagement, access to the child, and financial stability) engaged in by cohabiting and non-cohabiting low-income fathers across four age groups. The sample consisted of 2,512 low-income fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-being study. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that age group of father and cohabitation status had a significant effect on all three dimensions of paternal involvement. Adolescent fathers had more limited access and were less engaged than fathers in other age groups, even though they were more financially stable. This study provides practitioners with a developmental perspective on paternal involvement that is useful in working with low-income fathers.
The purpose of this article is to explore the application of filial therapy as a means of strengthening relationships between foster parents and adolescent foster children. Adolescents in foster care experience a number of placement disruptions and while a number of therapeutic interventions are implemented to assist adolescents in foster care, very few are aimed at strengthening the foster parent–foster child bond. Studies have repeatedly shown filial therapy as an effective method for strengthening parent–child relationships. Filial therapy is discussed as an intervention for improving the relationship between adolescents in foster care and their foster parents. A review of the literature is presented as well as a description of filial therapy and the adaptations necessary to implement filial therapy with adolescents and their foster parents.
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) is a brief, time-limited therapy developed for use with adolescents diagnosed with major depression. IPT-A has been shown to be effective with adolescents in family counseling milieus. Music therapy techniques also have been successfully used to treat adolescent depression. This article provides mental health counselors and family counselors with information about a case study in which these two modalities were successfully integrated. In addition, this article provides explanations of IPT-A treatment protocols and music therapy techniques that might be utilized in a family therapy setting.
In this article, the self-starvation problem of a Chinese adolescent girl is contextualized within the unique sociocultural characteristics of Hong Kong. Using this case illustration, the cultural differences between the East and the West are discussed to reveal how Chinese families and their way of handling conflicts can be both a hindrance and an asset to family treatment. Based on Micucci’s family treatment model, the author has augmented her approach with Chinese patients using two culture-sensitive strategies: (a) making use of the emotional anomie and (b) assisting in conflict resolution.
This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers.
Counselors are regularly confronted with children and adolescents who reside in violent or potentially violent living environments. In this article, safety plans are presented as a tool that counselors can use to promote the safety of children living in unsafe family situations. Ethics-related counseling issues that should be considered when counseling children living in violent living homes are also discussed. A case example is provided to illuminate the presented concepts.
The purpose of this article is to identify how Bowen family systems theory may be incorporated into individual counseling with adolescents when family involvement is not possible or contraindicated. Outcome and basic research supporting the application of Bowen family systems theory is reviewed. Specific clinical interventions for counseling adolescents that derive from Bowen family systems theory are provided, and a case study demonstrating these clinical interventions is presented.
The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the sexual behaviors of African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic adolescent males and females. The data utilized for this study were collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) using the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS). African American adolescents and males reported higher levels of sexual activity than Caucasian and Hispanic youth and females. At the conclusion of this study, a comparison was made between the results of the 2007 and the 2009 YRBSS.
Family issues may be evident in adolescents with behavioral and emotional issues admitted to crisis residence. In this study, 120 adolescents admitted to crisis residence were evaluated using the Target Symptom Rating scale and the Goal Attainment Scale of Stabilization. Behavioral and emotional issues specific to adolescents’ capabilities toward achieving relevant therapeutic goals while in the crisis residence setting are identified and implications to family counseling and interventions are noted.
Adolescent substance use is a significant challenge for adolescents, their families, and the larger society. Clinicians and researchers continue to explore ways to effectively engage both families and substance using adolescents in an effort to improve treatment outcome. Therapeutic engagement can be especially difficult for immigrant families facing a variety of systemic and contextual factors that impact both treatment-seeking and engagement behaviors. This study explored the perceptions Mexican American families had about the processes that they feel hindered or contributed to their engagement in therapy. Major findings include identification of a multirelational engagement process linking specific relational dynamics to engagement outcomes including breaking cultural rules, sharing stories, managing fear of criticism, and building relational bridges.
Working with children and adolescents in the foster care system whose biological parents’ parental rights have been, or are soon to be, terminated can present numerous challenges for counselors. Children in these situations often struggle with identification of conflicting feelings, grief resulting from the absence of the parent/parents, and reorientation to life in a new family. In this article, a case from the author’s clinical experience is presented and related to the stages of grief suggested by Kübler-Ross and to Worden’s tasks of mourning. Practical applications and interventions are considered.
A disruption in the initial attachment formed between an infant and a primary caregiver often leads to some type of disordered or disorganized attachment. While research has been conducted on the etiology, symptoms, and effective forms of therapy regarding this disorder, much definitive information remains unknown or unclear. With the increasing use of foster care in America and the frequency of adoption, it is becoming obvious that more attention is needed in the area of how to best appropriately approach a diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder. This article will discuss current trends and implications for mental health professionals working in the field of foster care and adoption settings.
With the increase in children adopted from Russia, family therapists in the United States face the dilemma of helping adoptive families care for their child and build a healthy family unit. This article familiarizes family therapists with children’s unique experiences in Russian institutionalized care and its impact on children’s social–emotional development, behavior, and attachment patterns. Implications for family therapists working with families adopting Russian orphans are discussed.
While adoption can build strong family ties, many challenges can also develop both during and after the adoption process. Parent/Parents and adopted children face a variety of challenges within the newly formed family unit. Parents struggle with the adoption process, while adoptees from various backgrounds often wrestle with identity development and feelings of loss and grief throughout their life resulting from relinquishment. Our purpose here is to offer a solution in the form of two group interventions: a prevention-based group to help parent/parents navigate effectively through the adoption process and a counseling group aimed at helping adopted adolescents develop a positive identity.
This review presents various resources about working with adult adoptees in order to inform counselors in their practice. Topics covered include basics of adoption, including types of adoption and adoption statistics; possible issues adult adoptees may face; and suggestions and implications for counselors. The article addresses some of the serious emotional and psychological issues the adult adoptee can bring to the counseling relationship. Also included is a discussion of the search process for birthparents and the counselor’s possible role in this process.
This article provides a review of the literature regarding transracial adoption and counseling families formed through transracial adoption. Recommendations are reported according to essential awareness, knowledge, and skills necessary in work with this client population. The need for counselor competency in addressing client racial and ethnic identity development is a salient theme highlighted throughout the literature.
The Family Journal publishes special issues that address topics held to be of great importance by the members of the editorial board. This special issue on adoption and foster care explores the experiences of children and adults who have been affected by adoption or foster care. The authors discuss counseling implications and interventions.
As adoption in our society continues to increase, mental health professionals are faced with working with the coexisting intrapersonal, familial, and social issues. The formation of an adoptive identity is one of the more critical and complicated tasks facing adoptees. Existentialism is a counseling theory that is well suited to address the issues related to adoptive identity formation in adulthood. An overview of the philosophy of existentialism as well as a detailed exploration of how to use the givens of existence along with the authentic relationship is provided as a framework for helping adults explore and develop a healthy self in context.
For marriage and family therapists and educators who train future marriage and family therapists, families formed by means of adoption offer an abundance of learning opportunities in both the areas of assessment and intervention. The following consultation case represents a composite family designed to highlight the unique features of adoptive systems. (Contains 10 references.) (GCP)
Adopted children may present with a wide range of disruptive behaviors making it difficult to implement holistic therapeutic interventions. The number of primary caregivers, disrupted placements, and repeated traumatic events contribute to the overall mental health of the adoptee and greater number of occurrences increases the risk of maladjustment. Adoptive parents are faced with the challenge of developing a relationship and helping the child experience that relationships can be safe and trusting. Child–parent relationship therapy (CPRT) is a structured, time-limited approach that trains caregivers to be an active participant as a therapeutic change agent in their child’s life. CPRT therapy offers an empowering treatment modality for families striving to feel connected and secure.
Dr. M. Carole Pistole is an associate professor in the Department of Educational Studies at Purdue University. She is regarded as a leading researcher in adult attachment theory. In addition to chapters and editorials, she has published more than 25 refereed journal articles. Dr. Pistole’s adult attachment theory work incorporates two complementary bonding systems: attachment and caregiving. The knowledge gained from Dr. Pistole’s testing of theory has increased confidence in the basic tenets of attachment theory and contributed to understanding how people can better conduct or, when necessary, end their central emotional relationships. Her work includes theory development, particularly with regard to counseling practice. She has incorporated theoretical and measurement developments into her work, as reflected in using the four-category model of attachment and a multi-item attachment measure that permits more sophisticated statistical analyses. For more information on attachment and Dr. Pistole’s research efforts, readers are encouraged to visit her Web site at http://www.edst.purdue.edu/pistole/. The following interview was conducted in August 2003 via conference call.
This study investigated the gender and race differences on attachment-related avoidance, attachment-related anxiety, and marital satisfaction in the three major Malaysian ethnic groups (i.e., Malays, Chinese, and Indians). Results showed the females reported higher levels of anxiety and lower levels of marital satisfaction than did the males. The Malays were found to report higher levels of anxiety than both the Chinese and Indians. Further regression analyses revealed that anxiety and avoidance were significant predictors of marital satisfaction in the Chinese females, Indian males and females, and Malay males and females while avoidance was the only significant predictor in the Chinese males. Gender and race differences were also observed in the association between attachment and marital satisfaction.
This article explores the impact of relationship education on young adults’ optimism about relationships and attitudes toward marriage whose parents were divorced and offers implications and suggestions for counselors and counselor educators. Previous research in the area of intimate and family relationships has demonstrated that adults who have experienced a parental divorce in childhood often enter their own intimate relationships with altered expectations and perceptions about their chances for success. A pilot study was conducted exploring whether participating in an intimate relationships course impacted attitudes toward marriage and optimism about relationships among those who experienced a parental divorce as compared with those who came from nondivorced homes. While no significant changes in attitude or optimism were found upon completion of the course, post hoc analyses found significant differences between students who perceive their family of origin as healthy as compared with students who perceive their family of origin as unhealthy, regardless of parental divorce. Conclusions and recommendations for future research are provided.
Two samples of university students (combined N= 299; mean age = 24.97; 86% female) completed the care subscale of the parental bonding instrument and the Fear of Intimacy scale. Analyses indicated that recollected parental care and fear of intimacy were negatively correlated. Concurrently, it was found that (1) participants who reported having a warm, caring relationship with at least one parent were significantly less likely to suffer from a fear of intimacy and (2) participants who scored low on the measure of fear of intimacy were more likely to have mothers who exhibited high levels of warmth and care. Results supported the proposition that the nature of the parent–child relationship has long-reaching effects on how individuals approach romantic relationships.