The Electronic Library

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 0264-0473
Publications
Conference Paper
Pulmonary Edema (PE) is a life threatening disease that needs special attention in the area of research and clinical diagnosis. The computer based technique is rarely reported to quantify the intrathoracic fluid for the diagnosis purpose. In the present paper software has been developed to detect and diagnose pulmonary edema using LabVIEW. The developed software is based on physiological measurements and parameters. The computer based technique is accurate and faster. The reported anthropometric measurements are used to determine transthoracic electrical impedance (TEI) and percent control (PC). The programming of LabVIEW software is done and used to compute the parameters involved to find quantitative PE. An equation relating percent control and thoracic fluid volume (TFV) is obtained using Microsoft Excel. The results of predicted TEI and measured TEI are compared to verify the developed program. It is found that the predicted values of TEI of developed computer based technique are much closer to the measured values of TEI in the present work.
 
Conference Paper
In this paper, we introduce a new kind of software tools intended to offer a virtual educational and/or training environment online: proactive e-Learning Management Systems. These computational intelligence based systems are designed to improve the users’ online (inter)actions by providing programmable, automatic and continuous intelligent analyses of the users’ behaviors, augmented with appropriate actions initiated by the LMS itself. We show how we implemented the proactive part of our LMS on the basis of a dynamic rules-based expert system. We also sketch how it looks like from a user’s point of view. Finally, We give some examples of intelligent analysis of users’ behaviors coded into proactive rules.
 
The Visual Book Browser
Normalised mean scores for the two major measures and overall usability.
Conference Paper
This paper presents the results of two studies into electronic book production. The Visual Book study [1] explored the importance of the visual component of the book metaphor for the production of more effective electronic books, while the WEB Book study [2] took the findings of the Visual Book and applied them to the production of books for publication on the WWW. Both studies started from an assessment of which kinds of paper book are more suitable for conversion into electronic form, and both identified as target publications those which are meant to be used for reference rather than those which are read sequentially and usually in their entirety by users. This includes scientific publications and textbooks which have been chosen for the Visual Book and the WEB Book experiments. In this paper we discuss the results of the two studies and the way they could influence the design and production of more effective electronic books.
 
Chapter
The ELINOR electronic library system is a well integrated, fully functioning system implemented at De Montfort University in 1993. The system currently contains the full contents of some 35 000-page course materials assisting the teaching and learning of one undergraduate course. The core software for the system is PixTex/EFS, a free text retrieval system with well integrated imaging functions. A usage statistics collection and management subsystem and a printing control subsystem were developed in-house later for copyright management and other management purposes. This paper presents the various aspects of the ELINOR electronic library system including its database, browsing, searching, printing, document capturing, managing, architecture, the user aspect, and the pros and cons of the system.
 
Architecture defines how messages are relayed between local and remote nodes.
The relay has two alternatives for a structure: (a) A two-way relay sends the local control messages to the network, which sends back data messages to the node. (b) A short-circuit relay sends the local control messages to the network and passes them locally back to the node.
Classification of shared-space technologies according to transportation and artificiality [2].  
Article
Distributed, real-time multiplayer computer games (MCGs) are in the vanguard of utilizing the networking possibilities. Although related research have been done in military simulations, virtual reality systems, and computer supported cooperative working, the suggested solutions diverge from the problems posed by MCGs. With this in mind, this paper provides a concise overview of four aspects affecting networking in MCGs. Firstly, networking resources (bandwidth, latency, and computational power) set the technical boundaries within which the MCG must operate. Secondly, distribution concepts encompass communication architectures (peer-to-peer, client/server, server-network), and both data and control architectures (centralized, distributed, replicated). Thirdly, scalability allows the MCG to adapt to the resource changes by parametrization. Finally, security aims at fighting back against cheating and vandalism, which are common in online gaming. Keywords---Computer games, networking, online entertainment, distributed interactive simulation, virtual environments.
 
Article
The New Zealand Digital Library project aims to develop the underlying technology for digital libraries and make it available for others to use to create their own collections. We have built a large number of demonstration collections. Because our policy is to avoid manual processing of material, full-text indexing and---to a lesser degree---automatically created browsing structures provide the primary point of access to the material. As well as conventional textual collections, we are experimenting with collections of musical and audio material. This article describes the library structure and present and planned collections, and summarises our experiences in the project. The migration of information from paper to computers promises to change the whole nature of research, and in particular the methods by which people locate information. The New Zealand Digital Library project is exploring ways to impose structure on fundamentally anarchic, uncatalogued, distributed repositorie...
 
Article
ries, by decoupling production and distribution costs from intellectual property charges, offer a desperately-needed lifeline. A wealth of humanitarian material is produced and placed in the public domain by NGOs and international organizations such as the UN. In principle, this information could be made freely available in the form of networked digital libraries. (Distribution in developing countries is discussed later.) More broadly, increasing the level of education through knowledge and technology transfer, particularly for doctors, teachers, and other professionals, is an important economic benefit of digital libraries. Disaster relief, whether for natural disasters such as earthquakes and hurricanes or man-made ones such as terrorist attacks and nuclear accidents, demands immediate and informed response in an environment where the local infrastructure may be unpredictable or severely damaged. Disaster relief situations are tackled in parallel by numerous players i
 
Article
Using the resources available through the Auckland City Council, the Auckland Art Gallery has managed to turn a simple database upgrade into a programme of work with much greater impact on the way information about the gallery’s collection is delivered to the public. The Council has adopted a value management methodology which identifies wide programme aims, costs and benefits for new initiatives. Although initially time-consuming, the methodology allowed the programme to gain good management support and funding far greater than that originally envisaged. As well as migrating the collection database to a new system, staff have managed a range of projects including digitising the entire collection of 12,000 works, clearing copyrights as required, and cataloguing and scanning ephemera related to key areas of the collection. Work has also been carried out on Web-based access to collection information as part of a re-designed gallery Web site. This work raises questions about a shift in the role of a traditional art gallery and the necessity to employ additional skills to meet the opportunities offered by the digital environment.
 
Article
This article discusses the development of document database construction in China from the end of the 1970s, including management systems, operation mechanisms of Chinese document database construction in the 1990s, as well as the main products and condition of various document databases.
 
Article
In 1996, a content analysis of 50 school library Web sites from nine countries, provided an overview of the then current “state of the art”. In 1999 and 2002, the remaining sites were again subjected to content analysis. This article reports on trends and changes through the six-year period. While school library Web sites have remained very diverse, there has been considerable development, though that development has been uneven both across the Web sites and through the time period. More than half the sites became more sophisticated in terms of the number of pages and the resources made available through them. A major change since 1996 has been the use of the school library Web site to provide access to electronic resources such as for-fee online information services, the catalogues of other libraries, and the school library's own OPAC.
 
Podcast and vidcast (libclip) at the Johns Hopkins University and Penn University library web sites 
UIUC library photo stream at Flickr and goodreads social networking site at Rice University Fondren's library web site 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore recent trends in the application of Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 features as exemplified through university library web sites around the world. Design/methodology/approach – The top 100 universities from the ranked list of 200 provided on the Times Higher Education web site were considered for collection of data and from this list a selection was made of 57 of these universities. This selection was based on whether the site was in English and whether it had at least one Web 2.0 feature. For each of these universities their web sites were visited and data on their Web 2.0 features (such as Blogs, RSS, Instant Messaging, Wikis and the like) were collected and analyzed. Findings – Results reveal that 37 university libraries use RSS feeds for dissemination of library news, events and announcements and 15 university libraries provide blog space for users. Whereas wiki is the least applied Web 2.0 technology, with only one university using it, Instant Messaging is another most widely applied feature with 37 libraries already providing reference service through it. Podcast (used in three libraries) and Vidcast (used in six libraries) are yet to become popular facilities to be offered in university library web sites. Research limitations/implications – The study is based on the university ranking for 2007, as the World Top 200 Universities 2008 was not published until October 2008 when this article was being finalized. However, this does not affect the outcome of the Web 2.0 features being utilized by the universities. Originality/value – Most of the earlier studies on the subject deal with Web 2.0 tools and how they could be used in the library context. The present paper, however, provides concrete evidence of the application of Web 2.0 in university libraries. As such it should prove of interest to all types of libraries, even though its context is university libraries.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to share the experiences of three public libraries near Melbourne, Victoria, Australia of using Web 2.0 tools to reach existing and new users. Design/methodology/approach – Using blogs and other social software and mash‐ups, Casey‐Cardinia Library Corporation, Eastern Regional Libraries and Frankston Library Service are opening up their web sites and services to their communities and giving voice to their users. The various tools are described and how the libraries are making use of them is detailed. Findings – That Web 2.0 tools can be successfully utilised by public libraries to provide enhanced services to their users. Originality/value – The paper provides practical examples of how Web 2.0 tools can be used by public libraries. It is of particular value to public libraries that are interested in or already providing service to their users using Web 2.0 tools.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss Hong Kong Baptist University Library's MyLibrary Calendar Project to streamline library-patron communication and to strengthen the Library's publicity for its services, facilities and outreach activities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines the application of an in-house developed iCalendar Data Conversion Program and Innovative Millennium Patron API Form in this Project. The iCalendar Data Conversion Program extracts and converts data from library announcements, interlibrary loan and circulation records, library e-mails and notices, and records of library facilities reservation to iCalendar format for dissemination to patrons. The Innovative Millennium Patron API Form, on the other hand, authenticates patrons' subscription to the services. Findings – The project employs Web 2.0 technologies and social networking software such as iCalendar format, calendar applications, API and Google Calendar SMS notification option to publish, syndicate, and aggregate dynamic web content in a Library 2.0 model. It enables patrons to use their own personal calendar computer applications that support the open and standard iCalendar format as a one-stop-shop platform to automatically collect and manage library calendar events, library e-mails and notices, and their own records of circulation, interlibrary loan and room reservation in an efficient and centralized channel. Originality/value – MyLibrary Calendar is a unique Web 2.0 and Library 2.0 compliant tool. It enables patrons to collect and manage library events and their own library records systematically in their own calendar applications. This tool also facilitates the Library to proactively publicize its services and facilities effectively and to bring about a shift in power and new library-patron relationship smoothly.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to report on the adoption and evaluation of a Learning 2.0 program in a pilot program at the Edith Cowan University Library during 2007. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines the suitability of Learning 2.0 for training eight “early adopters” among library staff in the new and emerging Web 2.0 technologies. The program was set up and deployed via a blog, which recorded staff progress through the nine‐week implementation phase of the program. At the conclusion, a focus group was held and the pilot group members responded to questions about the relevance of the program, and the effectiveness of their learning. Findings – It was found that library staff responded positively to this program, not least because it adhered to adult learning principles. For the authors' purpose, Learning 2.0 was an eminently suitable training package. Originality/value – The paper is unique in that Edith Cowan University Library was the first Australian university library to adopt Learning 2.0.
 
SCM model of Library 2.0
System architecture of Library 2.0
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this article is to present a subsection circulatory management (SCM) model of Library 2.0. The design idea of Library 2.0 system architecture is to be illustrated and a five‐tier model of service‐oriented architecture (SOA) is to be put forward and analyzed. Design/methodology/approach – The SOA model conforms to the desires of Library 2.0. Libraries require integration of literature resources, knowledge services and operations management and together all these integrations must be based on the user service. The realization of the concept and technology of Library 2.0 is similar with the SOA model. Findings – Current library management systems (LMS) remain at the era of Library 1.0, which focused on literature management. The new design principles are aiming to manage library resources much better. Library 2.0 must break through the current framework, and adopt a multilayer structure, user‐centered and service‐oriented system architecture to integrate the resources, the services and managements. Amongst other things, Library 2.0 should utilize the multilayer architecture based on the module mode, improve the flexibility and adaptability of modern management systems, both in system configuration and operational management. Originality/value – The SOA model is applied in Library 2.0 for the first time and is divided into five tiers – hardware tier, system tier, data tier, operation management tier and knowledge service tier. According to the architecture, three application systems – LMS based on librarians, knowledge service system based on patrons, and knowledge search engine, are designed.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify and investigate the security issues an organisation operating in the “new” online environment is exposed to through Web 2.0 applications, with specific focus on unauthorised access (encompassing hackers). The study aims to recommend possible safeguards to mitigate these incremental risks to an acceptable level. Design/methodology/approach – An extensive literature review was performed to obtain an understanding of the technologies driving Web 2.0 applications. Thereafter, the technologies were mapped against Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (CobiT) and Trust Service Principles and Criteria and associated control objectives relating to security risks, specifically to hacker risks. These objectives were used to identify relevant risks and formulate appropriate internal control measures. Findings – The findings show that every organisation, technology and application is unique and the safeguards depend on the nature of the organisation, information at stake, degree of vulnerability and risks. A comprehensive security program, including a multi‐layer technological, as well as an administrative component, should be implemented. User training on acceptable practices should also be conducted. Originality/value – Obtaining an understanding of Web 2.0 and Web 2.0 security is important, as Web 2.0 is a new, poorly understood technology and with the growing mobility of users, the potential surface area of attack increases and should be managed. The paper will help organisations, information repository managers, information technology (IT) professionals, librarians and internal and external auditors to understand the “new” risks relating to unauthorised access, which previously did not exist in an on‐line environment, and will assist the development of a framework to limit the most significant risks.
 
Article
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to focus on the formulation of a Library 2.0 program that will guide the realization of a “user‐centered” service pattern. Design/methodology/approach – In‐depth user investigations are the first step toward a successful Library 2.0 program, which will reflect what users really hope to achieve through Library 2.0. Three user investigations were carried out with the purpose to get users' opinions and suggestions about Library 2.0 services. Then the target was formed on the basis of analysis and evaluation of users' needs. The Library 2.0 programming was analyzed in four tiers of management ideas, service patterns, technical support, and content development. Findings – User investigations are of primary importance in programming Library 2.0, and a program formulated on such investigations will not miss its aim, and be more realistic. Originality/value – The paper does not dwell on technical particularities of Library 2.0, but focuses on the key role of a program in realization of the concept of Library 2.0, and the methodology of programming.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to provide an overall picture of the application of Web 2.0 technologies in Chinese university libraries. The focus of the research is what types of Web 2.0 technologies were applied in such libraries as well as their function and user interface. Design/methodology/approach – The top 30 Chinese university libraries were selected to investigate the application of Web 2.0 technologies. Content analysis was used in terms of quantitative approach. Data were collected by accessing these 30 university libraries web sites within five weeks. Findings – Two-thirds of Chinese university libraries deployed one or more Web 2.0 technologies. Only one-tenth of libraries adopted more than four Web 2.0 technologies. RSS was the most widely applied, while Wiki was the least. The application of Web 2.0 technologies among Chinese university libraries was not extensive and profound enough. Research implications – The findings can be utilized to evaluate the status of Web 2.0 technology applications. The statistical data are very useful and authentic sources for improving the level of Web 2.0 technology application. It may enable future research to analyze other aspects (e.g. the application of RSS or Blogs for services). Originality/value – This unique study explores the application of Web 2.0 mainly in Chinese university libraries that deployed any types of Web 2.0 technologies. This study is very useful for Chinese university libraries in evaluating/deploying Web 2.0. Library managers, librarians, and other libraries may also find this helpful, once they decide to implement such technologies in their libraries.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe “what happened” with round two of the implementation of Learning 2.0 with a large and diverse group of library staff at Edith Cowan University (ECU) Library during 2007/2008. Design/methodology/approach – A previous paper reported on a study of the suitability of the 23 Things Learning 2.0 program for a small group of early adopters in the ECU Library. This follow‐up paper reports challenges that library management faced when the remaining staff were given the 23 Things Learning 2.0 program. All remaining library staff members were encouraged to undertake the program, but take‐up was not strong and only 25 per cent of staff completed the program. At the conclusion of round two of Learning 2.0, all staff were surveyed to find out reasons for completion or non‐completion, what types of technologies they needed support with, and how they wished to learn about the emerging/Web 2.0 technologies. Findings – From the observations and survey responses in this study it was found that while Learning 2.0 was a suitable program, some staff required extra time and a more hands‐on approach to their workplace learning. Originality/value – The paper is unique in that it follows up on previous research at the same institution, and reveals new findings.
 
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to find out which Web 2.0 applications and new communications technologies were being adopted by members of the New Zealand library and information management professions, and what factors influenced this adoption, such as age, educational level, and employment status. Design/methodology/approach An online survey asking about respondents' use of a range of Web 2.0 technologies plus basic demographic information was available between 23 February and 8 March 2007. Invitations to complete the survey were sent to three e‐mail discussion lists: nz‐libs, nzrecords, and lim‐students, which resulted in 224 responses. Findings Librarians and information managers of all ages are experimenting with these technologies to some extent, particularly reading blogs and using RSS feeds. Active content creation is less common. Personal, technical, and organisational barriers prevent some people from being able to access Web 2.0 applications. Research limitations/implications The voluntary nature of participation in the survey means that the results are likely to be biased towards people with an interest in Web 2.0 developments. The data were gathered in early 2007, and represent a snapshot of how the technologies were being used at that time. Invitations were sent only to New Zealand e‐mail discussion lists, and some of the findings might not apply in other countries or regions. Originality/value This is the first survey to investigate how members of the library and information management professions in New Zealand are using Web 2.0 technologies. The results reveal patterns of use and significant issues associated with using these technologies within organizations.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to increase the understanding of what electronic social networking encompasses. It also aims to educate IT, business decision makers, knowledge workers and librarians about the various applications, benefits and risks associated with social networking. Design/methodology/approach – After a literature review of the available resources (academic literature, journal articles, white papers, popular media and books) the benefits and perceived risks associated with electronic social networking on organisations are investigated. Findings – An individual's success in society depends on the shape and size of his/her social network and ability to network and form connections with other social groups. Organisations which can harness this innate human ability to manage knowledge will be able to lower transactions costs and become more profitable. Originality/value – The paper increases the understanding of what electronic social networking encompasses and how it can be utilised for business purposes. The ideas and discussion put forth are equally applicable to libraries and may give them new insights into the provision of social networking applications as part of their services to users.
 
Article
Purpose – To share with a wider audience key papers from the Talis Insight conference held in November 2004. Design/methodology/approach – The article highlights four key presentations, and gives an executive summary showing key themes from the whole event. Findings – The paper highlights libraries' work with text messaging, web applications to highlight resource collections, libraries' integration with councils to provide better access to library and council services, and improved stock disposal through selling books online through Amazon. Originality/value – Offers librarians and information managers the opportunity to see what innovations in service other libraries are achieving through use of new technology or new ways of working.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to observe all data from the Common European Research Information Format (CERIF) data model that can be described using bibliographic standards and move those data to a data model of bibliographic standard. Design/methodology/approach – Analysis of the CERIF data model and the MARC 21 format has shown that some elements of the CERIF data model could be mapped to the MARC 21 bibliographic record. A CERIF compatible data model based on the MARC 21 format is proposed. The data model was created using PowerDesigner CASE tool. The proposed data model is represented using a physical data model in the conceptual notation that is adopted in the literature for representing the CERIF data model. Findings – A CERIF compatible data model based on the MARC 21 format is proposed. The proposed model contains all the data from the CERIF2008 data model. The central part of the proposed model is MARC 21 data model that is used as a replacement for 27 entities of the CERIF data model, including all their attributes as well as part of the attributes in entities related to organisational unit. The mappings between attributes of entities of the CERIF data model and the data model of the MARC 21 format are described. Research limitations/implications – The CERIF compatible data model based on the MARC 21 format does not support all restrictions on data types, which are defined by the CERIF data model. This means that such restrictions have to be controlled by software. Practical implications – The central part of the proposed CERIF compatible data model is a data model of MARC 21 format. It means that most of the data are modelled according to bibliographic standard, which is very widespread worldwide. This implies that the proposed CERIF model can be easily implemented within the existing library infrastructure. In addition, the proposed model can be used for other purposes, such as the evaluation of scientific research results, generating bibliographies of researchers, and institutions, the citations etc. A research management system based on the proposed model is implemented. Also, this system is verified and tested on data about published results of researchers employed at University of Novi Sad, Serbia. Originality/value – A new data model compatible with the CERIF data model is proposed. The basic idea is to map part of the CERIF data model related to published results of scientific research to some well-known bibliographic standard. It was shown that this part of the data model could be mapped to the MARC 21 data model. It can be mapped to data models of any other MARC standards in a similar way.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to model and implement an extensible markup language (XML)-based editor for library cataloguing. The editor model should support data input in the form of free text with interactive control of structure and content validity of records specified in the UNIMARC and MARC 21 formats. The editor is implemented in the Java programming language in the form of a software package. Design/methodology/approach – The unified modelling language (UML 2.0) is used for the specification of both the information requirements and the model architecture. The object oriented methodology is used for design and implementation of the software packages, as well as the corresponding CASE tools. Findings – The result is an editor for UNIMARC and MARC 21 cataloguing. The editor is based on the XML technologies by which the two basic characteristics are achieved as follows: a possibility of integrating the editor into different library software systems and, moving to another format requires only the changes of the module for bibliographic record data control. Research limitations/implications – A basic limitation of the system is related to the subsystem that controls validation of the bibliographic records and its expansion for work with other bibliographic formats. In the proposed solution, a part of the control of data input is included into the implementation itself and it is related to the UNIMARC format. That is, a part of data by which the control is done, such as repeatability of the record elements and the codebooks, is contained in the XML document of the format that is input information in the editor. However, the control that is related to validation of the format of content in record elements cannot be performed for any other format without modification in the implementation. Therefore, the research could be continued by considering the separation of data used for content control as input information for the application. In that way, this segment would also become implementation independent. One of the solutions should be extending the XML document of the format by this data. Some other solution should mean creating a totally separate system for the content validation. Moreover, the proposed editor supports processing of a bibliographic record only in the UNIMARC and MARC 21 formats. Processing of records in other formats requires considerable changes in the model. Practical implications – The model of a new editor is developed on the basis of the experience and needs of electronic management in city and special libraries. Based on the given model a new editor is implemented and integrated into the BISIS software system used by the mentioned libraries. Testing and verification are performed on the bibliographic records of the public city libraries. Originality/value – The contribution of this work is in the system architecture that is based on the XML documents and is independent of the bibliographic format. The XML document that contains data about the bibliographic format represents the editor input information. After a bibliographic record is created in this editor, the record is stored into an XML document that represents the editor output information. This XML document can be stored into various software systems for data storage and retrieval.
 
Article
Purpose – The aim of this research is the conversion of the bibliographic records between the following different formats for bibliographic material processing – the YUMARC (which is a variant of the UNIMARC format in which the Serbian BISIS system operates), UNIMARC and MARC 21 format. Design/methodology/approach – The CASE tools that support the information system developing methodology based on the XML technologies are used. Findings – The result is the specification and implementation of information requirements for the conversion of the bibliographic records created in the BISIS system into the UNIMARC or MARC 21 format. Research limitations/implications – The specification of the rules for bibliographic record conversion is not formalized, so the implementation of these rules cannot be done automatically. If the rules could be formalized, then a generator of the programming code could be developed for the implementation of the rules for the bibliographic record conversion. Practical implications – The research result is applied for the conversion of the YUMARC bibliographic records in the Library of the Department for Mathematics and Informatics of Novi Sad University. The conversion of the records is made at first into the UNIMARC format and subsequently from the UNIMARC format into the records of the MARC 21 format. The task of conversion of the bibliographic records formed in the BISIS software system in the UNIMARC or the MARC 21 format is solved in that way. Originality/value – The originality of the work is contained in the application of the XML technologies for the conversion of the bibliographic records between the different bibliographic formats (YUMARC, UNIMARC and MARC 21). For each of the formats an XML schema is formed and record conversion between the different formats is done by the XSLT transformations.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to create a model for an XML document that will carry information about bibliographic formats. The model will be given in the form of an XML schema describing two bibliographic formats, UNIMARC and MARC 21. Design/methodology/approach – The description of bibliographic formats using the XML schema language may be discussed in two ways. The first one relates to creating an XML schema in a way that all elements of the bibliographic format are described separately. The second way, used in this paper, is creating an XML schema as a set of elements that presents concepts of bibliographic formats. A schema created in the second way is appropriate for use in implementation of cataloguing software. Findings – The result is an XML schema that describes MARC 21 and UNIMARC formats. The instance of that schema is an XML document describing a bibliographic format that will be used in software systems for cataloguing. An XML document that is an instance of the proposed XML schema is applied in the development of the editor for cataloguing in the BISIS library information system. This XML document represents input information for that editor. In this way, the implementation of the editor becomes independent of the bibliographic format. Practical implications – The created XML schema cannot serve as an electronic manual because there is some information about the format that is not included in it. In order to overcome this shortcoming an additional XML schema that will contain remaining format data may be provided. Originality/value – The originality lies in the idea of creating one XML schema for two bibliographic formats. The schema contains elements that are models for data used in cataloguing tools. On the basis of that XML schema, the object model of bibliographic formats is implemented as well as software component for manipulating format data. This component can be used in development of library software systems.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to address increasing levels of web misuse, high internet costs and decisions regarding restricting web access, this research set out to identify factors that contribute to positive web use or reduce web misuse in the work environment. Design/methodology/approach – The theory of planned behaviour has been used in previous research to investigate factors that contribute to web abuse in the workplace. These factors, potential demographic factors that could impact web abuse as well as factors that make the advantages of the web possible were surveyed amongst information technology (IT) professionals in the Western Cape IT sector in 2004. The 94 responses were then analysed quantitatively. Findings – Results showed that higher levels of web access increased perceptions of information literacy and information access. None of the subjective norm or attitudinal antecedents showed significant support for reducing web abuse. Interestingly, close managerial supervision displayed significance by increasing web abuse. Demographic factors of firm size, number of years internet use, age and profession showed significance in predicting web abuse. Research limitations/implications – Attitudinal factors such as playfulness, self-efficacy and internet addiction were not included in this study and could be useful in future research. Many factors followed the expected trends but failed to show significance, a larger and more diverse sample size could have improved the results. Originality/value – The research findings are of interest to practitioners trying to manage web abuse and are also relevant in the context of high cost internet access and low bandwidth prevalent in many developing countries.
 
Article
Purpose – Poor telecommunication infrastructure has been generally identified as a hindrance to most library activities in Nigeria. However, with the emergence and spread of wireless technologies, especially the global system of mobile communications (GSM), this paper seeks to consider the implications of this event on library services, with suggestions on the possible applications to academic libraries. Design/methodology/approach – A background study of information and communication technology status past and present in Nigeria was carried out, especially the impact of wireless technologies on the global scale and in the country. Findings – The GSM technologies acceptance and growth rate among the Nigerian populace has serious and great potentials for enhancing the communication and information technology‐related services in libraries and information centers in Nigeria. However, information managers need to fully exploit the opportunities presented by this relatively new phenomenon with a view to providing improved products and services to the library users, especially in the academic sector. Originality/value – This paper highlights the use of GSM technologies library services. It targets librarians and information managers who have been limited in the past by inadequate telephone/telecommunications infrastructure. Encourages the professionals to exploit the opportunities presented by these expanding technologies.
 
CERNET topology 
Overall overhead architecture of CADLIS portal 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to provide an overview for the main project details of the China Academic Digital Library (CADL) with focused introduction on China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS), China Academic Digital Library and Information System (CADLIS), China-America Digital Academic Library (CADAL) and China Academic Humanities and Social Sciences Library (CASHL). Design/methodology/approach – The paper first gives a literary review on CADL and then analyzes the existed and existing problems of China digital library construction using graphical presentation and tabular comparison. Findings – After reviewing CADL and the major related projects developed in the last decade, it is shown that the digital library (DL) construction effort in China is divided into three phases: concept introduction phase, technical exploration phase, and application deployment phase. The first phase of CADL gave a solid preparation in terms of concept introduction while the DL soon began to be recognized and accepted as a practical proposal among industries. In the second phase, various potential technologies for DL realization were substantially investigated, tested, and implemented. The related projects cover subjects including DL architecture, information retrieval, information description, digitization, e-Book, Digital Rights Management, etc. During the last phase, standards, protocols and specifications that help DL to interoperate with one another were widely discussed and deployed. Originality/value – This paper expatiates on the background, development and future trend of the CADL project for the first time in the literature. It is concluded that researchers and the public from China as well as other countries thus may benefit from both positive and improvable DL construction experiences.
 
Article
Purpose – Few library studies have investigated recommendation classifications for e-book (electronic book) usage, while none have directly compared what recommendation sources (word-of-mouth, advertising, and expert recommendation) might influence e-book usage intentions. To fill this gap in the literature, the main purposes of this study are to: examine how users perceive the influence of recommendations on the intention to use e-books for academic purposes; and to measure the level of the perception of trust and perceived risk when users receive e-book recommendations from peers, advertisers, and experts. Design/methodology/approach – Data for this study were collected from 382 academic digital library users between the ages of 18 and 25. A multiple regression analysis was then conducted to identify the key causal relationships. Findings – The comparison of three recommendation sources (word-of-mouth, advertising, and expert recommendations) revealed that word-of-mouth (WOM) played a more important role than other recommendations in determining the intention to use e-books in an academic digital library. In addition, enhancing the perceived trust and reducing the risk towards the use of e-books can mediate the relationship between recommendation sources and the behavioural intentions to use e-books. Research limitations/implications – This study assessed self-reported behavioural intention as part of its survey and, as a result, could have introduced unintentional inaccuracies. Practical implications – Librarians should emphasise e-book advantages (e.g. easy searching, easily accessible index) to get positive recommendation if users follow all of the recommendations of the source. They can also create online discussion forums to provide usage intention discussions, which can influence users' perceptions of trust and risk and increase the willingness of potential users to read e-books. Originality/value – Little has been written on the intentions of using e-books. Therefore, this conceptual model is novel. This model is also useful in explaining how recommendations stimulate the intentions of using e-books by enhancing the perceived trust and reducing the perceived risk; these findings may generally be applicable to librarians, current users, and potential users.
 
Article
The intranet has emerged as one of today's most effective tools for knowledge management. This article reports on the extent to which three South African academic libraries, selected by means of the purposive sampling method, utilise the intranet as a knowledge management tool. Based on the literature, knowledge management and an intranet are briefly defined. The advantages of the intranet as a knowledge management tool as well as the content of an intranet are discussed. The opinions about knowledge management and the utilisation of the intranet as a knowledge management tool in the three academic libraries are weighed up against the findings in the literature. It is clear that a strong awareness exists of the importance of knowledge management and the value of the intranet as a knowledge management tool. However, the potential of the intranet as a knowledge management tool is not utilised fully.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the usability features of online public access catalogues (OPACs) in New Zealand academic libraries. It also makes a comparison of how libraries using the same library software are customizing their interfaces to make them useful to their users. Design/methodology/approach – The interface/usability features of 13 academic library OPACs in New Zealand are analyzed using a usability inspection evaluation method. More specifically, the paper uses a modified checklist based on the checklists of Cherry et al. and Ibrahim. Findings – Most OPACs in the paper sample receive high scores in the areas of bibliographic display, text, layout, labels, and user assistance. Many new features that are associated with search engines such as word cloud, faceted navigation, the most popular ranking and related items are however, not found in the surveyed OPACs. OPACs built on the Voyager library systems on average, score higher in most feature categories in the checklist. Features found in the OPACs during the evaluation that are not part of the checklist are noted and recommended for inclusion in future evaluation checklists. Originality/value – Findings from the research will be of interest to not only researchers and practitioners in the field of library and information science in New Zealand, but also in other countries as the sample in this research include OPACs built on library software such as Voyager or Liberty3 that are used in many other countries.
 
Article
This paper reports the results of an investigation in current continuing professional development practices, perceptions of academic library employers about skills that need to be developed in their staff in the six Gulf Cooperation Council countries. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect data from 15 publicly funded academic institutions; 13 responded. Analysis shows that a systematic staff development program is generally lacking. Current continuing professional development activities focus on immediate institutional needs. Information and communication technology skills preferred relate to automated systems, electronic resources, networking, and multimedia applications. Writing and research skills related to measurement and evaluation, studying information needs, and report writing received higher ranks. The paper concludes with a number of recommendations which are made in order to improve the situation.
 
The structure of the information seeking intention for the TRA
The Structure of the information seeking for the TPB
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine and predict users' information-seeking intention regarding academic digital library services, using the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Design/methodology/approach – Data are collected from 224 Taiwanese undergraduate and graduate students to assess the influence of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on the intention to seek information in an academic digital library. The results of structural equation model-fitting analyses show that the TPB is better than the TRA in predicting the information-seeking intention in an academic digital library. Findings – Specially, the empirical results indicated that perceived behavioral control is a better predictor of behavioral intention than is attitude or subjective norm. Research limitations/implications – This paper assessed self-reported information-seeking intention as part of the survey and, as a result, could have introduced inaccuracies. Practical implications – The findings of the paper will help academic digital libraries to address the key factor which influences users' intention to seek information and to intensify their performance to meet user needs. Originality/value – Although the nature of the user experience in the digital environment appears to be quite different from the experience of looking through archival boxes or folders, research on the use of academic digital library services is scarce – particularly regarding user intention in the process of seeking information. The TRA and TPB are novel and usable in explaining the intention of online users to seek information, and these findings may be generally applicable to academic digital libraries and users.
 
Article
Purpose – Uganda has gone a step forward in ensuring that information resources available for researchers and students are maximally utilized. Academic and research libraries are participating in supporting and achieving the missions of their respective institutions by teaching the competency of information literacy (IL). This paper seeks to examine the effect IL has had on the usage of electronic information resources in academic and research institutions in Uganda. It aims to focus on the innovations that Makerere University Library (the biggest and oldest academic library in Uganda) has undertaken to ensure that library users (the Makerere University community and other collaborating universities and research institutions in Uganda) are trained on how to access a variety of available information resources, evaluate the information and apply it to address their needs. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected for the study using interviews to both library staff and users of the selected institutions: two library staff in charge of e‐resources and ten students/researchers were interviewed from each institution. However, user statistics for the years 2004‐2005, as well as the IL training sessions conducted, were the main sources of information. The study focused on academic and research institutions – Makerere University, Uganda, Martyrs University, Nkozi and National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADS). The researcher is physically involved in the IL program in Makerere University. The usage statistics were compiled and interpreted. Findings – The paper finds that availability of information does not necessarily mean actual use. The study shows that some of the available resources have not been utilized at all. This means that users are not aware of the availability of such resources, they do not know how to access them, or they do not know what the resources offer. All this calls for continued information literacy programs. IL is very vital in influencing utilization of e‐resources. Information professionals are needed to pass on IL skills to library users, while library users should endeavor to find out what information is available online for their consumption. Their attitudes and perceptions also influence the level of utilization. Originality/value – The paper shows the extent of information literacy and its influence on electronic resources in Uganda. It points out the challenges for the future and provides a number of recommendations for the way forward, which will be helpful both to the relevant communities in Uganda and to other academics in similar circumstances.
 
Article
Purpose – This study aims to investigate the extent of adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in university libraries in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach – Postal survey was the instrument used for data collection. Almost 60 per cent of the University Librarians out of the 29 university libraries surveyed completed their questionnaires. Findings – The results of the survey show that only six university libraries are fully “computerized”, nine are “about to be computerized”; seven of the surveyed libraries have installed local area networks, five have online public access catalogue and only four libraries provide internet service. The major obstacles that influence effective adoption of ICT in university libraries are inadequate funds and the poor state of electricity in Nigeria. Practical implications – The federal government should increase the present level of funding of Nigerian university to improve the library development fund, which is the major source of funding available to university libraries. The poor state of electricity in Nigeria should also be improved by the federal government for sustainable adoption of ICT by university libraries. Originality/value – The paper proposes that computer networking of university libraries is feasible and recommends the development of the Nigerian university libraries network and academic libraries network.
 
Article
Purpose – This study aims to attempt to understand the reading habits and attitudes of the Bachelor of IT students and the Bachelor of Arts students from the International Islamic University Malaysia. The study also aims to explore these differences in terms of gender. Design/methodology/approach – The study used a survey approach in collecting the data. The population of the study was the undergraduate students from two academic faculties at the university. The faculties were Kulliyyah of Information and Communication Technology (KICT) (IT-based) and Kuliyyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Science (KIRKH) (arts-based). Based on the 400 sample drawn, 127 responses were received from the survey. Findings – The study finds that the web site is seen as an increasingly important reading source. Significant differences exist between academic programs and types of reading materials and reading resources particularly use the web sites. Some differences in reading habits and attitudes were also observed between male and female participants. Research limitations/implications – Limitations in this study are related to the small sample size, the inclusion of only two academic faculties, and the limited amount of variables studied. Practical implications – In general, the findings of the study should assist the University authority, especially the library and the computing department, to look into service matters pertaining to accommodating the reading as well as the studying habits of the student. Originality/value – The pattern of reading, as is known from the past, may not be the same as reading as it is known today or in the future. Research in reading habits needs to be further updated by including current advancement in ICT, where the technology has enabled reading to be more timely and somewhat non-linear by using devices such as computers, PDAs and wireless phones without the presence of any printed document.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to put forward a completely new academic library service mode called “Innovation community” in light of current information environment, social background and user demands. “Innovation community” is a mode especially suitable for academic libraries, aimed at supporting the cultivation of innovation ability, encouraging user participation, joint construction, interaction and communication, designing different theme communities and organizing supporting services and activities so that both libraries and users can become entities of independent innovation. At the same time, this paper seeks to elaborate on the development of ideas on constructing this new mode of “Innovation community” by taking the IC2 mode and its auxiliary innovation support plan put forward by Shanghai Jiaotong University Library as a practice case. Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopts the research methodology that combines situation analysis and theoretical explanation, model exhibition and case study. Findings – It is found that “Innovation community” is a kind of library service mode especially suitable for learning and research groups with a demand for innovation. Under an e-science and e-education environment, libraries construct an environment and platform for promoting communication and cooperation and supporting interdisciplinary study and research innovation, and more effectively promoting knowledge discovery, research innovation and exploitation of tacit knowledge through individualized design and service of theme communities. Research limitations/implications – IC2@SJTUL, the practice case of “Innovation community”, has only constructed an environment at present, and the first term of this plan has not been completed. Therefore, evaluation of the actual operation effect cannot be made until later, and its actual effect has to be tested after a period of operation. Originality/value – From a new perspective, this paper elaborates on the intention, elements and primary characteristics of “Innovation community” and studies a typical practice case.
 
Article
This study investigates the characteristics of US users and their document request patterns at the Gateway Service Center of the Chinese Academic Journal Publications at a research university library and evaluates the effectiveness of the service. The study shows that the center’s primary users are faculty, graduate students, and researchers in the areas of Chinese history, literature, language, philosophy, and politics. Their requests generally link to research-related projects and focus on articles in the arts and humanities and social sciences, published in 1980s in Mainland Chinese publications. The center has significantly higher average fill rate and faster turnaround time compared with the ordinary ILL services.
 
Article
This research is an examination of the perception by academic librarians of the Web version of Lexis-Nexis academic datafile. Specifically, the investigation utilizes three parameters, namely: user-effort, measures of effectiveness and retrieval techniques. These criteria were deemed essential when analyzing the performance of this information data source in the perspective of academic information specialists, results of which may be useful in its future redesigns and in the scrutiny of the nature and quality of reference services in a particular setting.
 
Article
Rapidly growing academic libraries are the major consumers of the product of seven LIS schools in Pakistan. The changing environment of academic life demands new competencies in academic librarians. This paper reviews the literature on the competencies needed for academic librarians in the Asia/Pacific region and discusses the changing environment of academic librarianship in Pakistan. It provides a list of competencies needed for entry-level academic librarians, first prepared on the basis of a literature review and, then, validated by 70 chief librarians of universities and postgraduate level colleges from the public and private sector. The validated list of competencies is compared with the curricula of LIS programs. The paper highlights the deficiencies in the curricula and their implementation and recommendations are given to improve the situation.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of customer service in the academic library setting and ways in which its management can be best approached in the electronic environment. Design/methodology/approach – The study adopts a two-phase methodology. First is a content analysis of the literature on customer service in libraries, focusing on electronic services, to identify main issues and strategies being used to address customer issues. This is followed by a qualitative data-gathering approach to explore user perspectives on the quality of electronic services, focusing on customer service. Findings – The findings reveal that the concerns of library customers in the web environment are similar to those in the traditional library environment. They are concerned about receiving online help for technical problems and also help to search and use information. Reference services are still highly in demand with an emphasis on the characteristics of the online librarian. Another major need is the ability to give feedback and receive a quick response from the library. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited to web-based library customer service quality as perceived by postgraduate students at four research universities. Thus, it cannot be generalized to the whole academic library's clientele views, though it is applicable to electronic library services at other institutions. The subjectivity of the researchers' interpretations of qualitative data are also acknowledged. Practical implications – This paper will be helpful to academic libraries in managing the quality of electronic library services by focusing on what the customers require and deem important. This study contributes to the growing body of knowledge on electronic customer services in academic libraries. Originality/value – This study contributes to the shortage of studies on the perceived quality of library electronic library services, as is evident in the literature.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the usability of machine‐readable cataloging (MARC) in the academic libraries located in Tehran, Iran. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative methodology was adopted. The data are based on a survey conducted with a researcher‐made questionnaire to measure the views of Iranian academic librarians about MARC. In total, 45 librarians who have at least one year experience in cataloging and classification and know MARC were the sample of this study. Statistical analysis (descriptive and inferential) was applied using Excel and SPSS software to analyze the data. Findings – The results showed over 72 per cent of catalogers in Tehran academic libraries claimed that they know MARC and 50 per cent of them claimed that they used it. Based upon the librarians' views the most important advantages of MARC are: making uniform subject headings, union catalogue and uniform authority names, exchange information with other libraries, exchange bibliographic information with different languages. Also according to the in catalogers the most important problems of MARC in general are: unchangeable format, detailed format, and not paying attention to needs of end‐users, different coding system in the country, problem of library software in using MARC, and using different MARC formats. Originality/value – The paper's findings may help improve our understanding about MARC. The survey results could be used for enhancing the level of MARC application in academic libraries, not only in Iran but also elsewhere.
 
Reasons for implementing TQM models  
Article
Purpose – The present paper's purpose is to review the literature related to quality assessment and performance evaluation in academic libraries, whether empirical or theoretical, and to extract key issues. It aims to explore which criteria exert a significant relationship with the academic libraries' performance quality; identify a set of criteria that appears to be useful for assessing the quality of academic libraries ITBS; and use these criteria to develop an instrument or evaluation checklist for evaluating the quality of academic libraries ITBS. Design/methodology/approach – Related keywords such as “academic libraries research”, “academic libraries evaluation”, “academic libraries assessment” were searched on the web as well as some leading databases. In addition, available library resources as well as online book databases were consulted. Key issues were identified, categorized and discussed to develop the evaluation checklist suggested by the paper. Findings – A number of indicators have been developed and tested in quality assessment studies debated in the paper. The literature reveals that evaluating ITBS in academic libraries should be considered to a greater extent and thus, more evaluation studies on the basis of validated tools are needed. Research limitations/implications – The review does not claim to be comprehensive. Originality/value – The paper can serve as a research roadmap concerning quality assessment of ITBS in academic libraries for researchers, managers, academic authorities and users.
 
Article
This paper discusses Internet-based e-content management. Specifically, this paper reviews the technologies, the criteria, and the issues and concerns in content repository (how content can be stored and retrieved), content contribution (how content can be created/digitized), workflow (content management), automation services, and lifecycle of automation services for controlling and managing content and processes. It presents an overview on the current available products and their applications in digital library deployment. Finally, issues, concerns, and challenges facing academic libraries are discussed.
 
Article
Purpose – Social networking sites (SNSs) are gaining popularity in various areas. Library and information services also are attempting to utilize them for increasing the library user traffic. Considering the lack of SNS studies in academic library services and various SNS usage patterns according to user type, it is necessary to compare the usage patterns across different user groups. This paper thus aims to explore the usages of a SNS by different university users. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected through semi-structured and open-ended interviews conducted with undergraduates, graduates, and faculty members at Yonsei University in Seoul, South Korea. Data were analyzed according to the three groups (undergraduates, graduates, and faculty members) and within each group SNS user perception and use were examined across the three different user activity groups (active users, semi-active users, and non-active users). Findings – The analyses indicated that the three groups of users demonstrated distinct patterns of SNS use. Although undergraduates used the profile service more than the community service, graduates used the community more than the profile service. Most faculty members were not active users. Six factors that affected these different usage patterns were identified: desire for expression, peer influences, familiarity with information technologies, sensitivity to privacy, nature of using the internet, and perception of the SNS. Practical implications – A differentiated approach is necessary for SNS-based academic library services. Originality/value – The paper makes useful and initial suggestions for implementing SNS-based library and information service in academic settings.
 
Distribution of electronic book collections in Spanish university libraries 
Article
Purpose – This study aims to explore the current presence of e-books in the collections of Spanish academic libraries, from the viewpoint of the contents on offer. Design/methodology/approach – Exploration of the library web sites was undertaken in order to gauge the level of presence of packages that distribute electronic books. In evaluating the extent of content available, the data recorded were compared with those derived from another research carried out in 2004. Similarly, an approximate indication of the topic areas with greatest representation was attempted, distinguishing multi-disciplinary suppliers from those specializing in one field. Findings – Out of the 50 existing universities 36 support the subscription of at least one collection of electronic books. The universities of the communities of Andalusia, Catalonia and Valencia are those that have reached a greater implementation of e-books. There is a considerable diversity – many universities have subscribed to collections specializing in literature and in the field of engineering. The main multi-disciplinary collections purchased by libraries are E-libro and NetLibrary. Practical implications – This is a sector that is definitely taking off in Spain and will require progressive acceptance on the part of the academic community. Librarians have the responsibility to aid their users in understanding the growing complexity of the information market and the increasing range of resources available for research. Originality/value – The research is a necessary approach to the integration of collections of e-books into Spanish public universities. Encouraging the use of monographs in electronic format takes on great importance, when it is borne in mind that e-books will have a crucial role in the new model for education advocated by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA).
 
Article
Academic libraries worldwide have been utilizing the Internet to enhance collections, expand services and improve operations. Internet resources and services, such as e-mail, online public access catalogs, publishers’ catalogs, electronic resources, multimedia encyclopedias, and dictionaries are becoming common and useful collection-building tools in many libraries, especially academic libraries. This paper discusses the essential elements of management for change in academic libraries, the ways in which acquisitions managers can exhibit leadership in this environment, and how acquisitions librarians can cope with this change. The paper examines the various Internet tools that are being used in the electronic environment for the selection and ordering of books online. The paper also presents an overview of how the use of the Internet has changed the traditional concept of selection and ordering processes in academic libraries.
 
Article
Purpose – To provide some insight into the phenomenon of e‐books and their potential application in general, and to describe how the ETH‐Bibliothek, an academic library, has integrated web‐based e‐books into its collection. Design/methodology/approach – The concept of e‐books was examined and the success (or failure) of their integration into library collections evaluated. How web‐based e‐books have been integrated into the ETH‐Bibliothek's collection was evaluated, as there were different formats and pricing models for e‐books. Other important issues relevant to e‐books were considered, such as usage statistics, how to discover new e‐books for integration into a collection, and whether web‐based e‐books are likely to be applied successfully in academic libraries. Findings – The implementation of e‐books at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule) in Zurich is described, and information is provided on publishers or aggregators through which the ETH has subscribed to e‐books, different formats and pricing models for e‐books and usage statistics. How the number of e‐books to which an institution subscribes can be increased, is described, together with the benefits of e‐books in the academic environment, which will in all likelihood ensure the ongoing future of web‐based e‐books. Originality/value – The paper provides introductory information on e‐books in general and on their suitability to an academic library in particular.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the integrated systems applications in Kuwaiti academic libraries with a particular emphasis on their profiles, procurement, implementation, management and service aspects. Design/methodology/approach – The survey method was employed for the study. Procedures used were as follows: identification of Kuwaiti academic libraries; preparation and testing of survey instrument; physical visits and administration of the instruments; interpreting the instruments and having them filled out in one-to-one encounters; analysis of data; and write-up and reporting. Findings – Three of the six Kuwaiti higher education institutions were established during the last decade. Five of the six academic libraries are using an integrated system. Cataloging applications are almost complete in all the surveyed libraries. The circulation module has not been in use in the largest university library. Serials management is not optimally utilized in the surveyed libraries. The library managers are mostly satisfied with hardware/software, vendor support, physical facilities, and funding opportunities. There are opportunities for networking, system-integration, and full utilization of management reporting aspects of these systems. Research limitations/implications – The study does not assess the technical aspects of automated systems. Portals and digital library initiatives have not been covered in this study. Practical implications – Academic libraries in the region may take useful clues from these findings for developing and managing their automated systems. Originality/value – Since no similar study has been conducted in Kuwait, it enhances the understanding of the prevailing situation about the use of integrated systems and their applications in the country.
 
Top-cited authors
Khalid Mahmood
  • University of the Punjab
Monica Landoni
  • University of Lugano
Forbes Gibb
  • University of Strathclyde
Gwo-Jen Hwang
  • National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
Kanwal Ameen
  • University of Home Economics (2019 - ) University of the Punjab (1985-2019)