The China Journal

Print ISSN: 1324-9347
Publications
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2667475 No abstract was published with the original article as was standard practice with CJ. Here is a rough substitute abstract. Drawing on data from large-scale anthropometric surveys of Chinese school children between 1979 and 1995, the article explores the impact of economic reform in China on the nutritional status of the Chinese as reveal in secular trends in average height (height for age for children). Earlier anthropometric data are also cited. The primary finding is that there has been a significant secular upward shift in mean height, along with improved economic circumstances, hence the title "Richer and taller". However, there were large regional differences. Many of the inland provinces where economic reform since 1979 had progressed little lagged well behind the East China provinces, while children in Beijing in particular had a 'capital' advantage.
 
What does it mean to be Chinese? How did the major political events of the early 20th century affect the everyday lives of ordinary people in China? This book uses a wealth of new sources, including newspapers, memoirs, interviews, and photographs, to look at the political history of the period and to understand the ways in which politics intersected with the thoughts and feelings of ordinary people. To be a modern citizen of the Chinese republic meant repudiating much of the very ritual that had previously defined one as Chinese. As we follow the changes in everyday life, ranging from the unbinding of women's feet to the commemoration of the events of the a new republican history, we see the complex interactions between an ever more activist state and its new citizens.
 
This study describes the experiences of foreign-invested firms in the mainland Chinese economy and discusses the implications of those experiences for the foreign commercial policies of the industrial countries, including the United States. It draws on extensive interviews with expatriate managers and other professionals currently at work in China. Whereas recent books on Chinese marketplace conditions focus on a single firm or issue or lack a discussion of policy conclusions (because they are prepared for a commercial audience), this study is distinguished by the breadth of industry interviews and its concern for policy implications. Rosen makes a rare attempt to deduce the policy implications of current experiences of foreign firms in China, presenting conclusions that go beyond those found in today's usual policy debate. Behind the Open Door is a must for China specialists and should be read by anyone with general or business interests in China or the Asia-Pacific region. The book is an ideal text for MBA programs that focus on the region, and for political science and Asian studies courses on China.
 
This book opens up three new topics in modern Chinese literary history: the intimate lives of Lu Xun and Xu Guangping as a couple; real and imagined love-letters in modern Chinese literature; and concepts of privacy in China. The scandalous affair between modern China's greatest writer and his former student is revealed in their letters to each other between 1925 and 1929. Publication of the letters in a heavily edited version in 1933 was intended partly to profit from a current trend for literary couples to publish their private letters, but another reason was to assert control over their love story, taking it away from the gossip-mongers. The biographies in Part I, based on the unedited letters, reveal such hitherto neglected information as Xu Guangping's early tendencies towards lesbianism; her gender reversal games and Lu Xun's willing participation in them; Xu Guangping's two early attempts at suicide; and Lu Xun's attempts to play down Xu Guangping's political activism and to impress readers with his own militancy. Part II shows how Lu Xun chose to publish their edited letters in the context of current Chinese epistolary fiction and love-letters published by their authors. Part III provides unique evidence on the nature of privacy in modern China through a comparison between the unedited and edited correspondence. Textual evidence shows their intimate secrets about their affairs, their bodies, and their domestic lives; their fear of gossip; their longing for a secluded life together; and their ambivalent attitudes towards the traditional conflict between public service and private or selfish interests. Although it has sometimes been claimed that Chinese culture lacks a sense of privacy, this study reveals the contents, functions, and values of privacy in the early twentieth century. Available in OSO: http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/oso/public/content/economicsfinance/9780199256792/toc.html
 
The key role of intellectuals in Mao's China has confounded Western scholars. Were they potential dissidents or actual servants of Chinese communism? The Chinese Communist Party could not have taken over China or governed it without a coalition of forces that included the intellectuals who articulated its goals and administered its complex bureaucracy. Deng Tuo (1912-66) - founding editor of People's Daily, accomplished traditional scholar, and critical commentator on political issues - has served as an example of this confusion. His life illustrates an experience of intellectual service in Mao's China that contributes to our understanding of the rise, successes, and major crises of Chinese Marxism in the twentieth century. It also introduces us to the world that produced the current generation of intellectual leaders in China. This biography is a social history of intellectuals as agents in China's socialist revolution. It places Deng Tuo's writings and ideas in rich context of his social experience as a member of the Communist bureaucracy and as an elite artist and aesthete. The tension between service to politics and service to culture was ultimately disastorous for Deng and for China's revolution: his ghost haunts the halls of power in Beijing today. Available in OSO: http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/oso/public/content/economicsfinance/9780198290667/toc.html
 
At the heart of China's remarkable economic growth is a new economic system, which has emerged out of radical reforms in virtually all areas of economic activity. Understanding this system is the key to understanding the Chinese economy. This book, the culmination of many years of research in Hong Kong and China, is a comprehensive account of these systemic reforms, as well as of their transferability to other economies in transition. The starting-point of Dr Chai's analysis is a careful examination of the structural elements of China's new economic system, focusing particularly on the decentralization of property rights in both the agricultural and industrial sectors. There follows a detailed analysis of changes in the functional elements of the system: its price and financial mechanisms. An assessment of the open-door policy also considers the twin impact of the liberalization of China's foreign trade and foreign investment regimes. Finally, China: Transition to a Market Economy highlights the increasingly important role of the non-state sector in facilitating economic growth and structural transformation. It will be essential reading for any student or researcher concerned with the Chinese economy, or with transition economies in general
 
In modern China, technocratic utopias go side by side with moral panics. The modernization process is seen as creating the `disorders' of criminality, sex, and modern youth culture. The official answer to disorder is an exemplary societyan educative and disciplinary society where `human quality' and model behaviour is advocated. Modern Chinese society, however, resists being reduced to the exemplary discipline of its social engineers, and strategies of `lying' and resisting control are routine. This pathbreaking study analyses traditional and modern Chinese beliefs about and reactions to education, discipline, human improvement, and social control. Although these reactions to modernity have a Chinese colouring, they are not exclusive to the Chinese culture. By describing the terra incognita of China, The Exemplary Society also describes something about ourselves.
 
This book analyses the decollectivization reform in China during the early 1980s in order to gauge the impact of post-Mao decentralization on central control and provincial discretion. The volume challenges the notion that the decision to decentralize administrative authority ipso facto produces local discretion properly keyed to local conditions. In fact, outcomes often differ from the intended goals. While, generally, local interests and central-local clientilistic networks determine the policy responses of the provinces, bureaucratic careerism also plays a crucial role. In the case of post-Mao decollectivization, national-level analyses suggest that a majority of provinces adopted household farming neither too quickly nor too slowly, since both 'pioneering' and 'resisting' entailed potentially enormous political risks. Once Beijing's preference appeared firmly fixed, however, they all quickly bandwagoned by popularizing the policy as swiftly as possible. Three detailed case studies of Anhui as a pioneer, Shandong as a bandwagoner, and Heilongjiang as a resister further highlight the evolutionary process in which provincial variations came to be replaced by uniform compliance imposed by Beijing. Theoretically, this study contends that the overall scope of local discretion is circumscribed by the dominant norms and incentive relations embedded in the implementation dynamics. Methodologically, the book employs a combination of aggregate analyses and comparative case studies. Empirically, on the basis of newly available materials (including classified documents) and interviews, it challenges the 'peasant-power' school which has somehow allowed local governments to evaporate in its descriptions of post-Mao decollectivization.
 
Can we find traditional periodic markets in the milieu of market activity that abounds in contemporary China today? As reform is transforming the rural economy, is periodic markets activity being intensified or undermined? What factors account for the evolution of China's rural markets? The goal of this paper is to provide answers to some of these questions. In one sense, the study seeks to add to Skinner's seminal work by analyzing a set of primary data collected by the authors on periodic markets in today's rural China. The paper subjects a number of Skinner's pre-dictions to quantitative testing, and updates his theory to account for institutional peculiarities in the contemporary period. In another sense, however, our study stands on its own. We make an inquiry into the characteristics of rural market emergence in contemporary China, seeking to untangle the determinants of the rise and decline of market activity.
 
During 1957 and 1958 Mao was seized by a vision that the Chinese economy could develop rapidly in leaps and bounds by relying on intuition and mass spontaneity. As a consequence, he single-handedly launched a colossal mobilization campaign called the Great Leap Forward, which featured many radical policy innovations, including the people's communes. This book is the first in-depth and original study of policy formulation and implementation during the Leap to link the roles of Mao, the central leaders, the ministries, and the province of Guangdong. Rejecting the theory that the Leap was an outcome of bureaucratic politics and competition, the study establishes beyond doubt the supreme and dominant position of Mao in initiating and commanding the Leap. Alfred L. Chan goes further than propounding a Mao-dominant model by documenting the strategic and tactical moves made by Mao in order to neutralize all opposition and to carry the day. He also discusses in detail the policy roles and input of other top leaders on whom the improvising Mao relied to feed his imagination and to flesh out his policies. In the chapters on the implementation of the Leap, Dr Chan explores how the ministries of Metallurgy and Agriculture were transformed from bureaucratic agencies into agents of mobilization, and how impossible targets forced them to keep up appearances by focussing on the rituals of mass mobilization. Similarly, other chapters on Guangdong show the simultaneously fervent, ritualistic, and desperate attempts to implement every hunch and intuition emanating from the centre. Exhaustive research using new material made available in the post-Mao era, as well as archives from the 1950s and 1960s, has yielded novel and original insights into the leader Mao, central decision-making, and policy implementation in the communist hierarchy.
 
The Great Divergence brings new insight to one of the classic questions of history: Why did sustained industrial growth begin in Northwest Europe, despite surprising similarities between advanced areas of Europe and East Asia? As Ken Pomeranz shows, as recently as 1750, parallels between these two parts of the world were very high in life expectancy, consumption, product and factor markets, and the strategies of households. Perhaps most surprisingly, Pomeranz demonstrates that the Chinese and Japanese cores were no worse off ecologically than Western Europe. Core areas throughout the eighteenth-century Old World faced comparable local shortages of land-intensive products, shortages that were only partly resolved by trade. Pomeranz argues that Europe's nineteenth-century divergence from the Old World owes much to the fortunate location of coal, which substituted for timber. This made Europe's failure to use its land intensively much less of a problem, while allowing growth in energy-intensive industries. Another crucial difference that he notes has to do with trade. Fortuitous global conjunctures made the Americas a greater source of needed primary products for Europe than any Asian periphery. This allowed Northwest Europe to grow dramatically in population, specialize further in manufactures, and remove labor from the land, using increased imports rather than maximizing yields. Together, coal and the New World allowed Europe to grow along resource-intensive, labor-saving paths. Meanwhile, Asia hit a cul-de-sac. Although the East Asian hinterlands boomed after 1750, both in population and in manufacturing, this growth prevented these peripheral regions from exporting vital resources to the cloth-producing Yangzi Delta. As a result, growth in the core of East Asia's economy essentially stopped, and what growth did exist was forced along labor-intensive, resource-saving paths--paths Europe could have been forced down, too, had it not been for favorable resource stocks from underground and overseas.
 
Yunxiang Yan is Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is the author of The Flow of Gifts: Reciprocity and Social Networks in a Chinese Village (Stanford, 1996). ---------- For seven years in the 1970s, the author lived in a village in northeast China as an ordinary farmer. In 1989, he returned to the village as an anthropologist to begin the unparalleled span of eleven years’ fieldwork that has resulted in this book—a comprehensive, vivid, and nuanced account of family change and the transformation of private life in rural China from 1949 to 1999. The author’s focus on the personal and the emotional sets this book apart from most studies of the Chinese family. Yan explores private lives to examine areas of family life that have been largely overlooked, such as emotion, desire, intimacy, privacy, conjugality, and individuality. He concludes that the past five decades have witnessed a dual transformation of private life: the rise of the private family, within which the private lives of individual women and men are thriving. ---------- “The best ethnography of rural China in the 1990s, this important book is about a rarely explored but central dimension of Chinese family life. Yan also places his study of private life directly in the center of classic debates about the character and importance of corporate kinship. It takes years of sharing villagers’ lives to see beneath the surface. Yan lived it, and he brings deep understanding to both the narrative and the analysis.�—Deborah Davis, Yale University “This may well prove to be the finest rural ethnography of a Chinese village ever written. By focusing on the emotional domain, Yan invites his readers to engage ethnographically in a new domain of scholarly exploration and analysis. In so doing, he has made the Chinese more human. It is a wonderful study.�—William Jankowiak, University of Nevada, Las Vegas “This ethnographic study should be in every academic library.�—Library Journal “In probably the best micro-examination of Chinese society in transition, Yan goes beyond the three conventional topologies of treating the Chinese family as a cultural, economic, and political unit. His focus on the personal and emotional aspects of Chinese families separates this book from the conventional emphasis on structure and collectivism.�—H.T. Wong, Eastern Washington University “Beautifully crafted, this study provides a sobering look at changes in rural Chinese family life, while shedding rare light on the inner moral and emotional world of the Chinese villager.�—Population and Development Review “a throught provoking book...�—American Historical Review
 
Chinese provincial leaders, unlike their counterparts in a democratic system, are not elected but selected. Hence the criteria by which the center uses to select and retain provincial leaders would be critical for the political mobility of provincial leaders. As China has been a developmental state since 1949, it is not unreasonable to expect that the center would retain or promote or demote provincial leaders according to the economic performance of their provinces. To test the hypothesis, I conducted multinomial regressions with a data set of Chinese provincial leaders between 1949 and 1994 in thirty provincial units. As the results show, the political mobility of provincial leaders is determined not only by the political movements of the PRC but also by the economic performance of the provincial leaders. The worse the economic performance record the more likely the provincial leader will be demoted. Moreover, the revenue contributions of the province during the provincial leader's tenure are also a determinant of the political mobility of the provincial leader.
 
Incl. app., bibliographical notes and references, list of abbreviations
 
In the spring of 1989 over 100,000 students in Beijing initiated the largest student revolt in human history. Television screens across the world filled with searing images from Tiananmen Square of protesters thronging the streets, massive hunger strikes, tanks set ablaze, and survivors tending to the dead and wounded after a swift and brutal government crackdown. Dingxin Zhao's award-winning The Power of Tiananmen is the definitive treatment of these historic events. Along with grassroots tales and interviews with the young men and women who launched the demonstrations, Zhao carries out a penetrating analysis of the many parallel changes in China's state-society relations during the 1980s. Such changes prepared an alienated academy, gave rise to ecology-based student mobilization, restricted government policy choices, and shaped student emotions and public opinion, all of which, Zhao argues, account for the tragic events in Tiananmen.
 
Also on CD-ROM (WOR 33): Follow-up to the World Conference on Higher Education [World Bank publications], 2003. Incl. graphs, bibl.
 
The Chinese market is appealing, but the Chinese legal system is very complicated. A basic understanding of Chinese law is absolutely crucial for companies investing in this fast-growing and potentially huge market. Since China is moving toward a socialist market economy and is increasingly integrated into the world market, some aspects of China's commercial law are different from, while others are moving into line with, those of mature market economies. This book provides an introduction to the Chinese legal system, focusing on laws and regulations on foreign direct investment and highlights recent government policies and measures undertaken to intensify economics reforms so as to meet various challenges arising from China's accession to the World Trade Organization.
 
Grounded on a series of first-hand interviews with Chinese government officials, this book examines China's accession to the World Trade Organization, providing an 'inside' look at Chinese WTO accession negotiations. Presenting a systematic political economy model in analyzing Beijing's decision-making mechanisms, the book argues that China's WTO policy making is a state-led, leadership driven, and top-down process. Feng explores how China's determined political elite partly bypassed and partly restructured a largely reluctant and resistant bureaucracy, under constant pressure from an increasingly globalized international system. By addressing China's accession to the WTO from a political analysis perspective, the book provides a theoretically informed and intriguing examination of China's foreign economic policy making regime. The book highlights contemporary debates relating to state and institutionalist theory and provides new and useful insights into a significant development of this century.
 
This article explores the tension between judicial independence and judicial accountability in China, by examining the development, advantages and disadvantages of supervision of "final" court decisions by people's congresses, the procuracy and the courts themselves. Based on a systematic empirical study, the article concludes that while major reforms are required, eliminating individual case supervision (ICS) at this point would deny justice to tens of thousands of people every year. The politics of whether to eliminate or reform ICS - and if so how - illustrate the difficulties of China's legal reform project, why reforms in developing countries all too often fail, and why reforms based on transplants of foreign models frequently fail to take root.
 
The essays in this volume were first presented at an informal workshop on 'The Anthropology of Separation and Reunion in China', which was held at the London School of Economics and Political Science in May 1999. The event was funded by the Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines (STICERD), a research unit based at the LSE. In addition to the contributions that are included in this volume, presentations were made by Myron Cohen, Lin Mei-rong, David Parkin, Frank Pieke and Stuart Thompson. A number of other people attended the workshop and made important contributions to our discussions, including Susanne Brandtstetter, Francesca Bray, Harriet Evans, James Laidlaw and Yen Yueh-ping. I'd like to thank Harriet Evans, Peter Loizos and an anonymous reader for their detailed and constructive comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. © 2003 Charles Stafford; individual chapters
 
Drawing on data from a mid-sized city in eastern China, this article examines the interactions among the courts, the Party, and other administrative agencies. It finds that the courts, caught between the unruly administrative agencies and legal rhetoric, seek support from the Party to enhance their authority. They then devise tactics such as putting the chief official of agencies on the stand, issuing judicial suggestions, and innovatively applying the laws. Many of these tactics prove effective, as agencies adjust their behaviors accordingly. Contrary to the conventional wisdom that the courts are only a passive actor in local politics, the development indicates that the role of the courts is by no means negligible in translating the national laws into local practice. By exploring the dynamics of court-government relations in the context of administrative litigation, this article argues that local politics is a crucial factor in determining the trajectory of China’s judicialization of administrative governance and rule of law more generally.
 
This article examines the dynamics of administrative litigation in rural China. It shows how local officials often attempt to preempt, derail or undermine administrative lawsuits by blocking access to official documents and regulations, pressuring courts to reject cases, failing to appear in court or perjuring themselves, discrediting attorneys, and intimidating litigants. It also discusses, however, how villagers fight back by drawing in sympathetic elites (such as people's congress deputies and the media) and mobilizing collective appeals and staging public protests. The paper concludes that administrative litigation provides a useful window on Chinese state-society relations and on the interplay of legal and political mobilization. It also suggests that should more villagers incorporate administrative litigation into their repertoire of contention, a reform designed to extend the life of an authoritarian regime may play a part in nudging China a step closer to rule of law.
 
"Second revised imprint"--Foreword. Thesis (Ph.D.)--1991. Includes bibliographical references (p. 347-359).
 
How has rapid economic development and the aging of the population affected the expression of filial piety in East Asia? Eleven experienced fieldworkers take a fresh look at an old idea, analyzing contemporary behavior, not norms, among both rural and urban families in China, Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. ---------- Charlotte Ikels is Professor of Anthropology at Case Western Reserve University. ---------- How have rapid industrial development and the aging of the population affected the expression of filial piety in East Asia? Eleven experienced fieldworkers take a fresh look at an old idea, analyzing contemporary behavior, not norms, among both rural and urban families in China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Each chapter presents rich ethnographic data on how filial piety shapes the decisions and daily lives of adult children and their elderly parents. The authors’ ability to speak the local languages and their long-term, direct contact with the villagers and city dwellers they studied lend an immediacy and authenticity lacking in more abstract treatments of the topic. This book is an ideal text for social science and humanities courses on East Asia because it focuses on shared cultural practices while analyzing the ways these practices vary with local circumstances of history, economics, social organization, and demography and with personal circumstances of income, gender, and family configuration. ---------- Table of Contents for Filial Piety List of Tables and Figures List of Contributors Introduction, by Charlotte Ikels 1. Ritualistic Coresidence and the Weakening of Filial Practice in Rural China, by Danyu Wang 2. Filial Daughters, Filial Sons: Comparisons from Rural North China, by Eric T. Miller 3. Meal Rotation and Filial Piety, by Jun Jing 4. “Living Alone� and the Rural Elderly: Strategy and Agency in Post-Mao Rural China, by Hong Zhang 5. Serving the Ancestors, Serving the State: Filial Piety and Death Ritual in Contemporary Guangzhou, by Charlotte Ikels 6. Filial Obligations in Chinese Families: Paradoxes of Modernization, by Martin King Whyte 7. The Transformation of Filial Piety in Contemporary South Korea, by Roger L. Janelli and Dawnhee Yim 8. Filial Piety in Contemporary Urban Southeast Korea: Practices and Discourses, by Clark Sorensen and Sung-Chul Kim 9. Culture, Power, and the Discourse of Filial Piety in Japan: The Disempowerment of Youth and Its Social Consequences, by Akiko Hashimoto 10. Curse of the Successor: Filial Piety vs. Marriage Among Rural Japanese, by John W. Traphagan 11. Alone in the Family: Great-grandparenthood in Urban Japan, by Brenda Robb Jenike Glossary Notes References Index
 
This title was first published in 2000: The Asian financial crisis and its aftermath provide a crucible in which Chinese diaspora capitalism has been tested, and a prism through which its strengths and weaknesses may be seen in a different light. The papers collected in this volume are in many ways still tentative. Some represent work-in-progress reports on as yet uncompleted research. In other cases, outcomes explored are still unclear or have not even yet fully unfolded. The aim is to focus on the consquences for diaspora Chinese capitalists and to start trying to identify losers and winners in the new landscape, re-evaluating their business culture, strategies and modes of operation, and their likely future direction and potential. The book begins by setting the scene for the Asian crisis and the achievements of the "Asian miracle". It then goes on to examine the causes of the financial crash, the firms that were able to ride the crisis, the Taiwanese economy as a whole, the fortunes of diaspora ventures in China, the small and medium enterprises at the heart of Chinese diaspora capitalism, the impact of the crisis on large Chinese business groups, and finally, the book debunks the theory that the rise of East Asia was initiated by Japan. © David Ip, Constance Lever-Tracy and Noel Tracy 2000. All Rights Reserved.
 
China’s giant project in social engineering has drawn worldwide attention, both because of its coercive enforcement of strict birth limits, and because of the striking changes that have occurred in China’s population: one of the fastest fertility declines in modern history and a gender gap among infants that is the highest in the world. These changes have contributed to an imminent crisis of social security for a rapidly aging population, provoking concern in China and abroad. What political processes underlie these population shifts? What is the political significance of population policy for the PRC regime, the Chinese people, and China’s place in the world? The book documents the gradual “governmentalization” of China’s population after 1949, a remarkable buildup of capacity for governance by the regime, the professions, and individuals. Since the turn of the millennium the regime has initiated a drastic shift from “hard” Leninist methods of birth planning toward “soft” neoliberal approaches involving indirect regulation by the state and self-regulation by citizens themselves. Population policy, once a lagging sector in China’s transition from communism, is now helping lead the country toward more modern and internationally accepted forms of governance. Governing China’s Population tells the story of these shifts, from the perspectives of both regime and society, based on internal documents, long-term fieldwork, and interviews with a wide range of actors—policymakers and implementers, propagandists and critics, compliers and resisters. This study also illuminates the far-reaching consequences for China’s society and politics of deep state intrusion in individual reproduction. Like Mao’s Great Leap Forward, Deng’s one-child policy has created vast social suffering and human trauma. Yet power over population has also been positive and productive, promoting China’s global rise by creating new kinds of “quality” persons equipped to succeed in the world economy. Politically, the PRC’s population project has strengthened the regime and created a whole new field of biopolitics centering on the production and cultivation of life itself. Drawing on approaches from political science and anthropology that are rarely combined, this book develops a new kind of interdisciplinary inquiry that expands the domain of the political in provocative ways. The book provides fresh answers to broad questions about China’s Leninist transition, regime capacity, “science” and “democracy,” and the changing shape of Chinese modernity.
 
"This book addresses, as few books in English have, a broad range of topics pertaining to China's expanding media and telecommunications systems. American and Chinese experts in journalism, communication, government, and political science use fieldwork, including participant observations, surveys, and in-depth interviews conducted within media organizations, to provide richly detailed analyses of the issues and of the changing face of media in China. ""Fascinating new data and expert commentary on China's giant mix of market and Marxist media. A must-read for students of world media."" --Jeremy Tunstall, The Anglo-American Media Connection ""Empirically founded and intellectually rigorous, Power, Money, and Media interrogates the complex patterns of conflict and accommodation at work in cultural China."" --Michael Curtain, Redeeming the Wasteland"
 
It is generally assumed that agricultural policies in Maoist China – in particular through mass movements – have led to grave ecological destruction. The movement believed to have had the most catastrophic outcome is the “Grain-first campaign”, which allegedly urged farmers to cultivate as much grain as possible. It is said that in the arid, pastoral areas indiscriminate reclamation led to desertification and a dramatic drop in livestock numbers. However, this article demonstrates that there is a fundamental lack of concordance between textual sources written during the collectivist period versus those of the post-collectivist period. A filtering process is apparent: misrepresentation of the Grain-first movement as lopsidedly geared to grain self-sufficiency instead of integrated development; denial of the concern for environmental protection of certain mass campaigns (e.g. Learn-from-Dazhai and Wushenzhao movements); and the juggling of statistics to support an inaccurate reading of the Maoist era. The article argues that the Grain-first movement has become a powerful tool in directing the “historical gaze” towards an overly negative appraisal of the Maoist period. In turn, this caused a misguided interpretation of the socio-political context in which mass campaigns evolved.
 
Description from the publisher's website: In the 1980s China’s politicians, writers, and academics began to raise an increasingly urgent question: why had a Chinese writer never won a Nobel Prize for literature? Promoted to the level of official policy issue and national complex, Nobel anxiety generated articles, conferences, and official delegations to Sweden. Exiled writer Gao Xingjian’s win in 2000 failed to satisfactorily end the matter, and the controversy surrounding the Nobel committee’s choice has continued to simmer. Julia Lovell’s comprehensive study of China’s obsession spans the twentieth century and taps directly into the key themes of modern Chinese culture: national identity, international status, and the relationship between intellectuals and politics. The intellectual preoccupation with the Nobel literature prize expresses tensions inherent in China’s move toward a global culture after the collapse of the Confucian world-view at the start of the twentieth century, and particularly since China’s re-entry into the world economy in the post-Mao era. Attitudes toward the prize reveal the same contradictory mix of admiration, resentment, and anxiety that intellectuals and writers have long felt toward Western values as they struggled to shape a modern Chinese identity. In short, the Nobel complex reveals the pressure points in an intellectual community not entirely sure of itself. Making use of extensive original research, including interviews with leading contemporary Chinese authors and critics, The Politics of Cultural Capital is a comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of an issue that cuts to the heart of modern and contemporary Chinese thought and culture. It will be essential reading for scholars of modern Chinese literature and culture, globalization, post-colonialism, and comparative and world literature. Chapter one: Introduction: Diagnosing the Complex. Chapter two: The Nobel Prize for Literature: Philosophy and Practice. Chapter three: Ideas of Authorship and the Nobel Prize in China, 1900–1976. Chapter four: China’s Search for a Nobel Prize in Literature, 1979–2000. Chapter five: The Nobel Prize, 2000.
 
China’s increasing economic and military capabilities have attracted much attention in recent years. How should the world, especially the United States, respond to this emerging great power? A sensible response requires not only figuring out the speed and extent of China’s rise, but also answering a question that has received much less attention: What is China’s grand strategy? This book describes and explains the grand strategy China’s leaders have adopted to pursue their country’s interests in the international system of the 21st century. The author argues that their strategy is designed to foster favorable conditions for continuing China’s modernization while also reducing the risk that others will decide a rising China is a threat that must be countered. Why did China’s leaders settle on this grand strategy and what are its key elements? What alternatives were available? Is the current approach yielding the results China anticipated? What does this grand strategy imply for international peace and security in the coming years—and, most critically, what are the prospects for an increasingly prominent China and a dominant United States to rise to the challenge of managing their inevitable disagreements?
 
Until recently, Chinese children ate what their parents fed them and were not permitted to influence, much less dictate, their own diet. The situation today is radically different, especially in cities and prosperous villages, as a result of a notable increase in people’s income and a fast-growing consumer culture. Chinese children, with spending money in their pockets, arguably have become the most determined consumers—usually of snack foods, soft drinks, and fast foods from such Western outlets as McDonald’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. With many children, especially pampered only children, now controlling not only their own but also their family’s choice of staples, snacks, and restaurants, a major reformation in the concept of childhood is occurring in China. This book focuses on how the transformation of children’s food habits, the result of China’s transition to a market economy and its integration into the global economic arena, has changed the intimate relationship of childhood, parenthood, and family life. Since the early 1980s, a drastic decline in fertility and a steady rise in family income have been accompanied by a profusion of new products successfully advertised on television and in other media as “children’s food.” This commercialization of children’s diet has become so pervasive that even children in remote villages surprise their parents with demands for particular trendy foods and soft drinks. Many Chinese parents, reared very differently, anxiously question whether their children are eating well and growing up healthy. The contributors to this book, drawn from the fields of anthropology, sociology, political economy, and nutrition, examine a wide variety of topics: the effects of new foods on children’s health; the consumption of “prestige” foods; the social implications of commercialized children’s food on a Chinese Islamic community; the adaptations of Kentucky Fried Chicken in response to indigenous fast-food companies; the generation gap in attitudes toward food consumption; the significance of religion and nutrition in feeding and healing children; the creation of baby-friendly hospitals to promote breastfeeding and scientific childcare methods; the special role of nationalism and traditional Chinese medicine in children’s food production; and the business promotion of having fun as an aspect of eating well.
 
This book examines the changes taking place in literary writing and publishing in contemporary China under the influence of the emerging market economy. It focuses on the revival of literary best sellers in the Chinese book market and the establishment of a best-seller production machine. The author examines how writers have become cultural entrepreneurs, how state publishing houses are now motivated by commercial incentives, and how “second-channel,” unofficial publishers and distributors both compete and cooperate with official publishing houses in a dual-track, socialist-capitalist economic system. Taken together, these changes demonstrate how economic development and culture interact in a postsocialist society, in contrast to the way they work in the mature capitalist economies of the West. That economic reforms have affected many aspects of Chinese society is well known, but this is the first comprehensive analysis of market influences in the literary field. This book thus offers a fresh perspective on the inner workings of contemporary Chinese society.
 
The role that local people's congresses (LPCs) play in Chinese politics is somewhat unexpected. One might have thought that the crucial question about LPCs centers on how representative they are. What stands out in recent research, however, is how little attention is devoted to elections, deputy-constituent ties, and speaking out at plenary sessions. The big story, instead, is occurring inside the state and concerns institutionalization, multi-step deliberation, lawmaking, and enhanced oversight. Administrative reforms have transformed the policy process and new arenas have been created to manage conflict. LPCs have benefited greatly from this re-division of labor and are not a "rival show" or a "rubber stamp" but partners in governance that provide a venue for interested parties (mostly within the bureaucracy) to work out disagreements. Energetic LPCs are first and foremost a sign that where Chinese politics takes place has changed. Legislative development, in this way of thinking, has less to do with responsiveness and altered state-society relations and more to do with state-building, restructuring bureaucratic ties, and making Party rule predictable and effective.
 
This book is the first comprehensive examination of China's hukou (household registration) system. The hukou system registers and governs the 1.3 billion Chinese, while creating deep and rigid divisions and exclusions; in many domains the system determines how the Chinese live and shapes China's sociopolitical structure and socioeconomic development. This book shows that the system has made both positive and negative contributions to contemporary Chinese society: it has helped foster rapid economic growth and political stability, but also has reinforced social stratification, the rural-urban divide, regional inequalities, and discrimination and injustice. Using rich new materials, this book traces the history and development of the hukou system. It describes the functions, impact, and operational mechanisms of the system. It also analyzes the hukou in comparison with the systems of exclusion and discrimination in other nations, notably Brazil and India. This book presents important insights for understanding China's past, present, and future.
 
Estudio sobre la economía china durante las dos últimas décadas del siglo XX, cuando esta nación inicia su proceso de apertura al mundo, enfocado en los contactos transnacionales producidos en las áreas de los negocios, la educación superior, el desarrollo rural y las inversiones. El efecto acumulado de esos contactos ha sido un cambio profundo en las estructuras institucionales y orientaciones normativas del gobierno chino. El autor examina los grandes cambios de China en el establecimiento de zonas de desarrollo, la aparición de joint ventures en las zonas rurales, los esfuerzos en las ayudas económicas y la educación universitaria.
 
Strengths and Weaknesses of Policy Steering Instruments
Per Capita Budgetary Revenue and Dependence on Transfer Payments, Anhui County Level, 1999 (left) and 2007 (right).
While research on “selective policy implementation” has provided explanations for why some policies are more likely to be implemented well than others, this contribution is concerned with the phenomenon of one and the same policy being implemented well in one locality, but not in another. From a vantage point of policy implementation instruments, it examines the uneven implementation of the rural tax reform that preceded the recent Construction of a Socialist New Countryside (jianshe shehuizuhyi xin nongcun). The study reveals that “competition under hierarchy” provided incentives for some localities to continuously improve the tax reform by means of local-level experiments. Conversely, it prompted a great number of localities to circumvent or even sabotage the reform, thereby forcing the central government to make repeated financial concessions and eventually to centralize the provision of rural public services. By focussing more on processes than on end results, the article demonstrates how different experiences in local policy implementation can contribute to the overall development of a policy.
 
Top-cited authors
Barry Naughton
  • University of California, San Diego
Mobo Gao
  • University of Adelaide
Ben Hillman
  • Australian National University
Dorothy Solinger
  • University of California Irvine, US
Zhou Li
  • Chinese Academy of Social Sciences