The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne

Diurnal variations in central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) and their relationships were studied in healthy dogs. Central corneal thickness was measured by ultrasonic pachymetry and IOP by applanation tonometry in 16 beagle dogs. Measurements were taken every 90 min over 12 h (08:00 am to 08:00 pm). The mean CCT and IOP values obtained during the sampling period were 545.6 ± 21.7 μm (range: 471 to 595 μm) and 15 ± 2.2 mmHg (range: 10 to 19 mmHg), respectively. The CCT and IOP showed statistically significant decreases at 6:30 pm and 5:00 pm, respectively (P < 0.001). Central corneal thickness and IOP values were lower in the afternoon/evening than in the morning and were positively correlated. Both findings are important for the diagnostic interpretation of IOP values in dogs.
Changing trends in percentage of canine urolith submissions over the 10-year period 1998 to 2008.  
Changing trends in percentage of feline urolith submissions over the 10-year period 1998 to 2008.  
This study reports on trends in canine and feline urolithiasis in Canada during the past 10 years. Age, sex, breed of animals and mineral composition from 40 637 canine and 11 353 feline bladder uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre between 1998 and 2008 were recorded. Struvite and calcium oxalate uroliths comprised > 85% of all uroliths submitted. In dogs, the number of struvite submissions has declined and the number of calcium oxalate submissions has increased. Struvite uroliths were most common in female dogs and calcium oxalate uroliths in male dogs. The shih tzu, miniature schnauzer, bichon frisé, lhasa apso, and Yorkshire terrier were the breeds most commonly affected for both struvite and calcium oxalate uroliths. Urate uroliths were most common in male dalmatians. In cats, struvite submissions declined and calcium oxalate submissions remained constant. Struvite and calcium oxalate uroliths were common in domestic, Himalayan, Persian, and Siamese cats. Urate uroliths were over-represented in Egyptian maus.
Lateral X-ray of a dog showing bladder stone with multiple ring-like layers. The presence of calcium carbonate in an infection-induced struvite urolith may hinder medical dissolution of struvite uroliths. Case, with permission, from Dr. Susan Purdy, Sackville Animal Clinic, Sackville, New Brunswick.
The purpose of this study was to report on the age, sex, breed, and mineral composition of 16 647 canine bladder uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre between February 1998 and April 2003. Each urolith submission was accompanied by a questionnaire. Of the submissions, approximately 43.8% were struvite and 41.5% oxalate. Struvite uroliths were most common in female dogs. Mixed breed dogs predominated, followed by the shih tzu, bichon frise, miniature schnauzer, Lhasa apso, and Yorkshire terrier. Oxalate uroliths were most common in males and in the miniature schnauzer, bichon frise, Lhasa apso, shih tzu, and Yorkshire terrier. Urate uroliths were most common in male Dalmations. Other urolith types, including cystine, xanthine, silica, and calcium phosphate, were less commonly reported. A review of risk factors for the various uroliths is presented, along with some recommendations for treatment and prevention.
Right paramedian abomasopexy and right paralumbar fossa omentopexy appear to be the most widely used means of correcting left displacement of the abomasum in dairy cattle. We compared these two procedures in a prospective study of 101 cows with uncomplicated left displaced abomasum. The surgical treatment (right paramedian abomasopexy, n = 48; or right paralumbar fossa omentopexy, n = 53) was assigned randomly. Follow-up information was obtained, at regular intervals, from one week through six months following discharge from the hospital. Milk production, reproductive performance, surgical complications, and length of time retained in the herd after surgery were obtained for each animal. There was a trend in favor of the abomasopexy group in the one-month milk yield. There were no differences between procedures either in incisional complications, other problems noted at follow-up, or in the proportion dead/culled. Based on the milk yield at one month after surgery, we concluded that there may be a slight advantage to right paramedian abomasopexy in cows with uncomplicated left displaced abomasum.
Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a fast and inexpensive technique well tolerated by animals. Its efficacy for the diagnosis of malignancy and determination of cellular origin was investigated for 97 malignant tumors and five benign lesions in 83 dogs and 19 cats. Histological examination of the lesions was performed in each case. Malignancy was detected by cytology in 69% of the malignant tumors. The cellular origin of the lesion was determined in 74% of the cases. Confirmation of malignancy and determination of cellular origin permitted an early diagnosis and prognosis. Since fine needle aspiration biopsy and cytology cannot definitely rule out malignancy, a surgical biopsy and histopathology should be done when malignancy is suspected clinically and not confirmed cytologically. Specimens of good quality, adequate collaboration between the cytologist and clinicians, and sufficient knowledge of pathology and cytology are basic requirements for obtaining good results with fine needle aspiration biopsy and cytology.
Clinical equine S. Typhimurium DT104 cases from the Ontario Veterinary College Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1997 to 2000 
Signalment and clinical information for horses from which Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 was isolated from 1997-2000 at the OVC-VTH 
Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) has emerged as a common cause of salmonellosis in humans and cattle, yet previous reports involving horses are sparse. This study reports the emergence of DT104 as an important pathogen in horses in Ontario. The first clinical case of DT104 infection at the Ontario Veterinary College was identified in 1997. Seventeen cases of DT104-associated salmonellosis were identified between 1997 and 2000. In 2000, 12 of 13 cases of salmonellosis were due to DT104. Salmonellosis in horses due to DT104 is of concern, since the organism is multiresistant to antibiotics and poses increased zoonotic risk. Phage type distribution of Salmonella isolates should be monitored to determine whether DT104 will remain a prevalent equine pathogen.
An aggressive mare, presented for prebreeding examination, was found to have a significantly enlarged ovary (soccer ball size). A granulosa thecal cell tumor was initially suspected. Following laboratory and repeated clinical examination, the mare was diagnosed with an ovarian hematoma, which regressed with treatment.
An 11-day-old pony became depressed, anorectic, and pyrexic 2 days after the topsoil of its paddock had been turned over. Rapid progression to colic and head pressing occurred, despite intensive therapy for Tyzzer's disease, and the foal died within 7 h of the appearance of central nervous system signs.
The medical records of 11 cattle with jejunal hemorrhage syndrome were reviewed. Female and male, lactating and pregnant, dairy and beef cattle were affected. Decreased feed intake and milk production, reduced amounts of dark feces, and abdominal discomfort were common historical findings. Common clinical findings included depressed demeanor, a "ping" and fluid-splashing sounds over the right abdomen, melena, and distended loops of intestine on rectal palpation. Surgery was done on 7 cases, 10 cases were euthanized, and 1 died. Clostridium perfringens type A was isolated from the intestinal contents from 7 of 7 cases. At necropsy, the characteristic finding was a varying length of a dark purple-red distended jejunum with an intraluminal blood clot. Histologically, there was segmental necrosis, ulceration, and mucosal and transmural hemorrhage of the jejunum. This is a sporadic disease of adult cattle characterized by mechanical obstruction of the small intestines by a large blood clot with a case fatality of almost 100%.
Section of cholesteatoma. Abundant lamellar eosinophilic debris (keratin) fills a cyst lumen lined by a multilayered squamous epithelium characterized by diffuse intense hyperplasia and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis. Hematoxylin and eosin, 1003 (bar 1 cm = 60 mm). 
Middle ear cholesteatoma is a rare condition in dogs with chronic otitis. Otorrhea, otodinia, and pain on temporomandibular joint palpation are the most common clinical signs. Neurological abnormalities are often detectable. Computed tomography reveals the presence of an expansive and invasive unvascularized lesion involving the tympanic cavity and the bulla, with little or no contrast enhancement after administration of contrast mediu. Video-otoscopy may detect pearly growth or white/yellowish scales in the middle ear cavity. Surgery is the only therapy but is associated with a high risk of recurrence.
Eight bovine, two ovine and one porcine primary hepatocellular neoplasms were found during a five year survey of tumors from meat packing plants. The tumors varied in size and usually were yellow-grey. Some were encapsulated and divided into lobules by fibrous septa. The tumor cells closely resembled normal hepatocytes and were arranged in a trabecular pattern or in sheets with caverns or were a mixture of the two. Eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions were present in one bovine and one ovine case.
A study was conducted to determine the proportion of yearling beef bulls that have mature spermiograms at 11 to 15 months of age, and to evaluate the relationship between semen quality traits, age, and scrotal circumference. Semen samples and data on sperm motility and scrotal circumference measurements were obtained from 1641 bulls of 14 breeds. Criteria for a satisfactory spermiogram included sperm concentration > or = 400 x 10(6)/mL, > or = 60% progressively motile sperm, and > or = 70% morphologically normal sperm. The mean scrotal circumference measurements for all bulls combined were 33.4, 34.4, 35.2, 35.8, and 35.3 cm at 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 months of age, respectively. The percentage of bulls with matures spermiograms at 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 months of age were 20%, 30%, 51%, 52%, and 61%, respectively. There was a high positive correlation (r = 0.9) between the number of bulls with > or = 70% normal sperm and scrotal circumference measurement. The main types of morphologic defects observed in immature bulls were proximal droplets and midpiece defects.
An 11-month-old, beefmaster bull presented with anorexia and signs of respiratory disease. Physical examination, thoracic ultrasonography and radiography, and pleural fluid analysis indicated pericarditis and septic neutrophilic pleuropneumonia. Postmortem findings were abomasal adherence to the diaphragm, a fibrotic fistulous tract connecting the abomasum and pleural cavity, granulomatous abomasitis, granulomatous pericarditis, and fibrinonecrotic pleuritis.
This study sought to develop customized morphology flagging thresholds for canine erythrocyte volume and hemoglobin concentration [Hgb] on the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer; compare automated morphology flagging with results of microscopic blood smear evaluation; and examine effects of customized thresholds on morphology flagging results. Customized thresholds were determined using data from 52 clinically healthy dogs. Blood smear evaluation and automated morphology flagging results were correlated with mean cell volume (MCV) and cellular hemoglobin concentration mean (CHCM) in 26 dogs. Customized thresholds were applied retroactively to complete blood (cell) count (CBC) data from 5 groups of dogs, including a reference sample group, clinical cases, and animals with experimentally induced iron deficiency anemia. Automated morphology flagging correlated more highly with MCV or CHCM than did blood smear evaluation; correlation with MCV was highest using customized thresholds. Customized morphology flagging thresholds resulted in more sensitive detection of microcytosis, macrocytosis, and hypochromasia than default thresholds.
A retrospective morbidity and mortality study was carried out on 125 case records of cattle involving xylazine/halothane anesthesia at the Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph between May 1979 and February 1983.One hundred and six animals were given xylazine intramuscularly with a mean dose of 0.22 mg/kg and the remaining 19 were given a mean dose of 0.17 mg/kg intravenously. When the animals became recumbent, they were intubated and connected to an anesthetic machine which delivered halothane in oxygen.Anesthetic complications were recorded for ten cattle (8%) in the series and were mainly associated with regurgitation of ruminal contents, with or without aspiration. Three animals died as a result of the anesthetic procedure and in three other instances there were complications which were potentially fatal. Two of the anesthetic deaths were directly attributable to faulty technique rather than a specific drug response.The use of xylazine/halothane was judged to be clinically satisfactory and did not produce an unacceptable complication rate, although it is evident there is a significant risk associated with general anesthesia in ruminants.
Cerebellar abscess in a 2-month-old goat with caseous lymphadenitis.
Large and focally ruptured retropharyngeal abscess (asterisk) with yellow purulent content (arrow) in a 4-year-old goat with caseous lymphadenitis.
The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality.
The case records of 13 horses with acquired incarcerated inguinal hernia in January-August 1983, were reviewed. Nine cases were in stallions. The remaining four involved eventration 5-48 hours following castration. Ages ranged from 1-17 years. Horses showed a variable degree of colic. Bowel was felt to pass through the internal inguinal ring on rectal examination in most cases. The physical features of the scrotum varied considerably. Resection of ischemic jejunum and/or ileum was necessary in three horses. Two horses were euthanized at surgery (one with bilateral ischemic jejunum, one with bowel perforation), and a further horse on day 16 postsurgery following development of multiple adhesions. All stallions were castrated. Follow-up for 6-24 months (mean 12.7) disclosed that all ten discharged horses were alive and healthy (recovery rate 77%).
Surgical resection of a gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor by double enterectomy and partial pancreatectomy on a 13-year-old mixed breed dog. A 13 year-old, male, mixed breed dog, has been presented for an abdominal mass. The exam showed the presence of an ileo-caeco-colic mass adhered to the distal portion of the pancreas and the mid duodenum. A double enterectomy and a partial pancreatectomy were carried out and a diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal cell tumor has been established.
Databases (2001-2008) for cases in which recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) was used to aid in management of orthopedic disease were reviewed and cases were categorized as non-unions, delayed unions, and cases expected to heal with difficulty. If follow-up in the medical record was < 6 mo for live animals, owners were surveyed by telephone. Thirteen cases (11 dogs, 2 cats) were identified; OP-1 (rhBMP-7) was used in 3 cases and INFUSE (rhBMP-2) in 10. Mean time from injury to rhBMP use for non- and delayed union cases was 156 d; mean time from rhBMP use to radiographic healing was 101 d. No systemic side effects were reported. All patients achieved clinical and radiographic bone union following rhBMP administration. Recombinant human BMP was used in 13 veterinary patients to successfully achieve bone union without serious deleterious effects in a variety of clinical applications.
The prevalence of equine glaucoma seen by the ophthalmology service at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM) was 6.5%. The majority of cases (11/13) were associated with clinical manifestations of uveitis. Congenital glaucoma was documented in 1 case, and primary glaucoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old quarter horse. There were no breed or sex predilections evident. Affected horses were middle-aged to old (average age = 9.5 years, ranging from 2 weeks to 23 years). The clinical manifestations of equine glaucoma included blindness, diffuse corneal edema, corneal vascularization, buphthalmia, corneal striae, recurrent secondary ulcerative keratitis, and less commonly, iris bombé, tapetal hyper-reflectivity, complete pupillary occlusion from posterior synechiae, and optic disc cupping. Elevated intraocular pressure confirmed the diagnosis (n = 10), while 3 cases were normotensive with signs of glaucoma including corneal striae and buphthalmia. Affected eyes were treated medically and/or surgically. Regardless of the therapy instituted, the visual outcome was poor. Most affected eyes were blind at presentation or became blind within a few weeks.
The object of this investigation was to determine the outcome of limb amputation in wapiti. Medical records of 13 wapiti that underwent limb amputation were reviewed to determine age, weight, sex, injury preceding amputation, limb amputated, amputation location, length of hospital stay, complications, and outcome. Ages ranged from 3 months to 8 years and weights from 70 kg to 280 kg. All animals were female. Eleven animals sustained catastrophic long bone fractures prior to amputation. Five animals had front limb amputations and 8 had hind limb amputations. Of these animals, 1 with a front limb amputaiton and 5 with hind limb amputations survived. Postsurgical inability to stand is associated with hospitalization of > 1 day. Of the 13 wapiti reviewed, 5 with hind limb amputations have produced and reared offspring. Hind limb amputation can be considered a viable alternative to euthanasia when catastrophic orthopedic injuries occur in female wapiti.
Of 131 cases of Corynebacterium equi infection in horses submitted for necropsy to the Ontario Veterinary College or Veterinary Laboratory Services, OMAF, Guelph, Ontario from 1958 to 1984, 115 were diagnosed as suppurative pneumonia, and of these 55 had associated ulcerative enterocolitis. Only five animals had intestinal involvement without pulmonary lesions. The remaining 11 cases included arthritis/cellulitis, skin abscesses and submandibular lymphadenitis. While the lung, intestine and associated lymph nodes yielded C. equi most frequently, in 21% of cases C. equi was also cultured from parenchymatous organs (spleen, liver or kidney) or blood. Corynebacterium equi infection accounted for 10% of all foals submitted for postmortem examination and 45% of all foals with pneumonia. Affected foals were one to four months of age. Submissions occurred between the months of May and August with a peak during July. There was a significantly greater prevalence of C. equi infection in Standardbreds when compared with other breeds. Of foals in this study, 36% were from farms which had had other horses succumb to this disease. Of the foals with pulmonary involvement, 21% did not have fever or clinical signs referable to the respiratory or gastrointestinal systems, findings which indicated that a large percentage of cases were subclinical.
Mediolateral radiographs were used to measure relative osteotomy segment size, defined as the width of the widest portion of the osteotomy segment (solid white line) divided by the total width of the tibia at the same level (dashed white line). 123 3 94 mm (300 3 300 DPI)
This study identified risk factors for complication following tibial tuberosity transposition by retrospective examination of cases that used various surgical techniques. Records and radiographs of 113 dogs with 137 stifles undergoing tibial tuberosity transposition for medial patellar luxation were reviewed. Patient-specific factors, surgical factors, and complication information were recorded. Owners were contacted as necessary to attain a minimum of 30 days follow-up. Of 137 stifles, 59 (43%) had complications, with 24 (18%) identified as major complications. Factors significantly associated with reduced risk of complication included increased age [odds ratio (OR) 0.8] and concurrent cranial cruciate ligament rupture (OR 0.3). Factors significantly associated with increased risk of complication included large breed compared to toy breed (OR 5.5), increased weight (OR 1.3), and use of a screw for tibial tuberosity fixation (OR infinity). While significant, these associations do not imply causality and prospective study is necessary to determine the ideal fixation method for individual patients.
A crossbred bull heterozygous for a double centric fusion was produced. At 14 months of age, semen volume and sperm characteristics were normal. Cytologic and ultrastructural evidence of spermatid degeneration was found coincident with abundant, apparently normal, sperm formation. Implications for the early detection of centric fusion in young bulls are discussed.
A 14-year-old Morgan gelding was presented for progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. The horse was initially diagnosed with equine protozoal myelitis based on history, physical examination, and laboratory diagnostics. Despite therapy, the horse declined clinically and was euthanized. Necropsy revealed a rare form of neurotropic lymphoma, described in this report.
A 14-month-old intact, female Abyssinian cat was presented for chronic intermittent diarrhea and bilateral enlargement of the mammary glands. Gastrointestinal coccidiosis was diagnosed; therapy with sulfadi-methoxine was unsuccessful in the elimination of Isospora felis and clinical signs. Infection with Tritrichomonas foetus was diagnosed by fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and successfully treated with ronidazole and dietary modification.
A 14-year-old, quarter horse stallion was presented in lateral recumbency, unable to rise. Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy was diagnosed, based on presentation, clinical signs, and the ruling out of other possibilities. After initial rapid improvements, ataxia remained, as did chronic cystitis secondary to bladder paralysis. He was euthanized after 2 months.
A 14-year-old spayed female poodle-pekinese dog with a history of hematuria was tentatively diagnosed with non-radiopaque uroliths or urinary bladder neoplasia following temporary resolution of clinical signs after several rounds of antibiotic treatments, normal abdominal radiographs and no growth on urine culture. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass in the trigone area of the urinary bladder which was confirmed to be an invasive transitional cell carcinoma by histopathology following euthanasia.
This retrospective study identified complications associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) and predisposing factors for these complications in a large population of dogs from a metropolitan area with cruciate ligament deficiency. There were 943 dogs that underwent unilateral TPLO and 288 with staged bilateral TPLO for a total of 1519 procedures. There were 47 cases with at least 1 major complication and 126 cases with at least 1 minor complication but no major complications. The total complication rate (major or minor) was 11.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) estimate: 9.8%, 13.2%]; the major complication rate was 3.1% (95% CI: 2.3%, 4.1%); and the minor complication rate was 8.3% (95% CI: 7.0%, 9.8%). Factors associated with development of complications included being a German shepherd dog [odds ratio (OR): 3.2], tibial plateau angle > 30° (OR: 1.6), and heavier weights (for every 4.5 kg increase in body weight the OR increased by 1.10). Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy is a common treatment for dogs with cruciate ligament deficiency and has a low complication rate.
Characteristics of mares that aborted or delivered a dead foal following episodes of colic 
The purpose of this study was to determine foaling rates in mares presented for medical or surgical treatment of colic, and to examine risk factors associated with abortion following colic. A retrospective analysis of 153 medical records found that mares treated surgically for colic (P = 0.0007) were 3.5 times more likely to have a negative pregnancy outcome than were mares treated medically for colic. Anesthetic time (P = 0.01) and intra-operative hypotension (P = 0.03) were significantly associated with negative pregnancy outcome. Mares with an anesthetic time > or = 3 h were 6 times more likely to abort. Signs of endotoxemia (P = 0.30), hypoxia (P = 0.89), flunixin meglumine administration (P = 0.13), mucous membrane color at the time of presentation (P = 0.82) and capillary refill time (P = 0.76) were not associated with pregnancy outcome. There was no difference in the foaling rate for mares that had received progestin supplementation versus those that had not (P = 0.42). In this study, the significant risk factors for abortion were surgically treated colic, long anesthetic time, and intraoperative hypotension.
A retrospective study on 159 cesareans on dairy cows referred between 1985 and 1989 to the veterinary teaching hospital is reported. The objective of the study was to evaluate the probability and the factors associated with survival and subsequent calving. The risk of dying for the cows was 24% following surgery. The risk of dying differed if the cow had an emphysematous, dead, or live calf; it was 63%, 21%, and 14%, respectively. Of all the cows returned to the farm and for which there was a breeding recorded, 64% calved again. But only 28% of all the cows returned home and, therefore, only 17% of all the referred cases calved again. We used multivariate analysis to obtain a predictive model on prognosis following surgery. The prognosis was only influenced by the calf condition at admission.
Alopecia, scaling, and crusting on the nose of a fox terrier.
Alopecia and generalized erythema on a smoothhaired fox terrier.
Treatment and follow-up in the 16 affected dogs
A retrospective study of 16 cases of dermatophytosis due to Microsporum persicolor in dogs is reported. Hunting dogs were overrepresented (12/16). Skin lesions were observed on the face in all cases, but also on other locations (limbs, neck). The lesions included alopecia (15/16), erythema (13/16), scales (14/16), and crusts (13/16). Histopathology was performed in 10 cases and showed folliculitis and a lichenoid interface dermatitis. Fungal culture was positive in all cases and clinical resolution was achieved with standard antifungal agents (enilconazole, ketoconazole, griseofulvin). Two recurrences were observed (new contacts with rodents).
Histology of extratesticular Sertoli cell tumor with characteristic tubular structures separated by a fibrous stroma, Hematoxylin and eosin, Bar = 100 m.  
Histology of extratesticular interstitial cell tumor in a cat with the characteristic 'endocrine' appearance of interstitial endocrine cells of the testis. Hematoxylin and eosin, Bar = 50 m.  
Primary neoplasms derived from testicular tissue and in an extratesticular location are extremely rare. Clinical and surgical information was collected and verified from 15 different submitting practices for 12 dogs and 5 cats that spontaneously developed neoplasms of testicular origin after castration. Eleven dogs had Sertoli cell tumors in an extratesticular location. One dog and all 5 cats had an extratesticular interstitial cell tumor. Six animals (1 dog, 5 cats) had developed secondary sexual characteristics that reversed after removal of the tumor. All had a palpable mass in the scrotum or at the site of the original prescrotal incision. No animals died of neoplasia-related disease and no metastases were identified. Several possibilities, including the presence of embryological ectopic tissue or the presence of testicular tissue transplanted during castration, are considered as causal.
Top-cited authors
Tim A Mcallister
  • Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada, Lethbridge
Eugene David Janzen
  • The University of Calgary
Edward George Clark
  • The University of Calgary
Karen A Beauchemin
  • Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
David Christensen
  • University of Saskatchewan