The Black scholar

Print ISSN: 0006-4246
The present study examined mental health status in a large national sample of the black elderly. Previous studies of mental health and illness in this population have been either geographically limited or based upon small national samples that have not permitted reasonable investigation of important demographic differences. In addition to using traditional measures of self-reported mental health functioning, the present study also included measures of well-being in an attempt to explore the multi-dimensional nature of the mental health concept in the black elderly. The findings of the present analyses indicate a great deal of heterogeneity among the black elderly as well as significant relationships between global measures of well-being and measures of psychological distress. The implications of these findings for a multi-dimensional conception of mental health in black Americans are discussed.
In this study patterns of competence of 114 black and white older and adolescent women were examined using a model based on M. Brewster Smith, Jacquelyne J. Jackson, and Forrest B. Tyler. Sense of personal control proved to be an important component of competence, as it was correlated with active, planful coping skills, and it distinguished more effective from less effective criterion groups. Patterns of competence were different within the age and race sub-groups, supporting the notion that social conditions which restrict opportunity will constrain the development of competence. In particular, older black women scored especially high on the measure of active coping.
Evaluates social and legislative developments which helped to shape the socio-political philosophies of the US in general and Blacks in particular during 1955-1975. The 1954 Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court decision is seen as a major force in the development of these philosophies. The effects of (a) the 1955 Montgomery boycott and similar boycotts in other cities, (b) the philosophies of Malcolm X, and (c) the 1964-1968 summer riots on national and regional desegregation policies are examined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Provides a historical review of the development of marriage, sexual, and child-bearing behaviors among Blacks and how they affect the Black family. The effects of current social trends (e.g., women's liberation, female-headed households) on the future of the Black family are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the economics, loneliness, mortality, and isolation confronting older Black women (over age 45) in the US. Data from the 1960 and 1970 Censuses and 1961 and 1971 mortality data for both older and younger women and those from the South vs other areas of the country are compared. Recommendations for improving the financial, physical, and psychological status of older Black women are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Argues that teachers' displays of overt racism in the US public schools have been replaced by an atmosphere of "warm acceptance." This "acceptance," however, has not been accompanied by challenging academic programs, thus creating a debilitating environment for the Black student. In the present paper, some of the misconceptions (low self-esteem, low aspirations, and poor student-teacher relationships) about why a large proportion of Blacks perform poorly in public schools are examined. Data collected from Black, Spanish, Asian, and White high school students in San Francisco indicate the following: (a) Blacks and lower achieving students generally maintained positive conceptions of their school ability despite their lower achievement in school; (b) Blacks considered learning of school subjects more important than any of the other groups of students; (c) Black students were equally high and, in some cases, highest in their estimation of parental concern; and (d) Blacks and Chicanos, the ethnic groups who were doing less well in school, saw teachers as more friendly and warm than did the other ethnic groups. The implications of these findings on the academic progress of minority students is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Explores the contributions of social scientists to the popular image of African Americans as natural athletes and subhuman beings. A review of social science literature of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries finds the present image perpetuated by sportscasters firmly rooted in this literature. (SLD)
Considers the impact that social changes in the 1970s had on black men. Discusses young blacks' school experiences and role models; military experience; the labor market and affirmative action; and the masculine mystique that affects the expectations of black men. (MK)
Explores the future of African-American studies. African-American studies should be the home of free inquiry into the complexity of being of African descent in the world, rather than a closed-shop or a resurrected version of thought police. A true proliferation of ideologies and methodologies is required. (SLD)
Argues that as the market has grown for the products and services of the professional intellectual class, this group has become committed not only to knowledge and skill but also to its elite privileges and that, as a result, the image of intellectuals as supporters of the less privileged lacks currency today. (CMG)
Argues that the recent EEOC proposal to abandon using hiring goals and timetables to settle discrimination suits would decimate Federal commitment to affirmative action policies. Reexamines the musunderstood circumstances surrounding the Bakke case and the evolution of civil rights and affirmative action policies to support his case. (ETS)
Suggests that the process of saving the cities must not be a process of driving out the poor to house the middle class, but a process of helping the poor to become middle income. The ultimate future of our cities and of our nation may depend upon the success of that effort. (Author)
Blacks must look to themselves for solutions to the problems of all Black people. They must direct their money back into the Black community to elevate the socioeconomic level of Blacks in the United States. (WI)
Examines the representation of South Africa in geography and history textbooks currently being used in American schools. Asserts that these books are flawed with misleading, inaccurate, and racist texts and illustration. Offers recommendations for revising the view American students are given of South Africa. (KH)
For many years, the dominant image of Africa seen on Western films was that of condescension and paternalism. The history of films about Africa, with some exceptions to the prevailing portrayals, is traced; and the origin and growth of the African film industry are reviewed. (SLD)
Discusses eight novels by the following female novelists from Africa: (1) Buchi Emecheta; (2) Flora Nwapa; (3) Bessie Head; and (4) Mariama Ba. Explores customs and attitudes that cause the most suffering to their female characters. Examines signs of change which suggest hope for the elimination of these causes. (JS)
Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)
Discusses the maintenance and future of African-American studies within the context of contemporary intellectual ideas. The institutionalization of African-American studies and the creation of the first doctoral program in African-American studies at Temple University in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) marked the flowering of the discipline. (SLD)
Examines the novels of two African writers to determine the nature of the black African women's experience. Attempts to determine how this experience can be analyzed in depth and breadth by progressing through four feminist perspectives: (1) personal, (2) social, (3) multicultural, and (4) spiritual/philosophical. (Author/SA)
Analyzes the principles of consanguinity and conjugality in African family organization. Shows how understanding African families can be useful in studying how Afro-American family structure evolved in the United States. (EF)
Among the aims of the festival are: 1) to ensure the revival, resurgence, and propagation of black and African culture and black and African cultural values and civilization, and 2) to promote black and African artists, performers, and writers and facilitate their world acceptance. (Author/AM)
Mainstream media in the United States, the press in particular, continue to misrepresent African-American life and culture. Provides specific examples of omissions and neglect in reporting the truth behind news accounts about or affecting African Americans. Unidentified or "reliable" sources in stories about African Americans must be regarded with skepticism. (SLD)
This paper summarizes the views of Cuban and black American leaders on Cuba's first war for independence. It is noted that what blacks can learn from Cuba is that the elimination of racism requires not only laws but a revolutionary process. (Author/AM)
Expresses the view that more and more black students become alienated and will transform as a class into a revolutionary nationalist intelligentsia for the movement toward independent nationhood. (DM)
Discusses the literary style of Bildungsroman of various West Indian and American writers. The need of various authors to look back, to reassess one's childhood from the vantage point of maturity is discussed as it relates to the wishes to establish an authoritative basis of experience and reinterpret a fragmentary past. (SA)
Explores implications of defining the primary problems of African Americans as those faced by males, questioning whether this approach places African-American men and women in conflict. Considers how social problems are constructed. Image formation and manipulation of social issues may contribute to the perception of African-American women as advantaged. (SLD)
Reviews the history of African-American studies and explores its future. Three groups of scholarly practitioners in African-American studies are discussed as (1) traditionalists; (2) authentists and/or Afrocentrists; and (3) African-American feminists. Contributions of each group are examined, and the role of each in the future is considered. (SLD)
Addresses the following questions: (1) what is the effect of the stereotyped characterization of old black women on their well-being; (2) what are the major issues surrounding the social, economic, and health conditions of subgroups of aging black women; and (3) what should be the substantive content of advocatory efforts on their behalf? (BJV)
Discusses various critical interpretations of Zora Neale Hurston's personality and writing beginning in the Harlem Renaissance. Examines literary skirmishes and aesthetic debates between Hurston and Langston Hughes and Richard Wright beginning in the Harlem Renaissance period. Explores Black male and female writers' perspectives during this time. (JS)
Suggests that by publicly focusing on the criminality of blacks, the police give white society a convenient scapegoat and at the same time lay the ground work for bigger and bigger police budgets. (Author/AM)
Argues that class and race are more significant causative factors in Black women's impoverishment than is gender and that the female poor are disproportionately composed of minorities. Criticizes "feminization of poverty" analysis as misrepresenting dynamics of female poverty in the U.S. and misidentifying population sectors most at risk of becoming poor. (CMG)
Examines the literature and explores the portrayal of African Americansin creative writings of revolutionary America. The literature of the period reveals the paradox of African-American life in America, where prosperity for some was based on exploitation of others. Works of Benjamin Banneker, Thomas Jefferson, and Phyllis Wheatley are cited. (SLD)
A systematic examination and debunking of three myths surrounding black women workers: (1) black women have better jobs than black men, (2) black women and white men are the most successful groups in U.S. society, and (3) black women do most of the work because they are the heads of most black families. (EH)
This article discusses the current effect on Blacks of unequal political and economic power in American cities. Some of the issues examined include: Black migration; employment status; education; socioeconomic status; Black suicide; Black political power; housing; health; and racism. (EB)
Assesses the complex problem of infant deaths in America and reviews the policy options before the nation. High infant mortality rates have been attributed to population heterogeneity, poverty, or differences in the way health services are organized. Links health policy issues to the larger issue of social and economic equity. (AF)
A chronicle of the unrealistic portrayal of black identity and black experience on television in the past 20 years. (EH)
Problems of interpersonal relations between Black men and women are analyzed in this paper. The views of two female Black writers, Ntozake Shange and Michele Wallace, are criticized. (EB)
Examines the relationship between anthropology and the Black experience from the first importation of slaves to North America to the present. Discusses the role of Black anthropologists. (MK)
Suggests that anthropology has been an instrument of imperialist intervention and control in the Third World as it has been used against the oppressed and colonized people of the world. It becomes the responsibility of the revolutionary and socialist anthropologists to make the discipline a tool of liberation. (Author/AM)
Touches upon the cultural and social necessity to combat purported U.S. racist domination of black art, distinguishes between two possibilities for black artists--on one hand to enter and establish oneself in the existing U.S. art world, and on the other to participate as artists directly in the movement for black liberation, it is stated. (Author/JM)
A personal reminiscence of the people behind this movement in New York City in the 1960s. Focuses on LeRoi Jones. (LHW)
Discusses the ethical issues surrounding anthropological research and the gap between professional social scientists and the native populations they study. Issues are presented from the perspective of Black Americans' reactions to investigation by White social scientists in a segregated society. (MK)
A brief profile on the circumstances of Blacks in sports is presented to demonstrate the point that, even for the "successful" Black athlete, life in sports comes to approximate a racist nightmare more than the "dream come true" it is purported to be. (Author/EB)
Public education systems are mandated to give students the opportunity for intellectual development and to teach positive human relationships. Health clinic staffs and programs associated with the schools are the most effective way to come to grips with the dimensions that sex gives to the adolescent life. (SLD)
Top-cited authors
Ernest Allen
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
Wade W. Nobles
Joan Morgan
  • New York University
Lou Turner
  • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Jean Pierre Misago
  • University of the Witwatersrand