The Astrophysical Journal Letters

Published by American Astronomical Society
Online ISSN: 2041-8213
Print ISSN: 2041-8205
The cumulene carbenes are important components of hydrocarbon chemistry in low-mass star-forming cores. Here we report the first astronomical detection of the long-chain cumulene carbene H2C6 in the interstellar cloud TMC-1, from observations of two of its rotational transitions: J(K,K') = 7(1,7) --> 6(1,6) at 18.8 GHz and 8(1,8) --> 7(1,7) at 21.5 GHz, using NASA's Deep Space Network 70 m antenna at Goldstone, California. In addition we also observed the shorter cumulene carbene H2C4 at the same position. The fractional abundance of H2C6 relative to H2 is about 4.7 x 10(-11) and that of H2C4 is about 4.1 x 10(-9). The abundance of H2C6 is in fairly good agreement with gas-phase chemical models for young molecular cloud cores, but the abundance of H2C4 is significantly larger than predicted.
We investigate the diffusion of cosmic rays into molecular cloud complexes. Using the cosmic-ray diffusion formalism of Protheroe, et al. (2008), we examine how cosmic rays diffuse into clouds exhibiting different density structures, including a smoothed step-function, as well as Gaussian and inverse-$r$ density distributions, which are well known to trace the structure of star-forming regions. These density distributions were modelled as an approximation to the Galactic centre cloud G0.216+0.016, a recently-discovered massive dust clump that exhibits limited signs of massive star formation and thus may be the best region in the Galaxy to observe synchrotron emission from secondary electrons and positrons. Examination of the resulting synchrotron emission, produced by the interaction of cosmic ray protons interacting with ambient molecular matter producing secondary electrons and positrons reveals that, due to projection effects, limb-brightened morphology results in all cases. However, we find that the Gaussian and inverse-$r$ density distributions show much broader flux density distributions than step-function distributions. Significantly, some of the compact (compared to the $2.2''$ resolution, 5.3 GHz JVLA observations) sources show non-thermal emission, which may potentially be explained by the density structure and the lack of diffusion of cosmic rays into the cloud. We find that we can match the 5.3 and 20 GHz flux densities of the non-thermal source JVLA~1 and 6 from Rodr\'{\i}guez & Zapata (2014) with a local cosmic ray flux density, a diffusion coefficient suppression factor of $\chi=0.1-0.01$ for a coefficient of $3\times10^{27}$ cm$^2$ s$^{-1}$, and a magnetic field strength of 470 $\mu$G.
Parameters of the JVLA sources detected at 1.3 cm
G0.253+0.016 is a remarkable massive infrared dark cloud located within ~100 pc of the galactic center. With a high mass of 1.3 × 105M ☉, a compact average radius of ~2.8 pc, and a low dust temperature of 23 K, it has been believed to be a yet starless precursor to a massive Arches-like stellar cluster. We present sensitive JVLA 1.3 and 5.6 cm radio continuum observations that reveal the presence of three compact thermal radio sources projected against this cloud. These radio sources are interpreted as H II regions powered by ~B0.5 zero-age main sequence stars. We conclude that although G0.253+0.016 does not show evidence of O-type star formation, there are certainly early B-type stars embedded in it. We detect three more sources in the periphery of G0.253+0.016 with non-thermal spectral indices. We suggest that these sources may be related to the galactic center region and deserve further study.
We present a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamical models of G0.253-0.016 (also known as 'The Brick'), a very dense molecular cloud that lies close to the Galactic Centre. We explore how its gas and dust temperatures react as we vary the strength of both the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) and the cosmic ray ionisation rate (CRIR). As the physical extent of G0.253-0.016 along our line-of-sight is unknown, we consider two possibilities: one in which the longest axis is that measured in the plane of the sky (9.4 pc in length), and one in which it is along the line of sight, in which case we take it to be 17 pc. To recover the observed gas and dust temperatures, we find find that the ISRF must be around 1000 times the solar neighbourhood value, and the CRIR must be roughly 1E-14 /s, regardless of the geometries studied. For such high values of the CRIR, we find that cooling in the cloud's interior is dominated by neutral oxygen, in contrast to standard molecular clouds, which at the same densities are mainly cooled via CO. Our results suggest that the conditions near G0.253-0.016 are more extreme than those generally accepted for the inner 500 pc of the galaxy.
We present the first interferometric molecular line and dust emission maps for the Galactic Center (GC) cloud G0.253+0.016, observed using CARMA and the SMA. This cloud is very dense, and concentrates a mass exceeding the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex (2 × 105M ☉) into a radius of only 3 pc, but it is essentially starless. G0.253+0.016 therefore violates "star formation laws" presently used to explain trends in galactic and extragalactic star formation by a factor ~45. Our observations show a lack of dense cores of significant mass and density, thus explaining the low star formation activity. Instead, cores with low densities and line widths 1 km s–1—probably the narrowest lines reported for the GC region to date—are found. Evolution over several 105 yr is needed before more massive cores, and possibly an Arches-like stellar cluster, could form. Given the disruptive dynamics of the GC region, and the potentially unbound nature of G0.253+0.016, it is not clear that this evolution will happen.
An Australia Telescope Compact Array search for 22 GHz water masers towards 6.7 GHz class II methanol masers detected in the Methanol Multibeam (MMB) survey has resulted in the detection of extremely high velocity emission from one of the sources. The water maser emission associated with this young stellar object covers a velocity span of nearly 300 km/s. The highest velocity water maser emission is red-shifted from the systemic velocity by 250 km/s, which is a new record for high-mass star formation regions. The maser is associated with a very young late O, or early B star, which may still be actively accreting matter (and driving the extreme outflow). If that is the case future observations of the kinematics of this water maser will provide a unique probe of accretion processes in the highest mass young stellar objects and test models of water maser formation.
We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the massive protocluster G18.67+0.03. Previously targeted in maser surveys of GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs), this cluster contains three Class I methanol maser sources, providing a unique opportunity to test the proposed role of Class I masers as evolutionary indicators for massive star formation. The millimeter observations reveal bipolar molecular outflows, traced by 13CO(2-1) emission, associated with all three Class I maser sources. Two of these sources (including the EGO) are also associated with 6.7 GHz Class II methanol masers; the Class II masers are coincident with millimeter continuum cores that exhibit hot core line emission and drive active outflows, as indicated by the detection of SiO(5-4). In these cases, the Class I masers are coincident with outflow lobes, and appear as clear cases of excitation by active outflows. In contrast, the third Class I source is associated with an ultracompact HII region, and not with Class II masers. The lack of SiO emission suggests the 13CO outflow is a relic, consistent with its longer dynamical timescale. Our data show that massive young stellar objects associated only with Class I masers are not necessarily young, and provide the first unambiguous evidence that Class I masers may be excited by both young (hot core) and older (UC HII) MYSOs within the same protocluster.
?Left: u???r vs. Mr color?magnitude diagram (top) and u???g vs. u???r color?color diagram (bottom) of the initial SDSS ETG catalog. Right: FUV ? r vs. Mr color?magnitude diagram (top) and FUV-NUV vs. FUV ? r color?color diagram (bottom) of the GALEX?SDSS ETG cross-matched catalog. The symbols are color-coded according to the spectroscopic types (red: quiescent; green: AGN; cyan: composite; blue: star forming) by the emission line diagnostics (Oh et al. 2011). Filled circles with error bars indicate the median colors and magnitudes with the standard deviation of each classified subgroup. Some E+A galaxies are found in our data and their UV colors are indicated by asterisks. The median observational errors are denoted by the black crosshairs.
?Top: UV?optical model SEDs. As the Maraston (2005) CSP model (12?Gyr, solar metallicity) does not contain blue HB stars, the SSP models (Z = 0.1?Z?) for young components (t = 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0?Gyr) and for the old component (t = 12?Gyr, 100% blue HB) from Conroy & Gunn (2010), and for helium-enhanced cases (Y = 0.33, 0.38, and 0.43) from Chung et al. (2011) are additionally adopted to reproduce the UV spectra. The flux weight of SSP models is assumed to be 10% of CSP in the r band. Bottom: UV colors derived from the model SEDs redshifted to the median redshift of the sample. The combinations of CSP+SSP SEDs are as labeled. The canonical stellar population model grids in Ree et al. (2007) are denoted by the shaded region (t = 11?15?Gyr, ?Z? = 0.01, 0.02, 0.04).
We present the ultraviolet (UV) color-color relation of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the nearby universe (0.05 < z < 0.12) to investigate the properties of hot stellar populations responsible for the UV excess (UVX). The initial sample of ETGs is selected by the spectroscopic redshift and the morphology parameter from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7, and then cross-matched with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Far-UV (FUV) and Near-UV (NUV) GR6 data. The cross-matched ETG sample is further classified by their emission line characteristics in the optical spectra into quiescent, star-forming, and AGN categories. Contaminations from early-type spiral galaxies, mergers, and morphologically disturbed galaxies are removed by visual inspection. By drawing the FUV - NUV (as a measure of UV spectral shape) vs. FUV - r (as a measure of UVX strength) diagram for the final sample of ~3700 quiescent ETGs, we find that the "old and dead" ETGs consist of a well-defined sequence in UV colors, the "UV red sequence", so that the stronger UVX galaxies should have a harder UV spectral shape systematically. However, the observed UV spectral slope is too steep to be reproduced by the canonical stellar population models in which the UV flux is mainly controlled by age or metallicity parameters. Moreover, 2 mag of color spreads both in FUV - NUV and FUV - r appear to be ubiquitous among any subsets in distance or luminosity. This implies that the UVX in ETGs could be driven by yet another parameter which might be even more influential than age or metallicity.
We have observed the J=3-2 transition of N2H+ and N2D+ to investigate the trend of deuterium fractionation with evolutionary stage in three selected regions in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G28.34+0.06 with the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) and the Submillimeter Array (SMA). A comprehensible enhancement of roughly 3 orders of magnitude in deuterium fractionation over the local interstellar D/H ratio is observed in all sources. In particular, our sample of massive star-forming cores in G28.34+0.06 shows a moderate decreasing trend over a factor of 3 in the N(N2D+)/N(N2H+) ratio with evolutionary stage, a behavior resembling what previously found in low-mass protostellar cores. This suggests a possible extension for the use of the N(N2D+)/N(N2H+) ratio as an evolutionary tracer to high-mass protostellar candidates. In the most evolved core, MM1, the N2H+ (3-2) emission appears to avoid the warm region traced by dust continuum emission and emission of 13CO sublimated from grain mantles, indicating an instant release of gas-phase CO. The majority of the N2H+ and N2D+ emission is associated with extended structures larger than 8" (~ 0.2 pc). Comment: 14 pages, 3 figures, and 2 tables, accepted by the Astrophysical Journal Letters
-Magnetic field morphology revealed by the polarized dust emission at 0.88 mm. (a) Contour map of the total dust emission superposed on the gray scale image the polarized emission intensity stretching from 0.0022 to 0.0073 Jy beam −1. Contour levels are 0.015, 0.042, 0.078, 0.120, 0.168, 0.220, 0.278, 0.339, 0.405, 0.474, 0.547 Jy beam −1. Colored bars (purple for 2.5 ≤ S/N < 3 and red for S/N ≥ 3 ) denote polarization directions, with their lengths proportional to the fractional polarization (a 10% scale is shown in the upper right). Hereafter, a filled ellipse in the lower left shows the synthesized beam, and three star symbols mark the dense condensations (namely MM1-3 from north to south, detected in Qiu et al. 2009). (b) Contours are the same as in (a). Red bars with an arbitrary length depict magnetic field orientations, overlaid with blue curves showing a representative set of parabola derived from the best-fit model. (c) Contours are the same as in (a). Red bars are the same as those in (b). Blue bars show the modeled magnetic field orientations. (d) Histogram of the P.A. residuals for the best-fit model. 
We report the first detection of an hourglass magnetic field aligned with a well-defined outflow-rotation system in a high-mass star-forming region. The observations were performed with Submillimeter Array toward G240.31+0.07, which harbors a massive, flattened, and fragmenting molecular cloud core and a wide-angle bipolar outflow. The polarized dust emission at 0.88 mm reveals a clear hourglass-shaped magnetic field aligned within 20 degree of the outflow axis. Maps of high-density tracing spectral lines, e.g., H13CO+ (4-3), show that the core is rotating about its minor axis, which is also aligned with the magnetic field axis. Therefore, both the magnetic field and kinematic properties observed in this region are surprisingly consistent with the theoretical predictions of the classic paradigm of isolated low-mass star formation. The strength of the magnetic field in the plane of sky is estimated to be about 1.1 mG, resulting in a mass-to-magnetic flux ratio of 1.4 times the critical value and a turbulent to ordered magnetic energy ratio of 0.4. We also find that the specific angular momentum almost linearly decreases from r~0.6 pc to 0.03 pc scales, which is most likely attributed to magnetic braking.
In this letter we report the discovery of CO fluxes, suggesting very high gas fractions in three disk galaxies seen in the nearby Universe (z ~ 0.1). These galaxies were investigated as part of the DYnamics of Newly Assembled Massive Objects (DYNAMO) survey. High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging of these objects reveals the presence of large star forming clumps in the bodies of the galaxies, while spatially resolved spectroscopy of redshifted Halpha reveals the presence of high dispersion rotating disks. The internal dynamical state of these galaxies resembles that of disk systems seen at much higher redshifts (1 < z < 3). Using CO(1-0) observations made with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, we find gas fractions of 20-30% and depletion times of tdep ~ 0.5 Gyr (assuming a Milky Way-like CO conversion factor). These properties are unlike those expected for low- redshift galaxies of comparable specific star formation rate, but they are normal for their high-z counterparts. DYNAMO galaxies break the degeneracy between gas fraction and redshift, and we show that the depletion time per specific star formation rate for galaxies is closely tied to gas fraction, independent of redshift. We also show that the gas dynamics of two of our local targets corresponds to those expected from unstable disks, again resembling the dynamics of high-z disks. These results provide evidence that DYNAMO galaxies are local analogues to the clumpy, turbulent disks, which are often found at high redshift.
Integrated spectra observed with ALMA of the G331.512−0.103 molecular outflow. A dashed line is drawn in each spectrum representing the baseline. The dotted vertical line shows the systemic velocity of this source (−88.9 km s−1).
Parameters of the molecular line observations
The object of this study is one of the most energetic and luminous molecular outflows known in the Galaxy, G331.512-0.103. Observations with ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz; 0.86 mm) reveal a very compact, extremely young bipolar outflow and a more symmetric outflowing shocked shell surrounding a very small region of ionized gas. The velocities of the bipolar outflow are about 70 km s^{-1} on either side of the systemic velocity. The expansion velocity of the shocked shell is ~24 km s^{-1}, implying a crossing time of about 2000 yrs. Along the symmetry axis of the outflow, there is a velocity feature, which could be a molecular "bullet" of high-velocity dense material. The source is one of the youngest examples of massive molecular outflow found associated with a high-mass star.
We present a stacked weak-lensing analysis of an approximately mass-selected sample of 50 galaxy clusters at 0.15<z<0.3, based on observations with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. We develop a new method for selecting lensed background galaxies from which we estimate that our sample of red background galaxies suffers just 1% contamination. We detect the stacked tangential shear signal from the full sample of 50 clusters, based on this red sample of background galaxies, at a total signal-to-noise ratio of S/N=32.7. The Navarro-Frenk-White model is an excellent fit to the data, yielding sub-10% statistical precision on mass and concentration: Mvir=7.19^{+0.53}_{-0.50}\times10^{14}h^{-1}Msol, cvir=5.41^{+0.49}_{-0.45} (c_{200}=4.22^{+0.40}_{-0.36}). Tests of a range of possible systematic errors, including shear calibration and stacking-related issues, indicate that they are sub-dominant to the statistical errors. The concentration parameter obtained from stacking our approximately mass-selected cluster sample is broadly in line with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the uncertainty on our measurement is comparable with the differences between the different predictions in the literature. Overall our results highlight the potential for stacked weak-lensing methods to probe the mean mass density profile of cluster-scale dark matter halos with upcoming surveys, including Hyper-Suprime-Cam, Dark Energy Survey, and KIDS.
Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitors, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use a sophisticated approach to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range 0.2 < z < 1.4 from the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). This consists in the Bayesian analysis of the observed galaxy spectral energy distributions with a comprehensive library of synthetic spectra assembled using realistic, hierarchical star formation and chemical enrichment histories from cosmological simulations. We constrain the SFH of each galaxy in our sample by comparing the observed fluxes in the B, R, I and Ks bands and rest-frame optical emission-line luminosities with those of one million model spectral energy distributions. We explore the dependence of the resulting SFHs on galaxy stellar mass and redshift. We find that the average SFHs of high-mass galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs widely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions may not be appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.
-HI and 12 CO spectra of G349.7+0.2 
We analyze the HI absorption profile for TeV Supernova Remnant (SNR) G349.7+0.2 based on updated knowledge of the inner Galaxy's structure. We significantly revise its kinematic distance from the previous ~ 22 kpc to ~11.5 kpc, indicating it is in the far 3 kpc arm of the Galactic center. We give a revised age of ~ 1800 year for G349.7+0.2 which has a low explosion energy of ~ 2.5 x 10^50 ergs. This removes G349.7+0.2 from the set of brightest SNRs in radio, X-ray to gamma-ray wavebands and helps understand gamma-ray emission originating from this remnant better. In addition, we warn that one needs to use caution for old kinematic distances of Galactic objects (e.g. SNRs, Pulsars and HII regions) in the range of -12 degree =< l =< 12 degree and having distance estimates of >= 5.5 kpc.
?Chandra X-ray image from 2009, smoothed with platelets (Willett 2007). The fitted expansion center is indicated by the + sign. Surface brightness is in counts pixel?1.
Best-Fit Parameters
?Raw 2009 Chandra image, showing region from which the profiles of Figure 2 were taken.
We present a measurement of the expansion and brightening of G1.9+0.3, the youngest Galactic supernova remnant, comparing Chandra X-ray images obtained in 2007 and 2009. A simple uniform expansion model describes the data well, giving an expansion rate of 0.642 +/- 0.049 % yr^-1, and a flux increase of 1.7 +/- 1.0 % yr^-1. Without deceleration, the remnant age would then be 156 +/- 11 yr, consistent with earlier results. Since deceleration must have occurred, this age is an upper limit; we estimate an age of about 110 yr, or an explosion date of about 1900. The flux increase is comparable to reported increases at radio wavelengths. G1.9+0.3 is the only Galactic supernova remnant increasing in flux, with implications for the physics of electron acceleration in shock waves
Chandra image of G1.9+0.3, with regions containing spectral lines overlaid. Red, 1-3 keV; green, 3-4.5 keV; blue, 4.5-7.5 keV. Image size 125 ′′ × 125 ′′. N is up and E is to the left. 
1.4 GHz VLA radio image from 2010 December (Green et al. 2013, in preparation), with regions containing spectral lines overlaid (top to bottom at left: outer N rim, inner N rim, NE region; at right, inner W rim). Resolution 2.3 ′′ × 1.4 ′′ . 
G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of about 1900, and most likely located near the Galactic Center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities larger than about 18,000 km/s have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially-resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs: Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe Kalpha emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including 56Ni) with velocities larger than 18,000 km/s were ejected by this SN. But in the inner west rim, we find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity products of O-burning were also ejected. G1.9+0.3 appears similar to energetic Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. The pronounced asymmetry in the ejecta distribution and abundance inhomogeneities are best explained by a strongly asymmetric SN explosion, similar to those produced in some recent 3D delayed-detonation Type Ia models.
Left: single-slit spectrum centered on the nucleus of S1 (z = 0.3692 ± 0.0002). The line-of-sight velocity offsets are ~ ± 200 km s−1 and FWHM line widths are 200–1000 km s−1. The red side of the [O iii]λ5007 line is affected by telluric absorption. Forcing consistency between the profile shapes for the Hβ and [O iii]4959 lines requires an additional broad component blueshifted by 900 km s−1 on the [O iii]λ5007 line; this broad component is below our detection limit for Hβ and [O iii]λ4959. The total fit is offset slightly high. Right: applying the two-component model to the blended spectrum in the brightest IFU spaxel indicates that the second blueshifted component (seen on the [O iii]λ5007 line) is necessary to explain the excess blue emission.
HST/ACS F814W image with the FLAMES/GIRAFFE IFU footprint (3'' × 2'' = 15 kpc × 10 kpc) overlaid for sources SG1120-S2 and SG1120-S3. We center the IFU spaxel with the largest continuum value on the nucleus of the galaxy. The IFU footprint is populated with the spectra for each spaxel centered on the [N ii] and Hα lines. The data are shown in light gray and our fit to the emission lines in black. Line shift and line width maps are shown. Errors on the line shifts (widths) are 68 km s−1 (5–15 km s−1) and 73 km s−1 (5 km s−1) for sources S2 and S3, respectively, following from the ~100 km s−1 errors on the systemic velocity. Arrows indicate the direction toward the nearest group center, G4 for S2 and G2 for S3; group properties are detailed in Gonzalez et al. (2005) and Tran et al. (2009). Both S2 and S3 have extraplanar gas to at least rh ~ 10 kpc above their disks.
We detect ionized gas characteristics indicative of winds in three disk-dominated galaxies that are members of a super-group at z = 0.37 that will merge to form a Coma-mass cluster. All three galaxies are IR luminous (L IR > 4 × 1010L ☉, SFR > 8 M ☉ yr–1) and lie outside the X-ray cores of the galaxy groups. We find that the most IR-luminous galaxy has strong blueshifted and redshifted emission lines with velocities of ~ ± 200 km s–1 and a third, blueshifted (~900 km s–1) component. This galaxy's line widths (Hβ, [O III]λ5007, [N II], Hα) correspond to velocities of 100-1000 km s–1. We detect extraplanar gas in two of the three galaxies with SFR >8 M ☉ yr–1 whose orientations are approximately edge-on and which have integral field unit (IFU) spaxels off the stellar disk. IFU maps reveal that the extraplanar gas extends to rh ~ 10 kpc; [N II] and Hα line widths correspond to velocities of ~200-400 km s–1 in the disk and decrease to ~50-150 km s–1 above the disk. Multi-wavelength observations indicate that the emission is dominated by star formation. Including the most IR-luminous galaxy we find that 18% of supergroup members with SFR >8 M ☉ yr–1 show ionized gas characteristics indicative of outflows. This is a lower limit as showing that gas is outflowing in the remaining, moderately inclined, galaxies requires a non-trivial decoupling of contributions to the emission lines from rotational and turbulent motion. Ionized gas mass loss in these winds is ~0.1 M ☉ yr–1 for each galaxy, although the winds are likely to entrain significantly larger amounts of mass in neutral and molecular gases.
Temperature of the outflowing gas deduced from the LVG calculations vs. the corresponding gas velocity. An increasing trend of gas temperature with outflow velocity can be discerned toward all lobes. The blue-shaded area represents the 1σ temperature uncertainty when allowing flux variations up to 20% in the B-NW lobe. Note that the outflow velocity vflow shown here is related to the velocity Vflow listed in Table 1 by the relation: vflow = |Vflow − Vlsr| with Vlsr = +9.0 km s−1 the systemic velocity of G5.89−0.39. The lobes of N–S and NW–SE outflows are represented by triangles and circles, respectively.
We have imaged the extremely high-velocity outflowing gas in CO (2-1) and (3-2) associated with the shell-like ultracompact HII region G5.89-0.39 at a resolution of ~3" (corresponding to ~4000 AU) with the Submillimeter Array. The integrated high-velocity (>45 km/s) CO emission reveals at least three blueshifted lobes and two redshifted lobes. These lobes belong to two outflows, one oriented N-S, the other NW-SE. The NW-SE outflow is likely identical to the previously detected Br_gamma outflow. Furthermore, these outflow lobes all clearly show a Hubble-like kinematic structure. For the first time, we estimate the temperature of the outflowing gas as a function of velocity with the large velocity gradient calculations. Our results reveal a clear increasing trend of temperature with gas velocity. The observational features of the extremely high-velocity gas associated with G5.89-0.39 qualitatively favor the jet-driven bow shock model.
-Red galaxy fraction, fr, as a function of local galaxy density for samples of different luminosities for the two redshift bins.
-Galaxy color ((B − Rc) 0 ) peak of the blue and red galaxy distributions as a function of local galaxy density for samples of different luminosities for the two redshift bins.
We analyse the B-R_c colors of galaxies as functions of luminosity and local galaxy density using a large photometric redshift catalog based on the Red-Sequence Cluster Survey. We select two samples of galaxies with a magnitude limit of M_Rc<-18.5 and redshift ranges of 0.2<z< 0.4 and 0.4<z<0.6 containing \~10^5 galaxies each. We model the color distributions of subsamples of galaxies and derive the red galaxy fraction and peak colors of red and blue galaxies as functions of galaxy luminosity and environment. The evolution of these relationships over the redshift range of z~0.5 to z~0.05 is analysed in combination with published results from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that there is a strong evolution in the restframe peak color of bright blue galaxies in that they become redder with decreasing redshift, while the colors of faint blue galaxies remain approximately constant. This effect supports the ``downsizing'' scenario of star formation in galaxies. While the general dependence of the galaxy color distributions on the environment is small, we find that the change of red galaxy fraction with epoch is a function of the local galaxy density, suggesting that the downsizing effect may operate with different timescales in regions of different galaxy densities. Comment: accepted, ApJL vol. 269, in press
SURF calibration of X123. The instrument response (right) was derived in two pieces: above ~1.1 keV, by convolving the known SURF input spectrum with a Henke-model response (dashed) and fitting to the beam-normalized observed spectrum (left, black) from ~1.1 to 3.0 keV; below ~1.1 keV, by deconvolving the instrument resolution from the observations and directly dividing by the input spectrum. The model (left, red) resulting from the hybrid response fits the observations well at all energies.
Activity levels during the two rocket flights. R20120623 (36.286) occurred during the minimum of a 27-day rotation, with only weak limb emission (bottom right), while R20131021 (36.290) occurred during an active period, with strong disk emission (top right).  
Spectral irradiance derived from the two rocket flights (black, gold) by dividing the observations by the hybrid instrument response (retaining the ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution); the Henke-only model (dashed) is an upper limit. Even the " quiet " observation of R20120623 is orders of magnitude higher than the 2009 deep-minimum observations by SphinX and the quiet Sun limits derived from RHESSI.  
The solar corona is orders of magnitude hotter than the underlying photosphere, but how the corona attains such high temperatures is still not understood. Soft X-ray (SXR) emission provides important diagnostics for thermal processes in the high-temperature corona, and is also an important driver of ionospheric dynamics at Earth. There is a crucial observational gap between ~0.2 and ~4 keV, outside the ranges of existing spectrometers. We present observations from a new SXR spectrometer, the Amptek X123-SDD, which measured the spatially-integrated solar spectral irradiance from ~0.5 to ~5 keV, with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution, during sounding rocket flights on 2012 June 23 and 2013 October 21. These measurements show that the highly variable SXR emission is orders of magnitude greater than that during the deep minimum of 2009, even with only weak activity. The observed spectra show significant high-temperature (5-10 MK) emission and are well fit by simple power-law temperature distributions with indices of ~6, close to the predictions of nanoflare models of coronal heating. Observations during the more active 2013 flight indicate an enrichment of low first-ionization potential (FIP) elements of only ~1.6, below the usually-observed value of ~4, suggesting that abundance variations may be related to coronal heating processes. The XUV Photometer System Level 4 data product, a spectral irradiance model derived from integrated broadband measurements, significantly overestimates the spectra from both flights, suggesting a need for revision of its non-flare reference spectra, with important implications for studies of Earth ionospheric dynamics driven by solar SXRs.
Since z~1, the stellar mass density locked in low mass groups and clusters has grown by a factor of ~8. Here we make the first statistical measurements of the stellar mass content of low mass X-ray groups at 0.5<z<1, enabling the calibration of stellar-to-halo mass scales for wide-field optical and infrared surveys. Groups are selected from combined Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). These ultra-deep observations allow us to identify bona fide low mass groups at high redshift and enable measurements of their total halo masses. We compute aggregate stellar masses for these halos using galaxies from the Carnegie-Spitzer-IMACS (CSI) spectroscopic redshift survey. Stars comprise ~3-4% of the total mass of group halos with masses 10^{12.8}<M200/Msun<10^{13.5} (about the mass of Fornax and 1/50th the mass of Virgo). Complementing our sample with higher mass halos at these redshifts, we find that the stellar-to-halo mass ratio decreases toward higher halo masses, consistent with other work in the local and high redshift universe. The observed scatter about the stellar-halo mass relation is ~0.25 dex, which is relatively small and suggests that total group stellar mass can serve as a rough proxy for halo mass. We find no evidence for any significant evolution in the stellar-halo mass relation since z<1. Quantifying the stellar content in groups since this epoch is critical given that hierarchical assembly leads to such halos growing in number density and hosting increasing shares of quiescent galaxies.
We report on the discovery of cool gas inflow toward six star-forming galaxies with redshifts z ~ 0.35-1. Analysis of Mg II and Fe II resonance-line absorption in Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of the galaxies reveals positive velocity shifts for cool gas of 80-200 km s–1 with respect to the host galaxy velocity centroids, and equivalent widths for this inflow of 0.6 Å in five of the six objects. The host galaxies exhibit a wide range of star formation rates (SFRs ~1-40 M ☉ yr–1) and have stellar masses similar to that of the Milky Way (log M */M ☉ ~ 9.6-10.5). Imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys indicates that five of the six galaxies have highly inclined (i > 55°), disk-like morphologies. These data represent the first unambiguous detection of inflow into isolated, star-forming galaxies in the distant universe. We suggest that the inflow is due to the infall of enriched material from dwarf satellites and/or a galactic fountain within the galaxies. Assuming that the material has been enriched to 0.1 Z ☉ and has a physical extent approximately equal to that of the galaxies (implied by the high observed gas covering fractions), we infer mass inflow rates of dM in/dt 0.2-3 M ☉ yr–1 for four of these systems. Finally, from comparison of these absorption lines to the profiles of Mg II and Fe II absorption in a larger spectroscopic sample of ~100 objects, we measure a covering fraction of cool inflow of at least 6%, but cannot rule out the presence of enriched infall onto as many as ~40 of these galaxies.
Archival Spitzer 4.5/8.0/24 μm (blue/green/red) three-color composite image of IRDC G14.225−0.506.
Archival Spitzer 4.5 / 8.0 / 24 μ m (blue / green / red) three-color com- posite image of IRDC G14.225 − 0.506. (A color version of this figure is available in the online journal.) 
Top left: combined NH3 (1,1) integrated intensity (contours) overlaid on the 8 μm Spitzer image (color scale). The contour levels range from 3 to 18 in steps of 3, and from 18 to 58 in steps of 10 times the rms noise of the map, 9 mJy beam−1 km s−1. The dashed line indicates 50% of the sensitivity level of the VLA mosaic. The gray lines are the polarization vectors of the near-infrared (H-band) observations (G. Busquet et al., in preparation) with the scale shown in the top right corner. Top right: combined NH3 (2,2) integrated intensity (gray scale and black contours) overlaid on the 870 μm continuum from LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope (gray contours; Busquet 2010). The contour levels for NH3 (2,2) range from 2 to 10 in steps of 2, and from 10 to 60 in steps of 5 times the rms noise of the map, 9 mJy beam−1 km s−1. The contour levels for 870 μm emission range from 3 to 53 in steps of 10, and from 53 to 653 in steps of 100 times the rms of the map, 25 mJy beam−1. The NH3 and 870 μm continuum synthesized beams are shown in the bottom left and bottom right corners, respectively. Bottom: contours: zero-order moment map of NH3 (1,1). Color scale: NH3 (1,1) first-order moment map (left) and second-order moment map (right). Units are km s−1. Stars indicate IRAS sources in the field, and crosses mark the position of H2O maser (Wang et al. 2006). The most prominent filaments are indicated with white/black lines and labeled according to its position angle. Arrows in the bottom right panel mark the positions of the NH3 (1,1) spectra shown in Figure 3.
NH3 (1,1) spectra, in units of brightness temperature, at some selected positions depicted with arrows in Figure 2.
Top: NH3 (2,2)/NH3 (1,1) map around I18153 (color scale) overlaid on the NH3 (1,1) integrated intensity (contours). The long red arrow depicts the position–velocity (PV) cut, where the center of the cut is indicated by the intersection of the two red lines. Bottom: PV plot of the NH3 (1,1) emission along the cut at P.A. = 10°. The contours start at 0.02 and increase in steps of 0.02 Jy beam−1. The positive offsets increase as indicated by the arrow.
We present the results of combined NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) line emission observed with the Very Large Array and the Effelsberg 100 m telescope of the infrared dark cloud G14.225–0.506. The NH3 emission reveals a network of filaments constituting two hub-filament systems. Hubs are associated with gas of rotational temperature T rot ~ 15 K, non-thermal velocity dispersion σNT ~ 1 km s–1, and exhibit signs of star formation, while filaments appear to be more quiescent (T rot ~ 11 K and σNT ~ 0.6 km s–1). Filaments are parallel in projection and distributed mainly along two directions, at P.A. ~ 10° and 60°, and appear to be coherent in velocity. The averaged projected separation between adjacent filaments is between 0.5 pc and 1 pc, and the mean width of filaments is 0.12 pc. Cores within filaments are separated by ~0.33 ± 0.09 pc, which is consistent with the predicted fragmentation of an isothermal gas cylinder due to the "sausage"-type instability. The network of parallel filaments observed in G14.225–0.506 is consistent with the gravitational instability of a thin gas layer threaded by magnetic fields. Overall, our data suggest that magnetic fields might play an important role in the alignment of filaments, and polarization measurements in the entire cloud would lend further support to this scenario.
In recent years the number of known galaxy clusters beyond z > 0.2 has increased drastically, with the release of multiple catalogs containing >30,000 optically-detected galaxy clusters over the range 0 < z < 0.6. Combining these catalogs with the availability of optical spectroscopy of the brightest cluster galaxy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey allows for the evolution of optical emission-line nebulae in cluster cores to be quantified. For the first time, the continuous evolution of optical line emission in brightest cluster galaxies over the range 0 < z < 0.6 is determined. A minimum in the fraction of BCGs with optical line emission is found at z \sim 0.3, suggesting that complex, filamentary emission in systems such as Perseus A are a recent phenomenon. Evidence for an upturn in the number of strongly-emitting systems is reported beyond z > 0.3, hinting at an earlier epoch of strong cooling. We compare the evolution of emission line nebulae to the X-ray-derived cool core (CC) fraction from the literature over the same redshift range and find overall agreement, with the exception that an upturn in the strong CC fraction is not observed at z > 0.3. The overall agreement between the evolution of cool cores and optical line emission at low redshift suggests that emission-line surveys of galaxy clusters may provide an efficient method of indirectly probing the evolution of cool cores and, thus, provide insights into the balance of heating and cooling processes at early cosmic times.
We report on the detection of the alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure at z~0.6 based on the CMASS galaxy sample from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey data release 9. We use two statistics to quantify the alignment signal: 1) the alignment two-point correlation function which probes the dependence of galaxy clustering at a given separation in redshift space on the projected angle (theta_p) between the orientation of galaxies and the line connecting to other galaxies, and 2) the cos(2theta)-statistic which estimates the average of cos(2theta_p) for all correlated pairs at given separation. We find significant alignment signal out to about 70 Mpc/h in both statistics. Applications of the same statistics to dark matter halos of mass above 10^12 M_sun/h in a large cosmological simulation show similar scale-dependent alignment signals to the observation, but with higher amplitudes at all scales probed. We show that this discrepancy may be partially explained by a misalignment angle between central galaxies and their host halos, though detailed modeling is needed in order to better understand the link between the orientations of galaxies and host halos. In addition, we find systematic trends of the alignment statistics with the stellar mass of the CMASS galaxies, in the sense that more massive galaxies are more strongly aligned with the large-scale structure.
Core accretion models of massive star formation require the existence of stable massive starless cores, but robust observational examples of such objects have proven elusive. We report subarcsecond-resolution SMA 1.3 mm, 1.1 mm, and 0.88 mm and VLA 1.3 cm observations of an excellent massive starless core candidate, G11.92-0.61-MM2, initially identified in the course of studies of GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs). Separated by ~7.2" from the nearby MM1 protostellar hot core, MM2 is a strong, compact dust continuum source (submillimeter spectral index alpha=2.6+/-0.1), but is devoid of star formation indicators. In contrast to MM1, MM2 has no masers, no centimeter continuum, and no (sub)millimeter wavelength line emission in ~24 GHz of bandwidth observed with the SMA, including N2H+(3-2), HCO+(3-2), and HCN(3-2). Additionally, there is no evidence for an outflow driven by MM2. The (sub)millimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) of MM2 is best fit with a dust temperature of ~17-19 K and luminosity of ~5-7 L_sun. The combined physical properties of MM2, as inferred from its dust continuum emission, are extreme: M>30 M_sun within a radius<1000 AU, N(H2)>10^25 cm^-2 and n(H2)>10^9 cm^-3. Comparison of the molecular abundance limits derived from our SMA observations with gas-grain chemical models indicates that extremely dense (n(H)>>10^8 cm^-3), cold (<20 K) conditions are required to explain the lack of observed (sub)millimeter line emission, consistent with the dust continuum results. Our data suggest that G11.92-0.61-MM2 is the best candidate for a bonafide massive prestellar core found to date, and a promising target for future, higher-sensitivity observations.
Maps of the GBT 15 hr field at approximately the band-center. The purple circle is the FWHM of the GBT beam, and the color range saturates in some places in each map. Left: The raw map as produced by the map-maker. It is dominated by synchrotron emission from both extragalactic point sources and smoother emission from the galaxy. Right: The raw map with 20 foreground modes removed per line of sight relative to 256 spectral bins, as described in Sec. 3.2. The map edges have visibly higher noise or missing data due to the sparsity of scanning coverage. The cleaned map is dominated by thermal noise, and we have convolved by GBT’s beam shape to bring out the noise on relevant scales. 
Cross-power between the 15 hr and 1 hr GBT fields and WiggleZ. Negative points are shown with reversed sign and a thin line. The solid line is the mean of simulations based on the empirical-NL model of Blake et al. (2011) processed by the same pipeline.
In this letter, 21 cm intensity maps acquired at the Green Bank Telescope are cross-correlated with large-scale structure traced by galaxies in the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. The data span the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1 over two fields totaling ~41 deg. sq. and 190 hours of radio integration time. The cross-correlation constrains Omega_HI b_HI r = [0.43 \pm 0.07 (stat.) \pm 0.04(sys.)] x 10^-3, where Omega_HI is the neutral hydrogen HI fraction, r is the galaxy-hydrogen correlation coefficient, and b_HI is the HI bias parameter. This is the most precise constraint on neutral hydrogen density fluctuations in a challenging redshift range. Our measurement improves the previous 21 cm cross-correlation at z ~ 0.8 both in its precision and in the range of scales probed.
We present the first strong-lensing (SL) analysis of the galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102–4915 (El Gordo), in recent HST/ACS images, revealing a prominent strong lens at a redshift of z = 0.87. This finding adds to the already-established unique properties of El Gordo: it is the most massive, hot, X-ray luminous, and bright Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect cluster at z 0.6, and the only "bullet"-like merging cluster known at these redshifts. The lens consists of two merging massive clumps, where, for a source redshift of zs ~ 2, each clump exhibits only a small, separate critical area, with a total area of 0.69 ± 0.11' over the two clumps. For a higher source redshift, zs ~ 4, the critical curves of the two clumps merge together into one bigger and very elongated lens (axis ratio 5.5), enclosing an effective area of 1.44 ± 0.22'. The critical curves continue expanding with increasing redshift so that for high-redshift sources (zs 9) they enclose an area of ~1.91 ± 0.30' (effective θe 468 ± 37) and a mass of 6.09 ± 1.04 × 1014M ☉. According to our model, the area of high magnification (μ > 10) for such high-redshift sources is 1.2', and the area with μ > 5 is 2.3', making El Gordo a compelling target for studying the high-redshift universe. We obtain a strong lower limit on the total mass of El Gordo, 1.7 × 1015M ☉ from the SL regime alone, suggesting a total mass of roughly M 200 ~ 2.3 × 1015M ☉. Our results should be revisited when additional spectroscopic and HST imaging data are available.
?Area-normalized 250??m pixel flux histograms showing a striking excess of far-IR emission in the filament vs. the background (pixels outside the filament region).
?SEDs redshifted to z = 0.9 and normalized to the average (stacked) 250??m SPIRE flux at the fourteen 24??m cluster members in the filament. Three SED templates have been plotted for illustrative purposes, including the two extremes of the Dale & Helou (2002) library (in terms of the S60/S100 color), as well as the Smith et al. (2012) H-ATLAS galaxy template with 1? × ?1011?L?? < ?Ldust? < ?3 × 1011?L?. The "cool" color SED templates from Dale & Helou (2002) as well as the H-ATLAS SED are well matched to the average far-IR emission of MIPS-selected emitters in the filament. At z = 0.9, the 24??m band is tracing the rest-frame 13??m light, which is dominated by a complex of broad PAH emission, thus we expect some variation in SED template matches in this band, as is seen here.
We have discovered a 2.5?Mpc (projected) long filament of infrared-bright galaxies connecting two of the three ~5 × 1014M ? clusters making up the RCS?2319+00 supercluster at z = 0.9. The filament is revealed in a deep Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) map that shows 250-500 ?m emission associated with a spectroscopically identified filament of galaxies spanning two X-ray bright cluster cores. We estimate that the total (8-1000 ?m) infrared luminosity of the filament is L IR 5 × 1012L ?, which, if due to star formation alone, corresponds to a total SFR 900 M ??yr?1. We are witnessing the scene of the buildup of a >1015M ? cluster of galaxies, seen prior to the merging of three massive components, each of which already contains a population of red, passive galaxies that formed at z > 2. The infrared filament demonstrates that significant stellar mass assembly is taking place in the moderate density, dynamically active circumcluster environments of the most massive clusters at high redshift, and this activity is concomitant with the hierarchical buildup of large-scale structure.
Fit Parameters and Excitation Temperatures 
-Integrated intensity image and contours of (a) CH 3 OH J K = 9 −1-8 0 E, (b) CH 3 OH J K = 5 0-4 0 E, and (c) CH 3 OH J K = 5 −1-4 −1 E. (d) 1.3 mm dust continuum emission in contours (white contours) overlaid with the CH 3 OH J K = 9 −1-8 0 E color image. (e) Integrated intensity of CS J=5-4 (white contours) superposed on the CH 3 OH J K = 9 −1-8 0 E color image. (f) Integrated intensity of CS J=5-4 (white contours) superposed on the K-band color image from Keck telescope. The 1.3 mm continuum, CS, and K-band data are reported in Sakai et al. (2013). Contour levels start from 3σ and increase in steps of 3σ [(a) 3σ = 255.0 mJy beam −1 km s −1 , (b) 3σ = 240.0 mJy beam −1 km s −1 , (c) 3σ = 450.0 mJy beam −1 km s −1 , (d) 3σ = 1.2 mJy beam −1 , (e) 3σ = 480.0 mJy beam −1 km s −1 , (f) 3σ = 480.0 mJy beam −1 km s −1 ]. The white, blue, green and red cross marks represent the position of the phase center, the hot core, the Spitzer sources (Shepherd et al. 2007) and the CH 3 OH J K = 9 −1-8 0 E peaks, respectively. The solid lines indicated in (e) are for the position velocity diagram in Figure 4.
— Spectra of CH 3 OH J K =9 −1 –8 0 E, J K =5 0 –4 0 E, and J K =5 −1 –4 −1 E toward the 6 peaks indicated in Figure 1a. The black-dashed lines represent the results of the double Gaussian fitting to the J K =9 −1 –8 0 E line. The vertical grey dashed lines represent the peak velocity of the methanol maser emission. An intensity of 1.0 Jy beam −1 corresponds to 43 K.  
-Velocity-channel maps of the N 2 H + J=3-2 (color), CH 3 OH J K = 9 −1-8 0 E (white contours), and CS J=5-4 (orange contours) within the velocity range from 56.88 km s −1 to 61.66 km s −1. The lowest contour level and the contour step are (54.0 mJy beam −1 , 150.0 mJy beam −1 ) and (42.0 mJy beam −1 , 70.0 mJy beam −1 ) for CH 3 OH J K = 9 −1-8 0 E and CS J=5-4, respectively. The cross marks are the same as Figure 1, but the methanol maser peaks are indicated in yellow.
We have observed a molecular clump (MM3) associated with the infrared dark cloud G34.43+00.24 in the CH3OH J_K=9_{-1}--8_0 E, 5_0-4_0 E, and 5_{-1}-4_{-1} E lines at sub-arcsecond resolution by using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. By comparing the CH3OH J_K=9_{-1}-8_0 E emission with the CH3OH 5_0-4_0 E and 5_{-1}-4_{-1} E emission, we have found that the CH3OH J_K=9_{-1}-8_0 E emission is masing. We have clearly shown that the CH3OH J_K=9_{-1}-8_0 masers arise from the post shocked gas in the interacting regions between the outflows and ambient dense gas. Toward the strongest peak of the CH3OH maser emission, SiO J=6-5 emission is very weak. This indicates that the CH3OH maser emission traces relatively old shocks or weak shocks.
We have observed a cluster forming clump (MM3) associated with the infrared dark cloud G34.43+00.24 in the 1.3 mm continuum and the CH3OH, CS, 13CS, SiO, CH3CH2CN, and HCOOCH3 lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and in K-band with the Keck telescope. We have found a young outflow toward the center of this clump in the SiO, CS, and CH3OH lines. This outflow is likely driven by a protostar embedded in a hot core, which is traced by the CH3CH2CN, HCOOCH3, 13CS, and high excitation CH3OH lines. The size of the hot core is about 800 x 300 AU in spite of its low mass (<1.1 M_sun), suggesting a high accretion rate or the presence of multiple star system harboring a few hot corinos. The outflow is highly collimated, and the dynamical timescale is estimated to be less than 740 yr. In addition, we have also detected extended emission of SiO, CS, and CH3OH, which is not associated with the hot core and the outflow. This emission may be related to past star formation activity in the clump. Although G34.43+00.24 MM3 is surrounded by a dark feature in infrared, it has already experienced active formation of low-mass stars in an early stage of clump evolution.
-: Left: 1.4 GHz VLA A-array map (1. 6 × 1. 3 beam, units in Jy/beam). Right: Raw Chandra image (0.3 − 10 keV). The brightest pixel in the AGN has 282 counts.
Core and Jet Parameters
Top left: 1.4 GHz contours overlaid on smoothed (σ = 3 pixels) X-ray image with point-like sources excised, clipped at twice the mean background. Top right: weighted Voronoi tessellation image (S/N = 5.0 in each tile) of the 0.3–3 keV events with cavities identified. Bottom left: negative of an unsharp mask image of top left (using a smoothing length of 40 pixel for subtraction) showing cavities. Bottom right: coarsely binned (4× native pixels) image from 0.3–5 keV showing extended structures beyond 20 kpc from the AGN.
1.46 GHz contours overlaid on a combined red+green SDSS image of the host galaxy of 4C +00.58. The cyan circle encloses a 20th magnitude resolved "extension" to the elliptical galaxy which is slightly bluer.
-: Top: 5 GHz VLA image of the jet with contours (beamsize 0.5 × 0.5 , units in Jy/beam). Bottom: Smoothed X-ray image with pixel randomization turned off (superbinned to 1/4-original pixel size) with 5 GHz contours overlaid.
Although rapid reorientation of a black hole spin axis (lasting less than a few Myr) has been suggested as a mechanism for the formation of wings in X-shaped radio galaxies (XRGs), to date no convincing case of reorientation has been found in any XRG. Alternative wing formation models such as the hydrodynamic backflow models are supported by observed trends indicating that XRGs form preferentially with jets aligned along the major axis of the surrounding medium and wings along the minor axis. In this Letter, we present a deep Chandra observation of 4C +00.58, an oddball XRG with its jet oriented along the minor axis. By using the X-ray data in tandem with available radio and optical data, we estimate relevant timescales with which to evaluate wing formation models. The hydrodynamic models have difficulty explaining the long wings, whereas the presence of X-ray cavities (suggesting jet activity along a prior axis) and a potential stellar shell (indicating a recent merger) favor a merger-induced reorientation model. Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, accepted by ApJL
We investigate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features in the young Galactic planetary nebula PN G095.2+00.7 based on mid-infrared observations. The near- to mid-infrared spectra obtained with the AKARI/IRC and the Spitzer/IRS show the PAH features as well as the broad emission feature at 12 {\mu}m usually seen in proto-planetary nebulae (pPNe). The spatially resolved spectra obtained with Subaru/COMICS suggest that the broad emission around 12 {\mu}m is distributed in a shell-like structure, but the unidentified infrared band at 11.3 {\mu}m is selectively enhanced at the southern part of the nebula. The variation can be explained by a difference in the amount of the UV radiation to excite PAHs, and does not necessarily require the chemical processing of dust grains and PAHs. It suggests that the UV self-extinction is important to understand the mid-infrared spectral features. We propose a mechanism which accounts for the evolutionary sequence of the mid-infrared dust features seen in a transition from pPNe to PNe.
We report the discovery of a 38.5 ms X-ray pulsar in observations of the soft ?-ray source IGR J18490?0000 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). PSR J1849?0001 is spinning down rapidly with period derivative 1.42 × 10?14?s?s?1, yielding a spin-down luminosity 9.8 × 1036?erg?s?1, characteristic age 42.9 kyr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength Bs= 7.5 × 1011 G. Within the INTEGRAL/IBIS error circle lies a point-like XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray source that shows evidence of faint extended emission consistent with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The XMM-Newton spectrum of the point source is well fitted by an absorbed power-law model with photon index ?PSR = 1.1 ? 0.2, N H = (4.3 ? 0.6) × 1022?cm?2, and F PSR(2-10 keV) = (3.8 ? 0.3) × 10?12?erg?cm?2 s?1, while the spectral parameters of the extended emission are roughly ?PWN ? 2.1 and F PWN(2-10 keV) ? 9 × 10?13?erg?cm?2 s?1. IGR J18490?0000 is also coincident with the compact?TeV source HESS J1849?000. For an assumed distance of 7?kpc in the Scutum arm tangent region, the 0.35-10?TeV luminosity of HESS J1849?000 is 0.13% of the pulsar's spin-down energy, while the ratio F(0.35-10 TeV)/F PWN(2-10 keV) ? 2. These properties are consistent with leptonic models of TeV emission from PWNe, with PSR J1849?0001 in a stage of transition from a synchrotron X-ray source to an inverse Compton ?-ray source.
-Radial velocity plotted against orbital phase of J08205+0008. The RV data were phase folded with the most likely orbital period. The residuals are plotted below. The RVs were measured from spectra obtained with SDSS (rectangles) and ESO-NTT/EFOSC2 (circles). The errors are formal 1σ uncertainties.
-T eff −log g-diagram. The helium main sequence (HeMS) and the EHB band (limited by the zero-age EHB, ZAEHB, and the terminal-age EHB, TAEHB) are superimposed with EHB evolutionary tracks from Dorman et al. (1993) and a post-RGB track from Driebe et al. (1998). The position of J08205+0008 is indicated with a solid diamond. Open diamonds mark the position of other HW Vir-like systems (Charpinet et al. 2008; Drechsel et al. 2001; For et al. 2010; Maxted et al. 2002; Müller et al. 2010; Østensen et al. 2008; Wood & Saffer 1999).
Hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are extreme horizontal branch stars believed to originate from close binary evolution. Indeed about half of the known sdB stars are found in close binaries with periods ranging from a few hours to a few days. The enormous mass loss required to remove the hydrogen envelope of the red-giant progenitor almost entirely can be explained by common envelope ejection. A rare subclass of these binaries are the eclipsing HW Vir binaries where the sdB is orbited by a dwarf M star. Here we report the discovery of an HW Vir system in the course of the MUCHFUSS project. A most likely substellar object ($\simeq0.068\,M_{\rm \odot}$) was found to orbit the hot subdwarf J08205+0008 with a period of 0.096 days. Since the eclipses are total, the system parameters are very well constrained. J08205+0008 has the lowest unambiguously measured companion mass yet found in a subdwarf B binary. This implies that the most likely substellar companion has not only survived the engulfment by the red-giant envelope, but also triggered its ejection and enabled the sdB star to form. The system provides evidence that brown dwarfs may indeed be able to significantly affect late stellar evolution.
We report on optical photopolarimetric results of the radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 (RL-NLSy1) galaxy PMN J0948+0022 on 2012 December to 2013 February triggered by flux enhancements in near infrared and gamma-ray bands. Thanks to one-shot polarimetry of the HOWPol installed to the Kanata telescope, we have detected very rapid variability in the polarized-flux light curve on MJD 56281 (2012 December 20). The rise and decay times were about 140 sec and 180 sec, respectively. The polarization degree (PD) reached 36 +/- 3% at the peak of the short-duration pulse, while polarization angle (PA) remained almost constant. In addition, temporal profiles of the total flux and PD showed highly variable but well correlated behavior and discrete correlation function analysis revealed that no significant time lag of more than 10 min was present. The high PD and minute-scale variability in polarized flux provides a clear evidence of synchrotron radiation from a very compact emission region of 10^14 cm size with highly ordered magnetic field. Such micro variability of polarization are also observed in several blazar jets, but its complex relation between total flux and PD are explained by multi-zone model in several blazars. The implied single emission region in PMN J0948+0022 might be reflecting a difference of jets between RL-NLSy1s and blazars.
SDSS J094857.3+002225 is a very radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy. Here, we report our discovery of the intranight optical variability (INOV) of this galaxy through the optical monitoring in the B and R bands that covered seven nights in 2009. Violent rapid variability in the optical bands was identified in this RL-NLS1 for the first time, and the amplitudes of the INOV reaches 0.5 mag in both the B and R bands on the timescale of several hours. The detection of the INOV provides a piece of strong evidence supporting the fact that the object carries a relativistic jet with a small viewing angle, which confirms the conclusion drawn from the previous multi-wavelength studies. Comment: 8 pages, 1 figures. It has been accepted by ApJL.
The recently discovered transitional millisecond pulsar system J1023+0038 exposes a crucial evolutionary phase of recycled neutron stars for multiwavelength study. The system, comprising the neutron star itself, its stellar companion, and the surrounding medium, is visible across the electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to X-ray/gamma-ray regimes and offers insight into the recycling phase of millisecond pulsar evolution. Here, we report on multiple-epoch astrometric observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) which give a system parallax of 0.731 +/- 0.022 milliarcseconds (mas) and a proper motion of 17.98 +/- 0.05 mas/yr. By combining our results with previous optical observations, we are able to use the parallax distance of 1368+42-39 pc to estimate the mass of the pulsar as 1.71 +/- 0.16 solar masses, and we are also able to measure the 3D space velocity of the system as 126 +/- 5 km/s. Despite the precise nature of the VLBA measurements, the remaining ~3% distance uncertainty dominates the 0.16 solar mass error on our mass estimate.
CO J = 8 − 7 integrated intensity (top) and velocity field (bottom) images for the B and R components. The B and R components were defined from −307 to −76 km s−1and −55 to 239 km s−1, respectively, based on their spectral profiles (Figure 3).
We present initial results of very high resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the $z$=3.042 gravitationally lensed galaxy HATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP.81). These observations were carried out using an extended configuration as part of Science Verification for the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign, with baselines of up to 15 km. We present continuum imaging at 151, 236 and 290 GHz, at angular resolutions as fine as 23 milliarcseconds (mas; corresponding to an un-magnified spatial scale of 180 pc at z=3.042). The ALMA images clearly show two main gravitational arc components with emission tracing a radius of 1.5". We also present imaging of CO(10-9), CO(8-7), CO(5-4) and H2O line emission. The CO data has an angular resolution of 170 mas and the emission is found to broadly trace the gravitational arc structures. We detect H2O line emission but only using the shortest baselines. The ALMA continuum and spectral line fluxes are consistent with previous Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Submillimeter Array observations despite the increase in angular resolution. Finally, we detect weak unresolved continuum emission at all three observed frequencies from a position that is spatially coincident with the centre of the foreground lensing galaxy.
We report the discovery of a cool metal-poor, main-sequence star exhibiting large excesses of r-process elements. This star is one of two newly discovered cool subdwarfs (effective temperatures of 5000 K) with extremely low metallicity ([Fe/H]<-3) identified from follow-up high-resolution spectroscopy of metal-poor candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. SDSS J2357-0052 has [Fe/H]=-3.4 and [Eu/Fe]=+1.9, and exhibits a scaled solar r-process abundance pattern of heavy neutron-capture elements. This is the first example of an extremely metal-poor, main-sequence star showing large excesses of r-process elements; all previous examples of the large r-process-enhancement phenomena have been associated with metal-poor giants. The metallicity of this object is the lowest, and the excess of Eu ([Eu/Fe]) is the highest, among the r-process-enhanced stars found so far. We consider possible scenarios to account for the detection of such a star, and discuss techniques to enable searches for similar stars in the future. Comment: 16 pages, 3 figures, 2 tables, ApJL in press
— XMM spectra of IRAS 00521-7054with the best-fit ref lionx model (Model 2 in table 1).  
— XMM spectra of IRAS 00521-7054 with best-fit dual absorber model (Model 3 in table 1) (Panel a). (b): The corresponding data/model ratios. (c): the data to model plot for best fit dual absorber model allowing Fe/Ni abundance to be free. (d) and (e): Residuals after fitting with laor and ref lionx model, respectively (see also Figure 1 and 2).  
We present XMM-Newton spectra of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy IRAS 00521-7054. A strong feature at ~6 keV (observer's frame) can be formally fitted with a strong (EW=1.3+-0.3 keV in the rest frame) and broad Fe Ka line, extending down to 3 keV. The underlying X-ray continuum could be fitted with an absorbed powerlaw (with Gamma = 1.8+-0.2 and N_H = 5.9 x 10^22 cm^-2) plus a soft component. If due to relativistically smeared reflection by an X-ray illuminated accretion disk, the spin of the supermassive black hole is constrained to be 0.97^+0.03_-0.13 (errors at 90% confidence level for one interesting parameter), and the accretion system is viewed at an inclination angle of 37+-4 degree. This would be the first type 2 AGN reported with strong red Fe Ka wing detected which demands a fast rotating SMBH. The unusually large EW would suggest that the light bending effect is strong in this source. Alternatively, the spectra could be fitted by a dual absorber model (though with a global chi^2 higher by ~ 6 for 283 d.o.f) with N_H1 = 7.0 x 10^22 cm^-2 covering 100% of the X-ray source, and N_H2 = 21.7 x 10^22 cm^-2 covering 71%, which does not require an extra broad Fe Ka line.
-Top: XMM/EPIC MOS light curve of GSC0739. Binsize is 1500 s. Bottom: MOS spectra corresponding to the three ∼100 ks observing intervals illustrated in the light curve in the top panel, with best-fit two-component thermal plasma models overlaid. In all panels, red points indicate MOS1 data and blue points indicate MOS 2 data.
We explore the possibility that GSC 07396-00759 (spectral type M1e) is a widely separated (~2.82', or projected separation ~12,350 AU) companion to the "old" (age ~12 Myr) classical T Tauri binary system V4046 Sgr AB, as suggested by the proximity and similar space motions of the two systems. If the two systems are equidistant and coeval, then GSC 07396--00759, like V4046 Sgr AB, must be a spectroscopic binary with nearly equal-mass components, and V4046 Sgr must be at least ~8 Myr old. Analysis of a serendipitous Chandra X-ray gratings spectrum and light curve as well as XMM-Newton light curves and CCD spectra of GSC 07396-00759 obtained during long exposures targeting V4046 Sgr AB reveals a relatively hard (T_X ~ 10^7 K) X-ray spectrum, strong flaring, and relatively low-density plasma. These X-ray characteristics of GCS 07396--00759 are indicative of a high level of coronal activity, consistent with its apparent weak-lined T Tauri star status. Interactions between V4046 Sgr AB and GCS 07396-00759 when the two systems were more closely bound may be responsible for (a) their dissolution ~10^6 yr ago, (b) the present tight, circular orbit of V4046 Sgr AB, and (c) the persistence of the gaseous circumbinary disk still orbiting V4046 Sgr AB.
Count rates and exposure times for the XMM-Newton EPIC pn, MOS1, MOS2 and the Swift UVOT detectors.
We have analyzed the first XMM-Newton, Swift, and archival ROSAT PSPC observations of the quasar LBQS 0102-2713. The object was selected from the ROSAT archive as being notable due to the steep soft X-ray photon index and due to the UV brightness based on Hubble Space Telescope and optical spectroscopic observations. The first XMM-Newton observations carried out in 2009 December and the first Swift observations from 2010 have confirmed the steepness of the soft X-ray photon index, which ranges between 3.35 and 4.41 for the different XMM-Newton and ROSAT detectors, the UV brightness of the source, and the absence of significant absorption by neutral hydrogen. The new data allow a combined spectral fitting to the Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope and the XMM-Newton/ROSAT data which results in a huge luminosity of (6.2 ? 0.2) × 1047 erg s?1 and ?ox values ranging between (?1.87 ? 0.11) and (?2.11 ? 0.12). The nature of the soft X-ray emission can be explained as local Comptonized emission of the UV disk photons in the pseudo-Newtonian potential. The black hole mass is estimated from the Mg II line and translates into an Eddington ratio of L/L edd = 18+33?12. For the dimensionless electron temperature of the plasma cloud ? = kT e/m ec2 we derive an upper limit of about 10 keV.
Fit Results 
?(a) Infrared image of SNR?0104-72.3 (IRAC 8 ?m of Spitzer archival data) with the contours of Chandra broadband image in Figure?1(a). (b) H? image from Hughes & Smith (1994). The lowest level contour line from (a) is shown. (c) H? image around SNR?0104-72.3 from the Southern H? Sky Survey Atlas (Gaustad et?al. 2001). The solid circles are locations of known SNRs. The dashed circle is the approximate extent of the superbubble DEM S124.
-(a) Infrared image of SNR 0104-72.3 (IRAC 8µm of Spitzer archival data) with the contours of Chandra broadband image in Figure 1(a). (b) Hα image from Hughes & Smith (1994). The lowest level contour line from (a) is shown. (c) Hα image around SNR 010472.3 from the Southern Hα Sky Survey Atlas (Gaustad et al. 2001). The solid circles are locations of known SNRs. The dashed circle is the approximate extent of the supperbubble DEM S124. 
We report our 110 ks Chandra observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) 0104-72.3 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The X-ray morphology shows two prominent lobes along the northwest-southeast direction and a soft faint arc in the east. Previous low resolution X-ray images attributed the unresolved emission from the southeastern lobe to a Be/X-ray star. Our high resolution Chandra data clearly shows that this emission is diffuse, shock-heated plasma, with negligible X-ray emission from the Be star. The eastern arc is positionally coincident with a filament seen in optical and infrared observations. Its X-ray spectrum is well fit by plasma of normal SMC abundances, suggesting that it is from shocked ambient gas. The X-ray spectra of the lobes show overabundant Fe, which is interpreted as emission from the reverse-shocked Fe-rich ejecta. The overall spectral characteristics of the lobes and the arc are similar to those of Type Ia SNRs, and we propose that SNR 0104-72.3 is the first case for a robust candidate Type Ia SNR in the SMC. On the other hand, the remnant appears to be interacting with dense clouds toward the east and to be associated with a nearby star-forming region. These features are unusual for a standard Type Ia SNR. Our results suggest an intriguing possibility that the progenitor of SNR 0104-72.3 might have been a white dwarf of a relatively young population.
We present 0.95-1.80 $\mu$m spectroscopy of the $\sim$12-27 $M_{\rm Jup}$ companion orbiting the faint ($R$$\sim$13.6), young ($\sim$120 Myr) M-dwarf 2MASS J01225093--2439505 ("2M0122--2439 B") at 1.5 arcsecond separation (50 AU). Our coronagraphic long-slit spectroscopy was obtained with the new high contrast imaging platform VLT-SPHERE during Science Verification. The unique long-slit capability of SPHERE enables spectral resolution an order of magnitude higher than other extreme AO exoplanet imaging instruments. With a low mass, cool temperature, and very red colors, 2M0122-2439 B occupies a particularly important region of the substellar color-magnitude diagram by bridging the warm directly imaged hot planets with late-M/early-L spectral types (e.g. $\beta$ Pic b and ROXs 42Bb) and the cooler, dusty objects near the L/T transition (e.g. HR 8799bcde and 2MASS 1207b). We fit BT-Settl atmospheric models to our $R$$\approx$350 spectrum and find $T_{\rm eff}$=1600$\pm$100 K and $\log(g)$=4.5$\pm$0.5 dex. Visual analysis of our 2M0122-2439 B spectrum suggests a spectral type L3-L4, and we resolve shallow $J$-band alkali lines, confirming its low gravity and youth. Specifically, we use the Allers & Liu (2013) spectral indices to quantitatively measure the strength of the FeH, VO, KI, spectral features, as well as the overall $H$-band shape. Using these indices, along with the visual spectral type analysis, we classify 2M0122-2439 B as an intermediate gravity (INT-G) object with spectral type L3.7$\pm$1.0.
Bounds for the mass, radius and moment of inertia of 4U 0142+61. 
-Observed and fitted spectrum of 4U 0142+61. Due to the high variability of the source in the optical bands we average all the existing data of the source in the different bands. All these data come from observations from 31 October 1994 up to 26 July 2005 (Hulleman et al. 2000, 2004; Dhillon et al. 2005; Morii et al. 2005; Durant & van Kerkwijk 2006c; Morii et al. 2009). The result of the average is V = 25.66, R = 25.25, I = 23.76, J = 22.04, H = 20.70, K = 19.97. There are upper limits in the U and B bands, U = 25.8 (Dhillon et al. 2005) and B = 28.1 (Hulleman et al. 2004), respectively. We also consider the observations of Wang et al. (2006) with the Spitzer/IRAC instrument at wavelengths 4.5 µm and 8.0 µm. The fluxes are 36.3 µJy and 51.9 µJy, respectively. We corrected the data for the interstellar extinction, using the estimated distance d = 3.6 kpc (Durant & van Kerkwijk 2006a) and an absorption in the V band A V = 3.5 (Durant & van Kerkwijk 2006b). For the rest of the bands we used A U = 1.569A V , A B = 1.337A V , A R = 0.751A V , A I = 0.479A V , A J = 1.569A V , A J = 0.282A V , A H = 0.190A V , and A K = 0.114A V (Cardelli et al. 1989). The extinction in the Spitzer/IRAC bands for A K < 0.5 are A 4.5µm = 0.26A K and A 8.0µm = 0.21A K (Chapman et al. 2009). 
It has been recently proposed that massive fast-rotating highly-magnetized white dwarfs could describe the observational properties of some of Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGRs) and Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars (AXPs). Moreover, it has also been shown that high-field magnetic (HFMWDs) can be the outcome of white dwarf binary mergers. The products of these mergers consist of a hot central white dwarf surrounded by a rapidly rotating disk. Here we show that the merger of a double degenerate system can explain the characteristics of the peculiar AXP 4U 0142+61. This scenario accounts for the observed infrared excess. We also show that the observed properties of 4U 0142+6 are consistent with an approximately $1.2 M_{\sun}$ white dwarf, remnant of the coalescence of an original system made of two white dwarfs of masses $0.6\, M_{\sun}$ and $1.0\, M_{\sun}$. Finally, we infer a post-merging age $\tau_{\rm WD}\approx 64$ kyr, and a magnetic field $B\approx 2\times 10^8$ G. Evidence for such a magnetic field may come from the possible detection of the electron cyclotron absorption feature observed between the $B$ and $V$ bands at $\approx 10^{15}$ Hz in the spectrum of 4U 0142+61.
We have identified an optical binary with orbital period P_b=4488s as the probable counterpart of the Fermi source 2FGL J1653.6-0159. Although pulsations have not yet been detected, the source properties are consistent with an evaporating millisecond pulsar binary; this P_b=75min is the record low for a spin-powered system. The heated side of the companion shows coherent radial velocity variations, with amplitude K=666.9+/-7.5 km/s for a large mass function of f(M)=1.60+/-0.05 M_sun. This heating suggests a pulsar luminosity ~3x10^34 erg/s. The colors and spectra show additional hard emission dominating at binary minimum. This system is similar to PSR J1311-3430, with a low mass H-depleted companion, a dense shrouding wind and, likely, a large pulsar mass.
We report the discovery of an anomalous flare in a bright blazar, namely, PKS 0208-512, one of the targets of the Yale/SMARTS optical-near-infrared (OIR) monitoring program of Fermi blazars. We identify three intervals during which PKS 0208-512 undergoes outbursts at OIR wavelengths lasting for longer than 3 months. Its brightness increases and then decreases again by at least 1 magnitude in these intervals. In contrast, the source undergoes bright phases in GeV energies lasting for longer than 1 month during intervals 1 and 3 only. The OIR outburst during interval 2 is comparable in brightness and temporal extent to the OIR flares during intervals 1 and 3 which do have gamma-ray counterparts. By analyzing the gamma-ray, OIR, and supporting multi-wavelength variability data in details, we speculate that the OIR outburst during interval 2 was caused by a change in the magnetic field without any change in the total number of emitting electrons or Doppler factor of the emitting region. Alternatively, it is possible that the location of the outburst in the jet during interval 2 was closer to the black hole where the jet is more compact and the bulk Lorentz factor of the material in the jet is smaller. We also discuss the complex OIR spectral behavior during these three intervals.
The flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 0208–512 underwent three outbursts at the optical-near-infrared (OIR) wavelengths during 2008-2011. The second OIR outburst did not have a γ-ray counterpart despite being comparable in brightness and temporal extent to the other two. We model the time variable spectral energy distribution of PKS 0208–512 during those three flaring episodes with leptonic models to investigate the physical mechanism that can produce this anomalous flare. We show that the redder-when-brighter spectral trend in the OIR bands can be explained by the superposition of a fixed thermal component from the accretion disk and a synchrotron component of fixed shape and variable normalization. We estimate the accretion disk luminosity at L d 8 × 1045 erg s–1. Using the observed variability timescale in the OIR band t var, obs 2 days and the X-ray luminosity L X 3.5 × 1045 erg s–1, we are able to constrain the location of the emitting region to distance scales that are broadly comparable with the dusty torus. We show that variations in the Compton dominance parameter by a factor of ~4—which may result in the anomalous outburst—can be relatively easily accounted for by moderate variations in the magnetic field strength or the location of the emission region. Since such variations appear to be rare among FSRQs, we propose that most γ-ray/OIR flares in these objects are produced in jet regions where the magnetic field and external photon fields vary similarly with distance along the jet, e.g., .
Top-cited authors
Claris Hanna
  • Lebanese University
Martin van Beuzekom
  • National Institute for Subatomic Physics
Massimiliano Bitossi
  • INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare/EGO-European Gravitational Observatory
Dániel Barta
  • Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Wigner Fizikai Kutatóközpont
Stephanie Cortese