The Anatomical Record

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Online ISSN: 1097-0185
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Article
Human embryos aged six and one-half through 1 weeks were studied to determine the morphological changes in shape of the maxillary dental arch during this early developmental period. Age was determined by crown-rump lengths using the table of Patten ('53).When compared to a reference catenary curve, the embryonic dental arch exhibited several time-linked and directional changes in shape. First, 6.5 to 8 week embryos characteristically had upper dental arches which were wide and anteroposteriorly flattened and did not conform to the catenary curve. At 7.5 to 9 weeks, the C-shaped dental arch showed more elongation and increasing depth. It was not until weeks 9.5 to 12 that the embryonic dental arch grew enough to conform to the catenary curve.It is suggested that the catenary curvature of the postnatal upper dental arch can be first recognized as early as 9.5 weeks of development.
 
Article
Evidence is presented that the hemochorial placenta of the ninebanded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus , is permeable to trypan blue when this dye is injected subcutaneously into the mother during the postimplantation period. This permeability appears to be related to a time-dependent active process or is associated with the maturation of the fetal reticulo-endothelial system. Spectrophotometric analysis of serum proteins revealed alterations in the dye-injected mothers as well as in thalidomide-treated animals as compared to untreated controls. While it is difficult at present to estimate the stage of pregnancy under teratogenic study, it is felt that this unusual experimental animal warrants further study with other teratogenic agents. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/49802/1/1091510407_ftp.pdf
 
Article
The secretory end-pieces of the submandibular gland of rats during the first week of postnatal development are studied with regard to the fine structure of the secretion granules in these end-pieces. The terminal ends of the secretory ducts during this period consist of two types of cells; one cell is an acinar-type and the other is a duct-type found in the gland of adult rats. The secretion granules of the acinar-type cells are similar in appearance to those of the acinar cells in the gland of adult rats, and the structure of these granules remains the same throughout the week. However, granules widely different in appearance are present in the duct-type cells, and their structure varies in different cells as well as within a single cell at different stages of development. These granules contain unusual substructures which are not found in the secretion granules of adult rats, suggesting that the granules are transitory. Granules containing short tubular profiles are predominant in the gland of one day-old rats. A large number of granules in three day-old rats contain elongated tubules. More granules of widely different substructures are present in the gland of seven day-old rats than in the gland of younger rats. The matrix of the granules in seven day-old rats is of higher density than that of the granules in younger rats. In the dense matrix of these granules, less dense tubules form fingerprint-like or somewhat more irregular patterns.
 
Article
Groups of five rabbits were killed at 0, 2, 4, 7, 10, 24, 48, 98, 168 and 240 hours after mating. The glycogen content of the lower half of the Fallopian tube was greater than in the upper half at each interval. Uterine and Fallopian tube levels of glycogen decreased during the interval from mating to ovulation. Both cervical and vaginal glycogen declined significantly within 24 hours after mating. Decidual uterine areas contained 1.5 and 5.0 times more glycogen on days 7 and 10, respectively, than interdecidual areas. Castrate rabbit Fallopian tube, uterus, cervix and vagina responded with glycogen synthesis to estradiol, but not to progesterone administration. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/49822/1/1091690209_ftp.pdf
 
Article
The objective was to study the fate of specific secretory cell types of the rat hypophysis when grown in primary monolayer cultures for periods ranging up to 32 days. The cells were identified immunohistochemically using peroxidase-labeled antibody. Early in the culture period TSH-cells were scarce and by 12 days they could no longer be identified. In most cultures LH-cells were well stained and common for eight to 12 days, after which they underwent involution. Growth hormone cells were a prominent feature up to six days but by 12 days they were declining in number, size, and stainability; in contrast, prolactin cells proliferated and were large and intensely stained throughout the period of study, ultimately becoming the dominant secretory cell type. Corticotropic cells also continued throughout the period of study without regression. Thus drastic shifts occur with time in the relative proportions of cell types in monolayer cultures of rat pituitary cells.
 
Article
In this experiment actinomycin D was used to explore the action of the wound epidermis on underlying tissues during limb regeneration. In axolotl forelimbs the skin was removed from the elbow to the shoulder. Skin from the right limbs was soaked for three hours in actinomycin D (5.0 or 10.0 μg/ml 0.6% NaCl). For controls, skin from left limbs was soaked in 0.6% NaCl for the same period of time. Each piece of skin was orthotopically replanted, and both limbs were amputated through the treated skin, proximal to the elbow. After an initial healing period, the control limbs regenerated normally. Except for a slightly paler color, limbs bearing actinomycin-treated skin were indistinguishable from the controls, both grossly and histologically, during the first week following amputation. While the control limbs formed early blastemas, no grossly visible evidence of regeneration was apparent in the experimental limbs, but histologically some dedifferentiation was occurring. Normally three to four digits were seen in the control regenerates before blastemas appeared on the experimental limbs. By 35–40 days blastemas had appeared on most experimental limbs. These developed very rapidly, and within a short time many of them had attained levels of development close to the controls. Actinomycin D temporarily suppresses formation of the apical epidermal cap and the subsequent aggregation of dedifferentiated cells into a blastema. When the effect wears off, an apical cap forms and the dedifferentiated cells quickly organize into a blastema and begin to differentiate.
 
Article
1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), administered weekly to mice for 20 weeks, induces tumors in the distal segment of colon. Tumors are preceded by enlargement of the mucosal glands resulting from increases in the number of total cells and 3H-thymidine labeled cells/crypt. Cells located in the crypt base normally undergo 2-3 division as they migrate toward the lumen, and they become post-mitotic in the upper crypt. It is not known if cells in these enlarged crypts have rates of turnover similar to cells in normal crypts. Groups of w/s female mice were treated with DMH (20 mg/kg body wt) for 3,8, or 16 weeks; controls were given 0.001 M EDTA. After treatment, the animals were injected with 3H-thymidine and killed one hour or 1,2,4,7 or 17 days later. Autoradiographs were prepared from sections of distal colon. The total cells/crypt column in 30 crypts/animals were counted. Crypts were divided into 10 equal segments based on the crypt length and the labeled cells/segment were counted. The relative number of labeled cells and the distribution of these cells within crypts were similar in DMH-treated and control animals after one hour. However, as the cells migrated toward the lumen, the number of labeled cells doubled after 2 days and tripled after 4 days in DMH-treated animals but only doubled during the 4 days in controls. This difference caused by retention of an increased number of dividing cells in the lower 4 segments of the crypts and suggests an increase in those cells that divide twice. In addition, increased numbers of labeled cells were retained in the upper 3 segments of DMH-treated animals after 4 days. These findings indicate that the crypt cells of DMH-treated animals are generally more immature than those of controls and this immaturity contributes to the enlargement of mucosal glands during carcinogenesis.
 
Article
Adult Long-Evans male rats were treated with various dosages of pure or technical grade 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), epichlorohydrin (Epi), or allyl chloride (AC) for 1, 3, or 6 months on a daily basis. AC, which is the substrate for the production of DBCP, and Epi, which is a contaminant and/or metabolite of DBCP, had no effect on any of the parameters of the male reproductive system studied. The deleterious effects on male reproduction are therefore attributable specifically to DBCP. The effects of DBCP were dose and duration dependent. At the lowest dose (1 mg/kg) DBCP did not have any discernible effects on the male reproductive system. By 3 months of treatment at the intermediate dose of 5 mg/kg, the morphology of the testis ranged from normally appearing seminiferous tubules to ones which contained Sertoli cells only. At 6 months of treatment there was a reduction in the weights of the testes and sexual accessory glands. At the highest dose, the majority of the rats showed advanced testicular regression by 1 month of treatment. The most extreme testicular regression was observed in the 6-month treatment group. Almost all of the seminiferous tubules of all of the rats were composed of Sertoli cells only. In some of the animals, a few isolated seminiferous tubules contained an occasional spermatogonium or primary spermatocyte. Some of the Leydig cells of the rats in this group showed morphological evidence of atrophy as evidenced by the clumping of chromatin and paucity of stainable cytoplasm. This was confirmed by lower levels of intratesticular testosterone, a significant reduction in the number of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors and increased serum levels of LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). From these results we conclude that DBCP is a specific male gonadotoxin and that the effects are not a result of contamination or metabolism. The effects appear to be a direct action at the testicular level because feedback inhibition to the pituitary gland was adversely affected.
 
Article
Target cells for 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 metabolites are identified in developing rodent teeth by the use of thaw-mount autoradiography. Following the injection of [26, 27-3H]-1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 into 18-day- and 20-day-old fetal rats and neonatal mice, nuclear concentration of radioactivity is found in different cell types. In incisors of both animal groups, strong nuclear labeling is present predominantly in pulp cells, while relatively weakly labeled cells are found in the layers of odontoblasts, ameloblasts, and stratum intermedium. In molars, nuclear labeling is absent in fetal rats, but is present in 2-day-old neonates in pulp cells and cells in the layers of stratum intermedium of the first molars, but not in the second molars. The absence of labeled pulp cells in the progenitor regions of incisors and in molars of 20-day-old fetal rats, and differential ontogenic appearance of labeled pulp cells in molars, indicates that there is a critical period of receptor emergence. The finding that labeled pulp cells exist in the regions of incisors and molars where secretory odontoblasts are present suggests that nuclear uptake of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 is related to cell maturation and differentiation, and topographically related to the formation of dentin. The results further suggest that, in contrast to bone, the predominant effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 is not on tooth cells which are directly involved in the formation of calcified tissue, i.e., ameloblasts and odontoblasts, but rather on supporting tissues such as pulp cells and stratum intermedium.
 
Article
Autoradiographic and biochemical studies were used to demonstrate 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 target cells in teeth. Incisor pulp of rats and molar pulp of humans were incubated in vitro with 3H-1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3. Subsequent frozen-section autoradiography revealed a large population of cells in the pulp of both incisors and molars which selectively concentrated radioactivity in their nuclei. Extracts of incisor pulp from mature rats were found to bind 3H-1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 and this binding was displaceable with excess 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3. Sucrose density analysis revealed that the protein in tooth pulp which binds 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 sediments at 3.2-3.5S. The 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 receptor of intestine and kidney also sediments in this region, indicating that the 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3 binding protein of tooth pulp is similar to that found in other target organs. These autoradiographic and biochemical data indicate that pulpal cells of mature rat and human teeth contain receptors for 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3.
 
Article
A 1.4-kb human alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) 5'-flanking sequence fused to the E. coli LacZ gene was used to generate transgenic mice. The 1.4-kb alpha 1-PI fragment was found to target LacZ expression preferentially in the epithelium and stroma of the mouse cornea, and moderately or weakly in white blood cells and a few other tissues, such as the skin and brain. This finding implies that the alpha 1-PI promoter may offer an option for targeting foreign genes in both the epithelial and stromal layers of the cornea in future transgenic experiments.
 
Article
Ultrastructural remodeling, with evidence of focal deafferentation and reinnervation, occurs within normal young adult rat soleus neuromuscular junctions (Cardasis and Padykula, 1981). This may be related to normal variations in function. Recognition of this plasticity provides a basis for analysis of aging changes in junctional ultrastructure. Thirty soleus junctions were studied between 11 and 26 months of life. In these junctions, compared to younger ones (3-5 months) synaptic sites with the conventional ultrastructure become increasingly sparse. There is an increase in extent and frequency of exposed junctional folds, of intervention of Schwann cell cytoplasm between axon and junctional folds, and of numbers of lysosomes in all cytoplasmic profiles. Often primary clefts are shallow or missing, and secondary folds are widened and contain collagen. Features limited largely to these older junctions include highly pleomorphic myonuclei, deeply invaginated by myofibrils, and an increase in cellular profiles between basal lamina and sarcolemma. The identity of these profiles is unknown. At other locations within many of the same endplates, small intact terminals are associated with larger expanses of junctional folds, and several small terminals occur within the same primary cleft. Such terminals frequently contain dense-cored vesicles. These observations suggest continuation of some terminal axonal regeneration. Thus, the ultrastructure of these aging neuromuscular junctions reveals the same degenerative and regenerative events suggested by the ultrastructure of younger junctions, but suggests a shift in the balance between them.
 
Article
Cadherins are transmembrane proteins mediating calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion in a cell type-specific manner by means of homophilic binding. M(muscle)-cadherin is a recently detected member of the cadherin family. We have investigated the localization of M-cadherin in normal and aneurally regenerating skeletal muscle of rat by means of pre-embedding immunocytochemistry. The antibody was directed against the extra-cellular domain of M-cadherin. Myoblasts and myotubes in regenerating muscles tended to be arranged in clusters enclosed by a common basal lamina. Satellite cells of mature muscle fibers were attached to the underlying fiber without separating basal lamina. Reactivity for M-cadherin was restricted to the plasma membranes of myoblasts and satellite cells, and was most intense at the membrane areas facing adjacent myotubes or myofibers. Myoblasts interposed between two myotubes were stained on the entire surface. The adjacent plasma membrane of the otherwise negative myotube or muscle fiber, was stained as well, and extracellular reaction product was in the gap between the cells. The cellular localization of M-cadherin may indicate that M-cadherin is involved in calcium-dependent adhesion between satellite cells and muscle fibers or, by means of interposed myoblasts, between the clustered myotubes in a regenerating muscle.
 
Article
Using specific polyclonal antibodies generated against a 13 KD human testicular inhibin, immunocytochemical localization of inhibin was carried out in different regions of human epididymis. The concentrations of inhibin were greater in caput and corpus regions as compared to the caudal region. The epididymal inhibin was found to be bioactive, since it suppressed specifically the FSH levels of rat pituitaries in vitro. Spermiophage/macrophage cells exhibited strong staining for inhibin which were suggestive of a possible role of inhibin in modulation of immune function. In view of the known activities of inhibin in cellular growth, differentiation, and steroidogenesis, epididymal inhibin could have a role in acquisition of sperm fertilizing capabilities.
 
Article
The fine structure of pinealocytes in the hibernating ground squirrel, Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, was found to vary both qualitatively and quantitatively according to the season in which the animals were sacrificed. Ultrastructural features of pinealocytes from fall (prehibernation) and winter (hibernation) periods, when the animals were sexually quiescent, included: 1) arrangement of the endoplasmic reticulum into flattened stacks or concentric rings (formations which have been implicated in antigonadotropic activity of the pineal); 2) condensations of a fine granular material; and 3) dilation of the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi bodies with an increased number of Golgi associated vesicles. Moreover, there was an apparent increase in the number of dense-cored vesicles and microtubules in pinealocytes of winter animals. These findings indicate that a circannual rhythm in pinealocyte ultrastructure occurs in this species and further suggest that cellular activity is seasonal.
 
Article
This study investigates hindbrain and associated neural crest (NCC), otocyst, and pharyngeal arch development in monkey embryos following teratogenic exposure to 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA). cRA was orally administered (5 mg/kg) to pregnant long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) between gestational days (GD) 12 and 27. Embryos were surgically collected at desired stages during treatment, analyzed for external morphological changes, and processed for immunohistochemistry. Two transiently expressed nuclear proteins, Krox-20 and Pax-2, were used as markers for the target cellular and anatomical structures. Rhombomere (r) expression patterns of Pax-2 (r4/r6) and Krox-20 (r3/r5) were maintained after cRA treatment, but r4 and r5 were substantially reduced in size. In untreated embryos, Krox-20 immunoreactive NCC derived from r5 migrated caudally around the developing otocyst to contribute to the third pharyngeal arch mesenchyme. In cRA-treated embryos, a subpopulation of NCC rostral to the otocyst also showed Krox-20 immunoreactivity, but there was a substantial reduction in Krox-20 post-otic NCC. Pax-2 immunoreactive NCC migrating from r4 to the second pharyngeal arch were substantially reduced in numbers in treated embryos. Alteration in the otic anlage included delayed invagination, abnormal relationship with the adjacent hindbrain epithelium, and altered expression boundaries for Pax-2. cRA-associated changes in the pharyngeal arch region due to cRA included truncation of the distal portion of the first arch and reduction in the size of the second arch. These alterations in hindbrain, neural crest, otic anlage, and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis could contribute to some of the craniofacial malformations in the macaque fetus associated with exposure to cRA.
 
Article
Effects of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors on cell-cell communication were studied in a normal rat liver cell line, clone 9. Communication was observed and quantitated with microspectofluorometric and image analysis techniques following scrape-loading of the cells with lucifer yellow. Lucifer yellow migrated as far as ten cells away from the scraped edge in control populations. Two minute TPA (25-50 micrograms/ml) treatment inhibited dye movement such that the dye remained mainly in the cells at the cut edge. The TPA-induced inhibition of cell-cell communication could be partially blocked by 15 min treatment of the cell populations with the PKC inhibitors trifluoperazine (30 micrograms/ml), staurosporine (2 x 10(-8) or 2 x 10(-6) M), sangivamycin (15 or 200 microM), or a PKC inhibitor peptide (20 micrograms/ml) scraped in at the same time as lucifer yellow. Normal communication was observed in cultures treated only with PKC inhibitors. Lower concentrations of TPA (50 ng/ml-1 micrograms/ml) used for 2 min did not inhibit dye communication. Our results demonstrate the phorbol ester-induced interruption of cell-cell communication. The inhibition of PKC by inhibitors eliminates the effect of TPA on communication. Our data are consistent with a role of PKC in the control of junctional communication.
 
Article
Form changes within the fetal pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) craniofacial complex was documented using finite element scaling analysis (FESA) and three-dimensional (3D) coordinate data for 35 craniofacial landmarks. Coordinate data were digitized from 3D reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) images and 2D axial slices. Twenty-two fetal pigtailed macaques ranging in age from 137 to 157 gestational days were included (in this species, birth is estimated at 170 gestational days). The null hypothesis that the craniofacial complex grows with isometry during late fetal growth of the craniofacial complex was tested (P < 0.05), and the prediction that morphological change along an anteroposterior axis dominates late fetal growth was also investigated. The null hypothesis was rejected, indicating that allometric growth is present during late fetal growth. Growth along an anteroposterior axis is localized in the palate and mandible. The neurocranium grows along a superoinferior axis, while the neurofacial junction displays growth along both the anteroposterior and superoinferior axes. Mediolateral changes are localized between asterions, the external auditory meati, and maxillary and mandibular alveolar points. Finally, a 3D model of craniofacial growth for this species was created, localizing size and shape changes that occur during late fetal growth for each of the 35 craniofacial landmarks defined in this study.
 
Article
The present study examined the acute effects of 2 Br-alpha-ergocryptine (CB-154, a dopamine agonist) on mammotroph organelles during prolactin (PRL) suppression. Ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats received a single injection (sc) of 0.5 mg CB-154 and the animals were killed at intervals following injection. The anterior pituitary glands were fixed for electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry was used to confirm mammotroph identification. Serum PRL levels were determined by RIA. Following CB-154 administration, serum PRL was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced within 15 minutes and was suppressed (P less than 0.01) to ovariectomized levels at 2 and 6 hours. A stereological analysis of mammotrophs in the central regions of the anterior pituitary showed that the Golgi complex volume was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced at 2 hours after CB-154 treatment. However, the Golgi complex volume had recovered by 6 hours post CB-154 injection. In addition, the volumes of the mammotroph cells, the mature secretory granules, and the secondary lysosomes had significantly increased by 6 hours. There were no significant changes in any of the organelles following CB-154 in the mammotrophs from the peripheral regions of the gland. These studies show that the Golgi complex is especially susceptible to acute morphological changes induced by bromocryptine and that the mammotrophs in the central regions are more responsive to CB-154 than those in the peripheral regions.
 
Article
Extraocular muscles of the rat possess numerous nerves suitable for the study of fine structure. In these muscles, small nerves made up of one to ten myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers are surrounded by two or three layers of perineurium. The perineurium is arranged in concentric sleeves, each one cell thick. Continuous boundary membranes separate the perineural sleeves from the epineural and endoneural tissue space, but the boundary membranes may be spotty or absent between individual sleeves. The presence of boundary membranes around perineural cells distinguishes them from nearby fibroblasts which lack similar membranous investment. Tight intercellular junctions join the cells comprising each sleeve so that the nerves are completely ensheathed in perineurium. The number of sleeves decreases as the nerve becomes smaller, either by the termination of the innermost sleeve or by the loss of a sleeve as the nerve branches. The last sleeve ends shortly before the termination of the nerve. The perineurium is thus open-ended peripherally and, at these places, the epineurium and endoneurium are continuous. Continuities between the epineurium and endoneurium also exist at the entrance and exit of blood vessels supplying the nerve and at points where reticular fibers pierce the perineurium. These structural features correlate well with the action of the perineurium as a diffusion barrier and as a pathway in the transmission of infections.
 
Article
Pellets of progesterone plus 1% 16alpha-hydroxy-progesterone (16alpha-OH), testosterone plus 1% 16alpha-OH, and estradiol-17beta plus 1% 16alpha-OH were implanted in the right uterine fat mass in ovariectomized (O) and ovariectomized-hysterectomized (OH) mice. Three weeks later they were killed and the diameters of the ovarian, uterine, and femoral veins and the inferior vena cava were measured and averaged. The averages were compared with averages for O and OH mice bearing pellets of glass and of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol-17beta without 16alpha-OH. It is concluded that in castrate mice the size of ovarian and uterine veins is influenced not by the presence or absence of the uterus but by sex steroids, that progesterone usually causes decreases while testosterone and estradiol-17beta cause increases in vein diameter, and that both the presence of the uterus and the administration of 1% 16alpha-OH are associated with partial inhibition of increases in vein size induced by steroids. Uterine hypertrophy and urinary bladder distention resulting from the administration of testosterone and estradiol-17beta were not prevented by the addition of 1% 16alpha-OH.
 
Article
Literature assessing whether or not neurons (retinal ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells) are lost from the retinal ganglion cell layer in mammals with age is still controversial, some studies finding a decrease in cell density and others not. To date there have been no studies estimating the total number of neurons in the retinal ganglion cell layer of humans throughout life. Recent studies have concentrated on the macular region and examined cell densities, which are reported to decrease during aging. In a study of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), we showed that, while RPE cell number does not change, cell density increases significantly in central temporal retina (macular region) as the retina ages. We speculated that the increase in density represents a "drawing together" of the retinal sheet to maintain high cell densities, in this region of the neural retina, in the face of presumed cell loss from the ganglion cell layer due to aging. Here, therefore, we have sampled the entire ganglion cell layer of the human retina and estimated total neuron numbers in 12 retinae aged from 16 to 77 years. Human retinae, fixed in formalin, were obtained from the Queensland Eye Bank and whole-mounted, ganglion cell layer uppermost. The total number of neurons was lower in the older than younger retinae and neuronal density was lower in most retinal regions in older retinae. Retinal area increased with age and neuronal density fell throughout the retina with a mean reduction of 0.53% per year. However, the percentage reduction in density was much lower for the macular region, with a value of 0.29% per year. It is possible that this lesser reduction in cell density in the macula is a result of the drawing together of the retinal sheet in this region as we speculated from RPE data.
 
Article
The effects of 0, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 methyl ester (Di-M-PGE2) per kilogram per day administered subcutaneously for 21 days to fluorescent-labeled weanling rats were studied, by single-photon absorptiometric and static and dynamic histomorphometric techniques, to determine possible alterations in growth and mineralized tissue mass and their mechanisms of response. Specimens of femurs, proximal tibia, and tibial shaft were analyzed. Di-M-PGE2 caused a reduction in bone elongation and a dramatic accumulation in metaphyseal trabecular hard tissue mass. At high doses, the growth cartilage exhibited reduced thickness and degenerative cell size and cell production rate. The increased metaphyseal trabecular hard tissue mass was restricted to the secondary spongiosa region and was observed at all dose levels. The metaphysis was further characterized by an increase in bone and calcified cartilage cores, a marked elevation in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers, in osteoblast-to-osteoclast ratios, and in ratios of differentiated cells to osteoprogenitor cells. These findings were consistent with the interpretations that Di-M-PGE2 depressed bone elongation by delaying the division and maturation of growth plate chondrocytes; stimulated the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, thus generating more differentiated bone cells but suppressing their activities; and increased metaphyseal trabecular hard tissue by creating an imbalance in osteoblasts over osteoclasts and suppressing hard tissue resorption.
 
Article
We studied a human embryo of 16 mm crown-rump (CR) length in excellent condition with a horseshoe kidney malformation. An exhaustive study of this specimen and a review of published material on the human embryo brings us to propose a new theory on the embryogenesis of this malformation. The most commonly accepted theory consists of a mechanical interpretation based on the relation between the metanephroi and the umbilical arteries during the development of the latter. Nevertheless, in those cases where renal parenchyma constitutes the isthmic region, we believe that these arise from nephrogenic cells that have migrated across the primitive streak in the final phase of gastrulation and thus arise from the posterior nephrogenic area of the epiblast.
 
Article
The trisomy 16 (Ts16) mouse is generally considered a model for human Down's syndrome (trisomy 21). However, many of the cardiac defects in the Ts16 mouse do not reflect the heart malformations seen in patients suffering from this chromosomal disorder. In this study we describe the conotruncal malformations in mice with trisomy 16. The development of the outflow tract was immunohistochemically studied in serially sectioned hearts from 34 normal and 26 Ts16 mouse embryos ranging from 8.5 to 14.5 embryonic days. Conotruncal malformations observed in the Ts 16 embryos included double outlet right ventricle, persistent truncus arteriosus, Tetralogy of Fallot, and right-sided aortic arch. This spectrum of malformations is remarkably similar to that seen in humans suffering from DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). As perturbation of neural crest development has been proposed in the pathogenesis of DGS we specifically focussed on the fate of neural crest derived cells during outflow tract development of the Ts16 mouse using an antibody that enabled us to trace these cells during development. Severe perturbation of the neural crest-derived cell population was observed in each trisomic specimen. The abnormalities pertained to: 1) the size of the columns of neural crest-derived cells (or prongs); 2) the spatial orientation of these prongs within the mesenchymal tissues of the outflow tract; and 3) the location in which the neural crest cells interact with the myocardium. The latter abnormality appeared to be responsible for ectopic myocardialization found in trisomic embryos. Our observations strongly suggest that abnormal neural crest cell behavior is involved in the pathogenesis of the conotruncal malformations in the Ts16 mouse.
 
Article
The ultrastructure of capillaries and arterioles of the hamster dental pulp has been studied. Pieces of the incisor pulp were fixed in 1% OsO4 buffered with 0.14 M veronal acetate, embedded in epoxy resin and studied in an electron microscope. The basic cytoplasmic organization of endothelial cells confirmed observations on blood vessels of other organs made by previous investigators. A large number of intracytoplasmic fibrils were found in many endothelial cells, and their presence was discussed in relation to earlier reports on the contractility of endothelial cells. Previous observations on the structural details of the intercellular region of the endothelium were confirmed and elaborated upon. The manner in which the cytoplasmic flaps of adjoining cells were oriented indicated that, if the integrity of the capillary wall was maintained, only cells with capacity for ameboid movement could creep through the region. Thus they were thought to play a role as an effective barrier against the passage of red blood cells. Numerous micropinocytosis and pinocytosis vesicles were found in association with plasma membranes. The significance of their structure in the transport of materials across the capillary wall is discussed. The fine structure of the pericyte resembled that of the fibroblast. Portions of plasma membranes of adjacent smooth muscle cells in the media of arterioles were brought together closely and resembled attachment zones.
 
Article
The fine structure of intercellular substances and rounded cells of the incisor dental pulp of guinea pigs is described. The extracellular fibrils are of two kinds; collagen with typical cross-striations, varying from 400–700 Å in diameter, and fine fibrils of 100–120 Å in diameter. In cross section the latter fibrils appeared to be composed of three or four smaller subunits of less than 50 Å in diameter. The collagen fibril in the dental pulp appear singly or in small bundles of about a dozen or more fibrils. The fine fibrils are often aggregated along the cell surface.The ground substances are finely granular to fibrillar and show localized clumping which is related to fibrillar elements. The ground substances form an incomplete covering of 200 Å or more in thickness surrounuding collagen fibrils. When the collagen fibrils make a bundle, the sheath of grouund substances around one fibril becomes fused with that of adjacent fibrils.Rounded cells including macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils are present in the pulp. The fine structure of these cells is similar to that found in the same types of cells previously observed in other organs.
 
Article
An electron microscopic analysis has been carried out to compare the neuroglial cells and pericytes within the primary visual cortex, area 17, of young (5-6 years) and old (25-35 years) rhesus monkeys. All of the neuroglial cell types accumulate inclusions within their cytoplasm as they age, and the inclusions within the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are essentially characteristic of those cell types. The astrocytes probably acquire their inclusions by phagocytosis, and it is suggested that the inclusions in the oligodendrocytes are caused by an age-related degeneration of the myelin sheaths they produce. The inclusions within the microglia are very heterogeneous. They are more massive than in the other neuroglial cells, so that their inclusions may almost fill the microglia. Pericytes also accumulate inclusions with age and there is evidence to suggest that they empty the contents of their inclusions vacuoles directly into the capillaries. On the basis of counts of the numbers of profiles of neuroglial cells displaying nuclei in thin sections, the only cells to increase in number with age are the microglia. They show an increase of about 44% when the cortices of young and old monkeys are compared.
 
Article
A light and electron microscopic examination of area 17 of the visual cortex in well-fixed young (5-6 years) and old (25-35 years) rhesus monkeys was carried out to determine the effects of age on neurons. The analyses were made in a portion of area 17 on the lateral surface of the hemisphere just caudal to the lunate sulcus. Light microscopic measurements of the mean cortical depth in vertically oriented 1-micron-thick sections reveal no obvious thinning with age, and the mean diameters of neuronal nuclei do not change with age. On the basis of counts of neuronal profiles containing nuclei in 250-microns-wide strips of 1-micron-thick sections passing through the entire depth of the cortex, no significant neuronal loss could be detected. These findings are consistent with our electron microscopic observations on this area of the cortex, for in the old monkeys the neurons show little cytological evidence of advanced age beyond the presence of a few lipofuscin granules, although the neuropil contains some profiles of degenerating small-caliber dendrites, myelinated axons, and a few axon terminals. Large vacuoles, some 10 microns or more in diameter, are present in the neuropil of the old animals. Some of these vacuoles appear to represent a late stage in the degeneration of myelinated axons, for they are bounded by a thin, laminated sheath. Other large vacuoles, of unknown origin, often contain membranous debris and have an attenuated limiting membrane. It is concluded that the cell bodies of neurons in area 17 of old rhesus monkeys do not show significant structural changes due to age, although some of the neuronal processes in the neuropil are affected.
 
Article
The venous channels responsible for the intracranial drainage were dissected in a series of 25 male and female adult tufted or brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). It was found that Cebus have a venous arrangement fundamentally the same as in man, differing only in that: 1. the monkey has no inferior sagittal sinus, spenoparietal sinus, and emissary parietal and condylar veins; 2. the occipital sinus is not in connection with other sinuses; 3. there are a spenopetrosal sinus, a petrosquamous sinus, and an unpaired inferior cerebellar vein; 4. besides the internal jugular vein, there is additional intracranial drainage through the petrosquamous sinus and the postglenoid vein; 5. the superficial middle cerebral vein opens into the petrosquamous sinus; 6. the lingual and facial veins are not tributaries of the internal jugular vein; 7. there is a bilateral uniform division of the superior sagittal sinus at the confluence of the sinuses to drain equally into both transverse sinuses; 8. the vascular pattern appears to be quite stable; anatomical variations appear to be few and unimportant.
 
Article
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of microvascular corrosion casts revealed perivascular structures that resembled smooth muscle and pericyte cells. Although these structures have been studied in widely different experimental contexts, their origin, function, and distribution pattern in different tissues are not understood. Microvascular corrosion casts from 15 fresh human brains and 20 lumbar spinal cords were studied by SEM. In five cerebral hemispheres a fluorescent resin was injected in order to study the vascular bed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Microvascular casts showed two perivascular structures on their surfaces: plastic strips, which formed a muff around arteriolar vessels, and pericyte-like structures that were present around the capillary network. Their morphological characteristics and distribution were similar to those of smooth muscle cells and pericytes, respectively. The SEM study showed that these structures were not tightly joined to the cast surface, but were connected to the vascular cast by narrow plastic connections. The CLSM showed that the resin invaded the subendothelial space, thus giving rise to these structures. Perivascular structures associated with arteriolar and capillary vessels appear to represent smooth muscle cells and pericytes. They are formed by the passage of the resin to the subendothelial space, probably through weak endothelial cell junctions. The effusion of resin into the subendothelial space may represent evidence for the structural basis of myocyte and pericyte cell control. Chemical communication by substances released locally or transported to these cells through these junctions may regulate their functions, allowing them to regulate blood flow.
 
Article
The development of the middle ear and tympanum of Gallus gallus has been studied in embryos Hamilton-Hamburger stages 20-46. Particular attention was paid to the pattern of expansion of the pharyngeal pouch forming the tympanic cavity, and the histogenesis of the tissues of the region of the vestibular window. It is concluded that pouch expansion is brought about by simple epithelial growth into regions devoid of mesenchyme. The mesenchyme does not show significant cell death, but differentiates as connective tissue, macrophages, and sinus vascular spaces. The epithelium of the mature cavity is of endodermal origin, and there is no indication of celomic contributions. We provide a detailed morphological analysis of the development of the footplate from cells of both the second visceral arch and the otic capsule. These detailed observations on the patterns of chondrification of columella and capsular tissues permit the presentation of a model for cellular interactions leading to the differentiation of the annular ligament.
 
Article
The increase in the distal air spaces which takes place with age is the only sufficiently documented datum for differentiation between the senile and the adult lung. There are other pulmonary components which may be modified as the lung enters the phase of old age, but they have not as yet been sufficiently studied. The purpose of this study is to make a morphometric comparison between the wall thickness of the distal air spaces, elastic fiber, and collagen in lungs of rats of between 5 and 18 months of age. The left lung of each rat was histologically processed for light microscopy. The sections were contrasted using methylene blue, resorcinfuchsin and Sirius red. Systematic randomized sampling was used for the selection of the histological fields studied. Morphometric variables were studied, and were systematized into three groups, namely: variables related with the alveolar architecture, variables which quantify elastic fiber, and those which quantify collagen. The old animals exhibited significant differences (p < 0.05) in the following variables: 1. In relation with the alveolar architecture, mean linear intercept, alveolar chord and wall thickness increased, whereas internal alveolar perimeter and tissue density decreased. 2. The relation elastic fiber density/lung tissue density increased. None of the variables which quantify collagen displayed significant differences. Our data lead us to consider that the lungs of the old animals displayed, not only an enlargement of the distal air spaces, but also a thickening of the alveolar wall and an increase in elastic fiber in relation to the rest of the lung tissue.
 
Article
Previous studies of cardiac neural crest (CNC) migration in early chick embryos demonstrated CNC cells in the media of pharyngeal arch arteries three, four, and six, and in the most proximal part of the developing pulmonary arteries. The objectives of this study were to learn 1) to what extent the CNC is involved in the later development of the pulmonary arteries, 2) how the CNC cells are distributed in the sixth aortic arch artery including the wall of the ductus arteriosus in the older embryo, and 3) what happens to the CNC as the pulmonary artery/sixth arch complex grows into its adult configuration. Quail-to-chick chimeras were used to study CNC distribution in embryos aged 6 to 18 days. Controls (undisturbed chick embryos) were collected with chimeras. Each was fixed, processed, sectioned, stained with Feulgen-Rossenbeck stain, and analyzed. The results demonstrated that CNC disappeared from the proximal pulmonary arteries by embryonic day 9 and played no further role in pulmonary artery development. With the exception of the endothelium, CNC completely filled the wall of the sixth aortic arch artery as far distally as its junction with the dorsal aorta in younger embryos and with the aorta in older embryos, thus suggesting the possibility of proximodistal migration of CNC along the sixth aortic arch. The ductus wall, filled with CNC, was intimately associated with the recurrent laryngeal nerve, also filled with CNC, thereby strongly suggesting a role for CNC in ductal closure.
 
Top-cited authors
Richard Sidman
  • Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, United States, Boston
David Hopkins
  • Dalhousie University
Norman Hu
  • University of Utah
Peter H. Burri
  • Universität Bern
Henry E Young
  • Dragonfly Foundation for Research & Development