The Academy of Management Journal

Published by Academy of Management
Print ISSN: 0001-4273
Interactions Between Quantitative Work Load and Perceived Control 
Interactions of Perceived Control 
We tested the job demands--job control model of stress with a group of 136 registered nurses. Significant interactions between subjective and objective measures of work load and a measure of perceived control predicting physiological and attitudinal outcomes indicated support for the model. In addition, objectively assessed job demands were significantly associated with blood pressure and cortisol levels. The model also predicted elevations in physiological responses after individuals left work, suggesting that potentially health-impairing reactions to jobs that have high demands and low controllability might carry over to home settings and thus pose a high risk of long-term health impairment. The results have implications for the role of personal control in occupational stress generally and for nurse-management practices specifically.
Organizational design theorists argue that organizations adopt matrix (departmentalized) structures for technical reasons, to solve problems of internal coordination and information processing. Research on interorganizational networks suggests that organizations adopt new structures because of mimetic forces and normative pressures. We examined the effects of both sets of factors on the adoption of matrix management in a group of hospitals. Multivariate analyses revealed that matrix adoption is influenced not only by task diversity, but also by sociometric location, the dissemination of information, and the cumulative force of adoption in interorganizational networks. Such variables exert little influence on decisions to abandon matrix programs, however.
A catastrophe model of employee withdrawal indicates that declining job performance, absenteeism, and turnover are discontinuous behavioral outcomes of the same withdrawal phenomenon arising from varying levels of job tension and group cohesion. The advantages of using catastrophe models to describe the temporal changes in employee withdrawal over a relatively short time period are discussed.
: This study examined relationships among perceived job scope, employee need strengths, and turnover and absenteeism incidents among a sample of employees in state and county government. Perceived job scope was negatively related to both turnover and absenteeism. While the needs for achievement and autonomy were both found to have a direct relationship to turnover, job scope and both need strength measures interacted in influencing absenteeism. As predicted absenteeism decreased for employees with a high need for autonomy as job scope increased. Contrary to predictions, absenteeism increased for employees with a high need for achievement as job scope increased. The addition of a squared job scope term to each of the analyses significantly increased explained variance and thus suggests that relationship between job scope and employee withdrawal behaviors may be curvilinear. (Author)
For several months, nurses completed ratings of the degree to which certain events relevant to absence were present during each of their scheduled workdays. The event ratings for days when the nurses decided to be absent were then compared with those for days when the nurses attended. As expected, certain events, such as ill health and tiredness, tended to covary and proved to be consistently related to absenteeism across nurses. Also as expected, some events that were not especially relevant for the nurses as a whole, like having a sick family member or friend and concerns about previous poor attendance, nonetheless emerged as being relevant to the absence behavior of certain individuals. Finally, some events were consistently related to the nurses' expressed desire to be absent but not to actual absences. We discuss these differences from two perspectives, one emphasizing the role of attribution bias and the other, a two-stage process in which such bias has no major role.
Using institutional theory, we developed predictions about organizational units that moved from an environment making consistent demands to one making conflicting demands. Many community mental health centers have diversified into drug abuse treatment. The units providing those services face conflicting demands from the traditional mental health sector and the new drug abuse treatment sector about which clients to serve, how to assess their problems, and who should provide treatment. We propose that in response to such demands these units will adopt apparently conflicting practices. Also, isomorphism with the traditional sector will be positively associated with external support from parent mental health centers and other actors in the mental health sector. Results generally support those predictions.
This study challenges the common assumption that retrospective accounts of business strategy are reliable and valid. Chief executives reported their firms' current strategies, and two years later, they reported their firms' strategies of two years earlier. Of these retrospective accounts, 58 percent did not agree with the previous and validated reports of past strategy. Retrospective errors appear to occur systematically and may be attributable to faulty memory or to attempts to cast past behaviors in a positive light.
Results of Regression Analysis 
Direct and Indirect Relationships Compared 
This study investigated the strategic "sensemaking" processes of scanning, interpretation, and action and how those activities are linked to organizational performance. Using path analyses on data from 156 hospitals, we tested the direct and indirect effects among these sensemaking processes and performance outcomes and developed a model of their relationships. In a more general sense, the research represents an attempt to provide insight not only into relationships between cognition and action, but also into the links between those fundamental processes and organizational performance outcomes.
Social and demographic changes represent an important environmental challenge to organizations. Recent demographic changes in the United States have increased the potential importance of "eldercare" benefits in the workplace. In this research, I elaborate a number of important organizational and environmental determinants that influence the recognition and interpretation of eldercare issues and relate these considerations to the level of employer involvement in the care of elderly dependents, or eldercare.
This study examined performance as a moderator of organizational adaptation to environmental change. Change in the composition of boards of directors was examined as a dependent variable reflecting organizational attempts to deal with changing external contingencies. We tested specific hypotheses in an analysis of 290 California hospitals over a seven-year period. Results indicate that hospitals change the composition of their boards to adapt to changing environmental contingencies but that the hospitals' performance moderates the rate of their response, with poorer performers being more willing to initiate changes in board composition than strong performers.
This study addressed the pattern of small organizations' adaptation responses to uncertainty in the regulatory and competitive sectors of their environment using data from physicians in solo practice. An existing general model of adaptation was modified to reflect small-firm work processes. The result is a four-cell model that distinguishes adaptive strategies in terms of their functional orientations and how firms pursue them--whether alone or in collaboration with other firms. Data analyses supported the propositions that adaptation in small firms is a multicomponent construct and that regulatory and competitive uncertainty differentially influence the adaptation process. Although individual relationships found among the sets of adaptation activities supported the contention that adaptation choices follow a hierarchical cost pattern, the overall fit of the model suggests modification of the theory in subsequent research efforts.
Multidivisional organizations are not concerned with what structure to adopt but with how they should exercise control within the divisional form to achieve economic efficiencies. Using an information-processing framework, I examined control arrangements between the headquarters and operating divisions of such organizations and how managers adapted control practices to accommodate increasing environmental uncertainty. Also considered were the moderating effects of contextual attributes on such adaptive behavior. Analyses of panel data from 97 multihospital systems suggested that organizations generally practice selective decentralization under conditions of increasing uncertainty but that organizational age, dispersion, and initial control arrangements significantly moderate the direction and magnitude of such changes.
The adoption processes of two related administrative innovations in the private sector dealing with employee health are examined. Results of multiple logistic regressions using survey data on a sample of Illinois firms suggest that these two innovations are synergistically linked, such that the adoption of one increases the likelihood of the subsequent adoption of the other.
Means, Standard Deviations, and Intercorrelations for All Va 
Proposed Influences on the Formulation, Adoption, and Imple of Cost Containment Policies in Hospitals 
This study examined predictors of the adoption of cost containment policies in a national sample of 303 not-for-profit hospitals. Analysis of the full sample indicated that adoption of such policies was positively related to response to external regulation, cooperative interorganizational involvement, external orientation, number of beds, occupancy rate, and the influence of chief administrators on governing boards; adoption was negatively related to length of patients' stays. Additional exploratory analysis of the data revealed different combinations of characteristics that were unique to subgroups of hospitals with the lowest and highest levels of policy adoption.
Two studies were conducted to explore the relationships between perceived job performance, causal attributions, employee affect, and expectations for a day's work. In both studies, causal categories derived from previous attribution research were found to correspond with employee job explanations. However, results somewhat inconsistent with previous laboratory studies were obtained.
This study examines the importance of an externally powerful board of directors to the effectiveness (ability to attract scarce resources) of 46 human service agencies operating within the same community. Traditional assumptions regarding the importance of a powerful board were supported when effectiveness was operationalized using static measures of funding but were not supported when dynamic measures were used.
In this study, we hypothesized that a nurse's exposure to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients as part of the work role is positively associated with distress as indexed by negative mood at work. Given this expected relation, we sought to identify factors that might reduce the negative effects of caring for AIDS patients on nurses. We predicted that both organizational and social support would moderate the relationship between extent of exposure and negative mood, with the relationship being strongest when support is low and weakest when support is high. The results of tests among a sample of 256 nurses supported all the hypotheses. We discuss implications of this study and directions for future research.
The strategic response of U.S. high technology companies in the medical X-ray manufacturing industry to increased governmental regulations from 1962 to 1977 is examined. Results suggest that regulations increase consumer and competitor uncertainty, with the consequence that firms select less risky strategies and decrease the riskier new product invention strategy. Larger firms reduce inventions less than smaller firms.
Two failed congressional attempts to control escalating health costs are examined. The data show that investors apparently anticipated their failure. With the implementation of a policy encouraging market competition, however, investors expected larger firms to benefit and firms with previously high profit growth rates to lose. From the viewpoint of the politics of structural choice, it appears that identifiable structural flaws were deliberately designed into both laws in ways that would promote failure and protect key interest groups.
Means and Standard Deviations of the Study Variabies (A^= 129) 
From longitudinal data from 129 nursing department employees, organizational commitment was found to be antecedent to job satisfaction rather than an outcome of it. Furthermore, several other variables were found to be causally related to satisfaction but not commitment. Implications of unsubstantiated assumptions regarding causes of commitment are discussed.
This study refined and extended some findings of previous research on decision-making speed. Decision speed was associated with simultaneous consideration of many alternatives, regardless of context. In contrast, the relationship between board experience and decision speed was context-specific. Similarly, decision speed was associated with higher performance only in high-velocity environments.
This study integrates results from two major approaches to studying managerial work, one focusing on work content, the other on work process. Clusters of managers having similar work behaviors were first identified in terms of each approach, and major differences among the manager clusters were described. The study next found a moderate convergence in the results of the two approaches. Clusters of managers having similar work content in their jobs were often associated with one or two clusters of work process characteristics. However, the differences between the two clusters of process characteristics associated with one content cluster were often very great. The implicating of these findings for the study of managerial work are discussed and future research directions proposed.
Despite the widespread research use of Miles and Snow's typology of strategic orientations, there have been no systematic attempts to assess the reliability and validity of its various measures. The present work provides such an assessment using data collected at two points from over 400 organizations in the hospital industry. We examined dimensions of the typology using both perceptual self-typing and archival data from multiple sources. The results generally support predictions across a variety of measures. Implications for further testing and research are discussed.
Using a role and exchange theory framework, this study examines the commitment to their organization and to the federal service of 634 managers in 71 federal government organizations. Results indicate that certain role factors such as tenure and work overload and personal factors such as attitude toward change and job involvement are strong influences on commitment. Implications of the findings and the need for further theoretical and methodological refinements are discussed.
This study examined the performance effects of information asymmetry and economies of scope in diversified service firms. Tests using both accounting- and stock-market-based measures of performance revealed that information asymmetry improved performance more than economies of scope. As hypothesized, the benefits of information asymmetry were greater for firms offering services whose quality cannot be determined until after their purchase (experience services), and the benefits of economies of scope were greater for firms offering services whose quality can be determined prior to purchase (search services). However, without considering the interactive effects of service characteristics, economies of scope were negatively associated with performance for diversified service firms overall.
The Miles and Snow strategic typology is tested and extended. Based on a sample of businesses in the PIMS data base, the study explores the effectiveness of the strategic types in different environments and the ways in which defenders and prospectors differ in their functional attributes.
A field study of 84 registered nurses and their supervisors revealed that leaders' perceptions of leader-follower attitudinal similarity and follower extraversion were positively related to the quality of leader-follower exchanges. Neither followers' locus of control nor growth need strength was found to be significantly correlated with the quality of the exchange between leaders and followers.
This paper examines the link between affective experience and decision-making performance. In a stock investment simulation, 101 stock investors rated their feelings on an Internet Web site while making investment decisions each day for 20 consecutive business days. Contrary to the popular belief that feelings are generally bad for decision making, we found that individuals who experienced more intense feelings achieved higher decision-making performance. Moreover, individuals who were better able to identify and distinguish among their current feelings achieved higher decision-making performance via their enhanced ability to control the possible biases induced by those feelings.
This study investigated the nature of the relationships between leader reward and punishment behaviors and subordinate performance and satisfaction. Only performance-contingent reward behavior was found to affect subordinate performance significantly. Positive relationships were found between leader contingent reward behavior and employee satisfaction. Contingent punishment had no effects on subordinate performance or satisfaction.
The level of a board of directors' involvement in strategic decisions can be viewed as an institutional response or as a strategic adaptation to external pressures for greater board involvement. We examined the antecedents and effects of board involvement from both the institutional and strategic choice perspectives. Data obtained from personal interviews with 114 board members and archival records indicated that board size and levels of diversification and insider representation were negatively related to board involvement, and organizational age was positively related to it. Furthermore, we found board involvement to be positively related to financial performance after controlling for industry and size effects. Overall, the results suggest that both theoretical perspectives are necessary for a comprehensive description of the strategic role of boards.
Relationships among health care costs, social support, and occupational stress are investigated. Health care cost data were collected over two years for 260 working individuals. Multiple regression analyses were used to control for initial health care costs, age, and gender in predicting later costs; independent variables were stress, strain, social support, and their interactions. Main effects and interactions each accounted for significant proportions of the variance in various health care costs.
The relationship between performance and dimensions of job satisfaction is studied among 132 employees of a public agency located in a large southwestern city. The results of this study indicate that the relationship between performance and a particular dimension of job satisfaction may be a function of an individual's career stage within the organization.
A cusp catastrophe model is developed to explain job turnover of nursing employees. The temporal dynamics of the catastrophe model suggest that leavers experience lower organization commitment than do stayers prior to termination. Leavers' perceptions of job tension and commitment appear to cross the threshold levels prior to the termination dates.
Longitudinal data on 1,091 registered nurses in seven hospitals were used to estimate a causal model of turnover in organizations. Total effects on turnover were found to be the greatest for four determinants: intent to stay, opportunity, general training, and job satisfaction. The relative importance of the determinants of turnover and the explanatory power of the model are presented and discussed.
Psychometric properties of the Sims, Szilagyi, and Keller (1976) Job Characteristic Inventory (JCI) were evaluated. In particular, internal consistency reliability of JCI subscales, convergent and discriminant validity as assessed by use of a multitrait-multirater (superior and subordinate) matrix, relationships of subscale scores to measures of social desirability of responses and of acquiescence tendencies, and substantive validity were considered. The JCI was seen to be largely independent of social desirability and acquiescence tendencies. However, the results suggest some overlap between subscales, little convergence between superior and subordinate ratings of the subordinate's job, and that substantive validity is in question.
This article develops and empirically examines a social exchange model of organizational citizenship behavior. An employee's trust in a supervisor is proposed to mediate the relationship between procedural fairness in the supervisor's decision making and employee citizenship. Data from 475 hospital employees and their supervisors were consistent with our model. We discuss future research directions.
Top-cited authors
Mark A. Huselid
  • Northeastern University
Michael A Hitt
  • Texas A&M University
Robert E Hoskisson
  • Rice University
Melissa E. Graebner
  • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Robert C Liden
  • University of Illinois at Chicago