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Studying the methods of plaster wall decorations is considered one of the complementary elements of the architectural vocabulary that reflects the cultural and ideological heritage identy of the time period. Wall decoration has broken the barrier of time and place, and the political and doctrinal differences, expressing in an abstract way the truth about the beilefs of both the Far Morocco Idrisid and Sebia Idrisid in kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where they did not use any symbol or sign that demonstrates their belonging to Shi'i Muslims, so-most probably- they belong to Sunni Muslims. This study aims to track the foundation phases of Idrisid state in Far Morocco during the century (2-4THA.H/8-10TH A.D) and its extension to the east in the Tihama Asir region during the century (14THAH/20THAD). The research problem lies in trying to detect the link and the nature of the relationship between the two states despite their differences in time and place through studying the natural strategic crossings, as well as the political circumstances that contributed in the transfer of the influences of Far Morocco Arts to Sebia region in the southwest of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which contributed in enriching the plaster decorative arts of the facades of the Idriss Ashraaf's palaces, and their merging with the local artistic nature of Najd, Yemen. This study has revealed- through following the analytical descriptive method- the emergence of some influnces coming from the countries of East Asia and India and the countries of the African continent due to Sebia's geographical location as a port on the Red Sea and its presence on both the coastal trade way and caravans.
 
It is forecasted that 250,000 people will die every year because of climate change and that 86.4 percent of the world population will be living in poverty by 2050. Previous literature has highlighted the tradeoff between poverty reductions and eliminating environmental degradation. Improving the livelihood of the poor therefore has to include improving the environment as well; especially that the poor suffer disproportionally from the effects of environmental decline. This paper tests the long term impact of climate change on economic growth in Egypt over a time period of 98 years using the Threshold model. The estimated threshold regression model suggests 22.9o C as the threshold value of temperature rate above which temperature significantly retards the growth rate of GDP. In addition, below the threshold level, there is a statistically significant positive relationship between Temperature and growth.
 
Objective 25,500 people were killed on European roads in 2016. Thus, despite the achievements of the past, there is still need for action in order to reduce the number of people killed or injured in road traffic. Road safety will therefore certainly continue to be a part of the political agenda of the EU and its member states. However, the topics and activities of road safety policy that will determine the next few years are less apparent. Official programmes usually provide an insight on a very general level only. For this reason, the Austrian Road Safety Board (KFV) has asked the Erfurt University of Applied Sciences to carry out a policy analysis in order to clearly forecast the actions of the EU 2016-2020 in terms of road safety policy. The forecast aims at supporting the work programmes of public and private institutions as well as decision makers. Method The study was based on an evaluation of programmes and legal acts of the past years as well as on expert opinions. From the results, conclusions were drawn on the activities and actions to be expected till 2020. Results The results were structured according to the seven objectives defined by the European Commission in its policy orientations on road safety 2011-2020. Among others, the following developments can be expected in the near future: - The EU Commission is revising several directives, most importantly the directive on initial qualification and periodic training for professional drivers (a proposal has already been published), the infrastructure directive (with a possible inclusion of all highways and a focus on motorcycles and ITS), and the tunnel safety directive. - Other directives have been or are currently being evaluated and will most likely be revised in the future. This includes the driving license directive and the cross-border enforcement directive. Apart from that, in the field of enforcement, only recommendations on the exchange of good-practice are expected. - Technical vehicle safety and the promotion of the use of modern technology will gain more importance. A report on advanced vehicle safety features was published in December 2016, a proposal can be expected in 2017. In 2018, new directives on technical vehicle inspection are going to be applied in the member states. A “road package” has been published in May 2017, targeting electronic road toll systems, competition in commercial road transport as well as social conditions of professional drivers. C-ITS (cooperative ITS) are becoming a priority: Based on a strategy published 2016, networked vehicles should be introduced by 2019. A review of the ITS action plan and directive is pending - Driver distraction and the safety of senior road users are a subject of EU-funded research projects. Results will be published within the next years. However, no legislative proposals are expected. - Reducing the number of seriously injured will be a core objective in the future: A reduction goal of 50% has been set by the Council of the European Union for the period 2020-2030. The results show that the developments of the last years point towards a full and active agenda till 2020 and beyond. This roadmap will support all stakeholders in road safety in their contribution.
 
The historic urban landscape in Kayutangan Street
Map of the research location in Kayutangan Street
The production stage of 3D historic building modeling in Kayutangan Street
The collaboration of three application software in the 3D data processing
The development of 3D spatial-passive observation data
Spatial experience in historical street corridors is essential to encourage a continuously satisfying experience of a historical aesthetic leading to a better quality of the historic urban landscape, which is significant for making precious memory of the city's history. 3D spatial formation along the historic street corridor fosters the generation of historical memory of the urban space. Both tangible and intangible aspects attached to the historic street corridors' spatial configuration have significant meaning that forms the integrity of the valuable historical urban space. The research area is in Kayutangan street as one of the historical street corridors in Malang City, East Java, Indonesia. The study aims to develop the historical spatial data system of the Kayutangan corridor to construct an online digital spatial database and enforce it as a policy decision reference by the government in managing the urban development in historical areas, especially in the Kayutangan street corridors. The 3D spatial development of historic urban landscape performed the combination of 3D modeling software, 3D visualization software, and 3D spatial multimedia application authoring platforms. The collaboration of three systems generated three spatial data types, namely a 3D spatial-passive observation data, a 3D spatial-active observation data, and 3D spatial-interactive simulation data. As a result, this study produces 3D spatial multimedia contained the 3D spatial of historical data of Kayutangan streetscape, which performs as a historical spatial data system to reference the smart development of cultural tourism and heritage cities in Malang.
 
This paper intends to develop an interactive, comprehensive information visualization platform of Instagram hashtag analysis. Instagram hashtags has developed themselves into all different kinds of group or communities for users to share hobbies and find similar friends. In order to analyze topic influence and user interest trend from Instagram, which contains billions of end-users and has worldwide influence, hashtag analysis is necessary to gather such information and compare the proportion of people involving in each tags and rank them to visualize. The visualization is developed in 3D space and consists of time-varying data flow of tags, together with tag comparison analysis, as well as event researches. In the rest of the paper, we mainly discuss the design idea and the development process of the system. An example of the system design work will be shown in the discussion, which involves 4 popular hashtags discussed on Instagram and are shown on the system, displayed as an 3D histogram, together with another comparison histogram to compare different tags, as well as an event view in the back.
 
The designed Architecture department project incorporate the use of; natural light, natural ventilation, sustainable materials (totally constructed out of wood), double skin façade,shading elements, green elements, collecting rain water, reuse of grey water, and solar panels. The proposed design had %56 reduction in annual energy consumption.
The designed Architecture school incorporate the use of; long ramps floors to convert kinetic energy to electricity, natural light, shading elements, natural ventilation, solar panels, green roof, rain water collection.
The designed Architecture department project in corporate the use of; natural light, green roof, natural ventilation, shading elements, collecting rain water, and solar panels.
The designed Architecture department project incorporate the use of; natural light, natural ventilation with wind catchers, sustainable materials (constructed out of wood and steel), double skin façade, shading elements, green roofs, collecting rain water, reuse of grey water, and solar panels. The proposed design had %32 reduction in annual energy consumption
Sustainable principles checklist
A design studio is the heart and soul of the architectural education curricula where students learn to make repetitive design decisions that result in design strategies for resource use in order to create an environmental system that reacts to the human needs and requirements or solves existing problems. Integrating sustainability principles into the undergraduate design studio is an urgent need in order to teach young architects sustainable design principles that can stop the continued environmental degradation of the planet. This study proposed a new design studio pedagogy for integrating sustainability principles with a method to test the new pedagogy and the students’ final products. This paper presents the tests results of the pilot study and provides recommendations for the experimental design studio of the following semesters.
 
The design studio is a unique class format within the architectural curriculum education, in which learning is based on student-instructor interaction and learning by experiences while architectural design is the collective of knowledge and skills to accomplish a unique expectation of a product. Sustainable design has been incorporated into many architecture curriculum education programs but there has been lack of merging in design studio project. This study introduces an improved method of the first experimental Sustainable Architectural Design Studio (SADS) with restructured teaching tools for integrating sustainability principles in design studio along with the studio outcome. In additional, it presents the evaluation and the assessment of the improved method as well as the finding along with the recommendations for the future experimental.
 
elements and components of Abul-Hajjaj mosque No. The main element The Sub-element No. The main element The sub-element
Life span of elements and components of the mosque
Some of regular inspection activities and maintenance operations of the components of historical mosques.
Continued Some of regular inspection and maintenance operations of the components of historical mosques.
The mosque is considered one of the most important buildings of the Islamic city since the Prophet's Mosque (peace and blessings be upon him), and maintenance is considered an important element and a cornerstone of buildings in general. This is due to the deterioration of public buildings generally given the bad use and common ownership of the mosque and in turn, its facilities have deteriorated. Some mosques belong to historic buildings, so maintaining them is of extra importance. In light of the status of the construction and maintenance systems of historic mosques in Egypt and the limitations and problems faced, this paper presents a proposed guide for the preventive maintenance of historic mosques. It also provides clear evidence for workers in the field of maintenance of mosques including the key elements that need to be taken into consideration while preparing the preventive maintenance plan for mosques. The preventive maintenance of the mosque needs a range of tools and methods in order to succeed. Planning and scheduling for items are major elements among these tools. In order to achieve integration between the elements and the different phases mentioned above, we need to formulate them in a form of an integrated guide with completed elements and dimensions. To find a guide for the maintenance of the mosques we should clearly identify the principles and rules for that guide. This comes through clarity of the purpose, the elements required to be controlled, how to control them, the statement of the time and places and the economic aspects of the guide. This research aims to find a guide for the maintenance of historic mosques, by making a case study for the Mosque of Abul-Hajjaj in Luxor.
 
Academics are a peculiar category of knowledge workers whose work, by nature, is characterized by undefined time and space and includes individual and collaborative activities. Over the past decades, academics have progressively evolved their typically university-centric way of working towards a hybrid, spatially distributed model that includes home and other spaces. The spread of the Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated the redrawing of the geography of workspaces for academics and has opened up opportunities to enable creative, innovative and socially sustainable ways of working. Indeed, working from other spaces than the official workplace can not only have positive impacts on productivity, creativity, and collaboration of academics and staff, but also increase the attractiveness and inclusivity of university campuses by proposing a campus model that is spread across the territory according to the individual needs of its users. While there are already some cases where university campuses accommodate coworking spaces, libraries and innovation hubs within them, evidence of academics using other spaces off-campus is scarce. This research investigates whether, and to what extent, the use of off-campus spaces by Italian academics is a likely and desirable prospect for the future, based on how much their way of doing research has evolved during the Covid-19 pandemic towards a multi-local way of working. A questionnaire was distributed among Italian tenured academics. This chapter presents a quantitative and qualitative interpretative analysis of the data collected from 1,199 answers to this questionnaire. Results describe different profiles of multi-local Italian academics, in relation to the types of location they work from, the experience they had during the Covid-working period and the future they wish for at university campuses. The evidence on multi-local work presented in this chapter shows implications both for academic staff and for university management. The former could approach work in a more distributed way such as it would extend university campuses to an urban and extra-urban dimension. The latter are called upon to meet the needs of their staff using socially sustainable ways of managing their facilities within and beyond campus boundaries.
 
At present, the traffic problem is a problem that the government attaches great importance to. Many papers also put forward their own visualization models for traffic problems. This research focused on the Map-matching and Spatial-temporal Visualization of Expressway Traffic Accident Information and improves the original two-dimensional visual model of accident rate into a three-dimensional model. The goal is to represent more attributes in a visual model and make them easier to compare, so as to provide users with more intuitive visual information.
 
The octane number of gasoline is one of the most important measures of gasoline quality to predict accurately the octane ratings of blending gasolines. This measured on a scale that ranges from that equivalent to isooctane (octane number of 100) to that of n-heptane (octane number of zero) octane no is effected by the saturates, aromatics, and olefins contents of gasoline. We take it as a standard and measure octane number by comparison with this standard. The accurate octane blending method will optimize the blending of gasoline components, when gasoline components are blended together, we will calculate the octane number of the blend with different octane number of the component or if the four components are of equal octane number. The blend octane number may be greater than, equal to or less than that calculated from the volumetric average of the octane numbers of the blend components, which indicates nonlinear blending. Blending would be linear if octane number of a blend was equal to that predicted by summing the octane numbers of the components in proportion to their concentrations. In practices, the discrepancies between the octane numbers of blends and the linearly predicted values have been correlated by specific empirical equations and these have been used to correct the linear predictions.
 
The calibration curve of standard MMA and samples of toxicity for vertexmaterials
Representative polymerizationtemperature measurements for PMMA-(A/W) compositions as a function of timeafter start of mixing
represents the tensile [a, c] and compression [b, d] curves for nano-HAand (A/W) combinations respectively
Mechanical properties of PMMA/nano-HA compositions
Mechanical properties of PMMA-Acetone/Water (A/W) compositions
Fracture in the adjacent levels is one of the consequences to the use of commercial poly methylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. Modified PMMA with a reduced Young’s modulus was found to be safer for cancellous bone augmentation procedures. The aim of this research was to study the effect of adding hydroxyapatite (HA) nano-particles and acetone on different properties of PMMA cement. A commercial PMMA cement was used as a model for bone cement. Three groups of modified PMMA/nano-HA were investigated by adding 2, 4 and 6 wt. % of HA. Acetone as a porogen mixed with distilled water in different amounts (A/W: 1:1, 2:1.5 and 2:1g) was used to produce porous PMMA cement. The residual monomer, polymerization and mechanical properties under tension and compression tests were investigated. Young’s modulus detected from compression test decreased from 826.5±10 to 728±66 MPa by adding 6wt.% HA. Adding acetone to PMMA with 2:1.5g (A/W) has decreased the compressive Young’s modulus to 753±38 MPa. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) measurements were carried out with intervals of 2 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours to evaluate the residual monomer for all groups. The amount of residual monomer has decreased after 24 hours of curing by adding acetone and nano-HA. Modifying PMMA by HA and acetone have inconsistent effect on the polymerization temperature. It was concluded that HA and acetone can be used to reduce the stiffness and residual monomer with enhanced biocompatibility of the commercial PMMA bone cement.
 
The change in the pace of urbanization that Egypt is currently witnessing due to the massive population growth and the trend towards migration to some urban polarization centers has responded in a large and unbalanced urban transformation. The absence of a clear long-term strategy for urban development has affected the accumulation of investments in major cities. Alongside the challenge facing the development of new urban communities, is the result of interaction between the social situation, economic and urban and the environment that affects the human being to form a society characterized by the quality of life, which is the goal of development. If all these challenges did not achieve the results of quality of life, development has become deficient and unable to achieve its objectives and therefore the investments directed to this development is a waste of resources in a country that needs to deal with Resources efficiently and effectively, so as to achieve the maximum possible return of national income. Therefore The need to design an appropriate strategy aimed at Integration of parts of the State's urban space, as well as alleviating the regional disparities in the levels of urban development between different regions of the country, and achieving the greatest justice in the distribution of services and facilities and economic opportunities between citizens and regions, and Attracting residents from densely populated areas and territories to new urban centers with growing development and investment potential.
 
Workplace environment is defined as the current conditions of the surroundings of a workplace. More than 80% of performance problems are influenced by the workplace environment where efficiency of workplace environment represents the total amount of work done by one employee in a single day. There are different types and traits of employees in Architectural Design firms , where only 5 types are being analyzed in this research paper which encounters; creative, innovative ,Talented , Technical & Analytical Architects that should be considered to achieve an efficient workplace environment. Hence , The Problem of this paper the inefficient management creating inefficient management for architects results in the dissatisfaction of employees while boosting the rate of turnovers impacting the productivity negatively. One approach that has been introduced to tackle such problem is creativity management which could embrace the 5 types of employees in Architectural design firms. Thus, the main purpose of this study is introducing how creativity management approach can effect the workplace environment and increase its efficiency in Architectural design firms . To achieve the aim of this paper , a comprehensive literature review analysis has been done on recently published Research papers from 2000 to 2018. This includes discussing the contribution of authors on the approaches for efficient workplace environment , and introducing creativity management approach in workplace environment in Architectural Design firms. Hence, Findings of this paper took the form of impact analysis , where the effect of creativity management approach on achieving efficient workplace has been identified.
 
Sustainable development goals for 2030 depending on how to create abetter life for pepole including all parameters which affect human to avoid the negative impacts of climate change which can destroy life on our plante. Saving energy is one of the main global problems, and buidings are one of the influences on energy consumption. It is a must to solve this problem by identifiy the causes which includinng the building features, operation process and the impact of its occupants . On the other hand, clarify permanent solutions according to modern concepts and techniques which can help to solve it locally. The study attempts to clarify human, nature environment and built environment impacts , in indicating how building Play an active role in achieving virous stages of energy consumption or production to adress the enegy effeciency importance. This paper discusses this issues and gives recommendations and proposals on how to solve problems ensure the achievement of low energy buildings in Egypt depending on the parameters which respect and depend on our local environment in Egypt.
 
Active transport i.e. cycling or walking as well as using public transport for everyday journeys is an effective approach with multiple social and environmental benefits for transforming urban environments into active urban environments. Although cycling and walking often remain on the margins of transport planning and infrastructure, there are new approaches emerging along with policies relevant to the creation of urban environments conducive to active travel. Interventions and policies for developing physically active-friendly environments across towns and cities in Europe are central to facilitating the promotion of physical activity and sustainable transport among the local population. A 3-year Erasmus+ project called SPAcE (Supporting Policy and action for Active Environments) involves local government partners and an NGO developing policies and interventions to promote physically active-friendly environments in five European towns/cities: Latvia [Tukums], Italy [Palermo], Romania [Brasov], Spain [Toledo] and Greece [Trikala]. The project has focused on cities with recorded low physical activity levels. 5 working groups across these towns/cities have started co-production to develop Urban Active Environments (UActivE) Action Plans aimed at influencing policy and practice for active transport programmes promoting the use of cycling and walking. Action plans are based on international guidance for healthy urban planning as remaining project partners include universities and an NGO who have provided support, advice and mentoring. Cooperation and co-production with public health professionals, local government officers, education authorities and transport agencies is a key approach to the project. Creating sustainable active urban environments is a key to healthier, cleaner, and economically successful cities. This goal can be reached by increased carbon-free forms of transportation such as walking and cycling. The SPAcE project aims to capture both the challenges and solutions for the development of active transport in urban spaces translating evidence into policy and practice and ensuring innovation at the policy level.
 
Nowadays, and under the global warming circumstances we are facing, particularly those resulting from the building sectors, many directions for more sustainable and eco-friendly concepts have emerged. From these sustainability approaches is the “Biomimicry” approach. This approach represents the science of imitating and benefiting from nature’s principles. Nature has provided various strategies to adapt to the surrounding conditions. There are several methodologies and tools developed following the biomimicry approach and taking nature as inspiration. However, difficulties arise in collaborating more than one discipline, which consumes a lot of time and effort, consequently cost. Furthermore, the existing methodologies are still too generic for architects. Therefore, this paper aims at developing a platform that integrates different methodologies, approaches, and tools comprehensively. In this paper, the focus would be on plant adaptations. A more focus would be on the building’s envelope specifically due to its valuable contribution to the building’s overall energy consumption. The paper seeks to integrate the plant’s adaptive strategies to the building envelope. The motivation is to tackle solutions for the building envelope environmental problems mainly for heat, water air, and light challenges.
 
Creativity has been assigned to the design or drawing, with materials most often being specified as a result of design rather than being considered a driver of it. Designers empowered by new technology now consider form as it is defined by identifiable systems. This evidence based, parametric methodology is a response to two decades of digitally-derived projects, often produced simply for their novelty. The best work results when the architect has combined respect for the old with a skilled progressive command of the new. Material culture is portrayed as the physical confirmation and articulation of a culture in its relics and design. In the time that we comprehend the thought of material culture not just as having importance for investigations of the past. yet in addition getting a projective limit. we may now be at a critical defining moment.. As computation starts to significantly change our origination of the material, so in architecture this will defy the set up connection between the procedures of design and the physical fabrication of the constructed medium . Obviously, computation was brought into design & architecture the greater part a century back. furthermore, expanding digitization has since plagued all parts of the field . As though, it has remained emphatically impacted by the theoretical isolation of the procedures of design and making that has overwhelmed structural plan thinking since the Renaissance, and it is just now that creators are starting to deal with the computational void as never again disconnecting from the physical domain.
 
TheProposed Concept
Nowadays, not only in Egypt but also globally, the job for life is no longer the norm[1]. For this reason innovation became a must; not just a luxury or something that people or countries can deal with as a source of boasting or showing. Thus, and in order to promote sustainability concept through innovation, sustainability, and social entrepreneurship, this paper suggests some recommendations and introduces some solutions which can help in achieving and getting the most possible outputs and deliverable from the challenges are faced every day. It also proposes a new concept regarding the social entrepreneurship, social problems and development projects; e.g. infrastructure issues. The concept assumes that we have to go through three different ways in parallel when solving our pressing problems. These ways include the benefit from: our previous experiences, others’ successful applied projects, and the continuous follow-up of new technologies under development. Also, it addresses how those three elements can be connected in a sustainable way which ensures the sustainability and the effectiveness of improving them at the same time. In addition, it gives one or more examples in each channel to clarify the situation. Besides, the paper introduces some recommendations such as launching innovation & social entrepreneurship hubs, holding conferences & competitions and supporting R&D projects in order to promote our situation and consolidate our experiences.
 
Methodology PCI Malaga. Source: self made.
"Participactive" (sub)nodes network. Source: self made from Plan Nacional de Ortofotografía Aérea PNOA (2018).
The most conventional systems in the Urban Planning practice leave out needs and real social demands through inefficient management models in many cases. Nowadays there is a social, professional and institutional demand to transform these models into new ways of thinking and planning the city that are closer to its inhabitants. In fact, there is a high social involvement of people that are helping or developing activities in favour of their local communities. However, this social activism is not visible nor recognised as the one made by regulated associations. Undoubtedly, the use of new technologies offers a framework of opportunity in these new ways of ”making the city”, as well as it becomes a new area of work and research. In this sense, there are many experiences that incorporate technology as a resource to promote citizen participation in the management of cities. However, only some of them are effective and achieve the goal of becoming a useful tool for citizens. In the city of Malaga, there are already some digital tools at the service of citizenship, although these require a process of revision and updating that allows optimizing existing resources and increasing their impact as a participation tool. As a first step, it is necessary to identify the agents and social initiatives of existing participation in the city. The objective of this project is to create an interactive digital platform that shows the city of Malaga from a real social perspective, as it makes visible and map the emerging non regulated movements, neighbourhood initiatives and new urban trends with low visibility. Finally, the aim is to create a tool for collectives, associations, administrations and other urban agents to promote synergies and relationships among all of them. The incorporation of all of them is essential for the success of the platform as a participation tool. For this, a methodology of actions is established, and it begins with the identification of possible agents and the way of interaction with each one of them. The digital tool that is used is based on the use of geographic location systems. This article collects the results of the first phase of the research project that includes a methodological proposal for mapping the real social activist reality in cities and a functional test of the digital platform created for this. Likewise, an evaluation of the experience and possible improvements to be incorporated in the successive phases of the project is advanced
 
In the last few years, great improvements have been achieved in building optimization methods. Mustapha Sadeghipour Roudasri and others found new tools ” Ladybug, Honeybee and Butterfly” which could gather many simulation engines and visualization tools ” Energyplus, OpenStudio, Radiance, Daysim, CFD, OpenFOAM, etc ”. Consequently, These simulation engines will integrate with parametric modeling in Grasshopper and multiobjective optimization through Octopus plug-in to form an early stage parametric optimization framework in one canvas. This paper aims at finding the suitable plane shape and building configurations for multi-objective optimization to the daylighting levels and energy consumption of office tower building in the new administrative capital city in Egypt through parametric based optimization method. One of the most commonly used plan shapes of these types of buildings was studied. This shape and many building configurations ”WWR, window material, wall material and shading devices” were parametrically modeled. These Parameters will form many tradeoffs which will be simulated and optimized by the previous framework. Spatial Daylight Autonomy ”SDA300/50%” is examined to optimize Daylighting while Energy Use Intensity ” EUI” is used for energy consumption optimization. Multi-Objective Optimization was performed by genetic algorithms via Octopus plug-in. The near optimum design for plan shape and building configuration to balance between daylighting and energy consumption is achieved and will be a reference model for office tower buildings in this zone in Egypt which is under rapid development. The framework used in this study will guide designers to find effective solutions for early-stage design of office building in one canvas without any conflict between several engines and scripts.
 
The high pace of technology has redefined street furniture as smart devices that contribute to build future cities. Thus, it is a combination of passion; skills, ideas and tools of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) converted into finished products. ICT is a catalyst for cities to address these challenges in a ‘smart’ manner that links and strengthens networks of people, businesses, infrastructures, resources, energy and spaces. On the other hand, one of the most important components to be adopted for designing Smart Cities is the IT service management (ITSM). It refers to the entirety of the activities directed by policies, organized and structured to plan, design, operate and control ITSM offered to citizens by adopting a process approach towards management, focusing on their needs and stressing continual improvement. New trends in urban planning are heading to draw a new future- a Smart City that is able to link the physical capital with the social one. Street furniture, as an important element of Smart Cities, is a term used to define objects in public spaces. Such concept is related to the context of wireless infrastructure and house small-cell units. They are considered –visually- as common and tolerable places to the public. This research will focus on smart Street-Furniture design as a standard guide for designers and planners of the ''New Cairo Administrative Capital'', which is currently under construction as the first Smart City in Egypt.
 
Since the expression "Building Information Modeling" (BIM) was initially presented in the Engineering and Construction AEC industry in the most recent decade; it has changed numerous parts of the design, construction, and operation of a building. BIM is a middleware connector that represents the advancement and utilization of PC. BIM has various frameworks which have been conducted by the pioneers in the BIM industry to enhance the BIM process. There is a study of the reflection of those frameworks on the Egyptian AEC industry to overcome the threats that prevent Egypt from applying BIM technology more broadly. In addition, a comparison is conducted between the successful countries which implemented BIM in their projects and managed to enhance their adoption by examining the local challenges and targets. The countries then made strategies and standards to overcome the aforementioned obstacles. Furthermore, successful actions were applied that can match with the Egyptian industrial requirements. This paper is expected to define the challenges which are facing the Egyptian industry to apply BIM and the potential capabilities of solving those problems. To acquire the vital information to carry on this paper, a questionnaire was created and distributed in the AEC community. The reason for the study was to see how experts consider BIM as a device in the fields of design and construction in general and in the Egyptian industry particularly. The aim of this paper is to propose a framework through several case studies which are discussed, analyzed and compared. The purpose of the analysis is to explore the importance of using BIM. Additionally, exploring the effect of different parameters on implementing BIM helped significantly during the process. It starts with proposing its framework with evaluating matrix that contains attributes to measure its success, moreover, it serves as a great help to the Egyptian companies that make real business decisions about enhancing BIM implementation through this framework.
 
Cities evolve and grow rapidly in a manner that is unprecedented throughout their long history. This great acceleration and growth is governed by many overlapping and intersecting factors (Economical, Social, Political, etc.), the process of identifying the city's character or identity is no longer an easy task. This appears more clearly in historic cities and historic areas that in most cases contrast with the civilizational, cultural and urban extension of the mother city. This therefore justifies the importance of polyphonic and edificial aesthetic works as they are elements of consistency and solidity of urbanism. Cities and their various components (facilities & planning, objectives & economics, construction & architecture) have witnessed a new turn and were influenced by many factors. These factors and their results should therefore be identified in order to understand how they reflect on cities and how artistic and aesthetic works reflect on the form and identity of cities.
 
The scope of environment-behavior information. (Snyder JC 1797)
Stairs safety consideration.
This research will inspect factors with higher impact that are predicted to be more influential in the relation between architecture, interior architectural design and the psychological status of residents and users. The level of awareness about the importance of this relation is the basic introductory factor. Identity, privacy and safety impacts, health concerns, accessibility degree, open spaces feature, aesthetic sense are the main parts of the research. Most parts consist of two divisions. The first identifies the nature of each factor. The second recognizes the important architectural consideration needed to realize the psychological condition of residents and users. The research aims to increase the concern about the importance of the interaction between interior architectural design and human psychological behavior. An introduction of a group of important consideration can be used to help designers choose and apply a suitable interior architectural design that match psychological needs through sound relations between architecture, interior architecture and the psychological status of residents and users.
 
Public authorities and governments in many countries tended to allocate to the private sector the operations management of existing PPP projects and for financing new projects. There are a lot of benefits from following this approach for all parties. These benefits included risk mitigation, cost savings in governmental expendures, service improvement, employment opportunities, and enhancement in economic indices. This approach was called public-private partnership (PPP). This term was defined as “a cooperative venture between the public and private sectors, built on the expertise of each partner that best meets clearly defined public needs through the appropriate allocation of resources, risks and rewards.” (World Bank, 2016) Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) projects become an important methodology for governments of both developed and developing countries, as a result from crucial role and their worldwide use. The PPP methodology enables public authorities and governments to allocate risks to different parties especially the private sector. According to the World Bank report the private financial participation in Egypt has accounted $219,229.82 Million in the period from 1990 to 2000. This figure has increased to $998,667.36 Million in 2015. (World Bank, 2016) PPP projects are usually more difficult to implement than other traditional procurement models because of their complexity and that their nature and their long duration. Previous research studies on several PPP projects showed that a number of problems exist in the project returns. Additionally these researches show that there is a need for an objective, reliable and practical return assessment model for PPP projects. This required model will help decision makers to assess the profitability of PPP projects at their early stages. To apply PPP projects in Egypt successfully, one of the fundamental requirements is to perform and implement a comprehensive analysis of Return on Investment (ROI). To do that analysis, it should include the factors affecting the ROI relating the projects’ influences such as ; financial, legal, political ,social, etc.
 
Human-centered transportation (walking and biking) has been the cheapest, healthiest, and most convenient mode of transportation throughout history. In the new global economy, walking and biking have become common modes of transportation for low-income groups of people. Kabul is the biggest city in Afghanistan with scattered space organizations and currently is unfavorable for walking and biking due to insufficient attention to pedestrian and bicycle routes in city planning and poor road network and sidewalk conditions, which are among the issues that affect this 4-5 million population city. The purpose of this research is to analyze the current traffic situation in Kabul and identify the role and share of citizens' use of human-centered transportation (walking and biking) for transportation. This research also aims to investigate the relationship between the economic scope of low-income workers and the use of walking and biking for transportation. The statistical population of the current study was selected from three municipal districts as travel zones. Using cluster sampling, a sample participant of 929 people was obtained. It was observed that in the broad context, due to increasing cost and insufficient public transportation, low-income workers use bicycles and walking as a reliable mode of transportation. Finally, it is suggested that the spatial organization of Kabul is redefined and designed based on the new space organization, and the local organization and formulation of urban transportation strategies in urban strategic plans for pedestrian and bicycle transportation systems are strengthened, especially for roads leading to employment locations. Furthermore, in planning, priority is to be shifted to human-centered transportation (walking and biking).
 
Kuwait is facing a current construction boom with projects worth of more than USD188bn. The huge infrastructure spending plan of Kuwait is reflected with a growing demand of concrete as concrete is the most commonly used building material in the local construction. At the present, the quarrying of coarse aggregate which is a main concrete constituent material is banned in Kuwait since 1997 and construction industry depends on the imported coarse aggregates from neighbouring sources such as United Arab Emirates and Iran. Kuwait is also interested in challenging the growing concern of an effective environmental management of water, land and atmosphere to achieve a sustainable civilization. The increasingly environmental pressures coupled with the limited available economical resources are causing the decision making authorities to consider the practice of recycling and waste utilization. This paper presents Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR) efforts to investigate sustainable sources of coarse aggregate for construction industry from waste. The first sustainable source investigated is the production of synthetic lightweight aggregates utilizing combinations of argillaceous indigenous and waste materials, and the second is recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes. The potential of the two sustainable sources of construction aggregates are presented and the needed steps for real industrial application are addressed.
 
(a) Samples cut out from DPLM board , (b) DPLM board after treated (c) DPLM double board as a sandwich panel. (a)(c)Source:[Egyptian Association for self-development of local communities, Egypt, researcher photo]
Photographs of (a) Cutting process, (b) Trimming process (c) Collect and Compress process.
Egypt is defined as an agricultural country where its people put all produced crops to use, whether as food or clothing. An agricultural waste like straw, palm fronds, leaves and others are used in building and interior designing; they’re part of an individual’s lifestyle and culture. As time passed, all of this changed given that local agricultural materials were replaced with technology and new building materials. Farmers became uninterested in what happened to this waste that was burned as a means of disposal, this process has direct effects on public health and the environment. This research examines the problem of palm fronds (agricultural materials) as a wasted renewable source in Egypt. It will attempt to find methods to link these materials with Egyptian handicrafts using new treatments in manufacturing with the cradle to cradle idea to produce compressed panels, wallpapers and other objects used in interior design. This research is important because it aims to find sustainable environmental materials with modern designs using agricultural waste.
 
Modern cities are characterised by intense human interactions and economic activities that- in many cases- have little or no consideration of the surrounding environment. Every day, the process of urbanisation is becoming more resource-intensive, and the results are grave, including, climate change, the loss of natural fertility of farmland and the loss of biodiversity all over the world. High consumption modern lifestyles are mainly fossil-fuel powered, relying on resources from the world’s ecosystems: a practice that increases the ecological footprints of cities. This paper aims at exploring means of decreasing the ecological footprints of cities: regenerative urban development practices being some of them. By concentrating on one of these practices, namely urban agriculture, the paper demonstrates how it would be possible to decrease the ecological footprints of cities through its integration on the city level. It starts out by briefly defining the environmental problems our cities are facing today, then it moves on to explaining the concept of the ecological footprint. It shows how cities could decrease their ecological footprints through simple practices: such as those of regenerative urban development. This is done through demonstrating regenerative practices in different parts of the world, with a concentration on urban agriculture, as one of the most effective regenerative practices. It then moves on to explaining how it could be integrated within a comprehensive system in cities, so as to improve the environmental condition, to work on decreasing the ecological footprint and to start setting the stage for a regenerative city.
 
Airmass changes with the zenith angle [13].
Schematic diagram of the spectral distribution of solar radiation
The values of the efficiencies obtained from Eq. (10) based on the suggested model.
In this manuscript, a model for approximating the electrical power efficiency of the solar cells in relation with the air mass effect has been presented based on simple physical assumptions and in accordance with the solar radiation distribution. The model has been developed in correspondence with the air mass effect on the radiation intensity and wavelength and taking into account the energy gap effect of the silicon material.
 
Seif Wanly was known to be a very diverse artist characterized by his creativity and love for innovation as his personality is similar to that of Alexandria, he is open and accepting of the civilizations of the world. This enriched Alexandria's heritage during the times of the Ptolemies and the Romans and also in newer ages when it was the home of many European artists with all their diverse schools of thought. If Seif Wanly lived in another city in Egypt, his art wouldn't have been portrayed in the way that it is, as the essence of Alexandria coincided with Wanly's thought. In the painting "boats in the port" (1957) Figure (6) which was created based on a different approach and vision inspired by the techniques of artists (art collage) without resorting to the mechanism of cutting and pasting, and to become consistent with the visions of modern art. He sought to flatten in the treatment of forms, adding a special character that distinguishes his style, which reflects the nature of the city of Alexandria.
The unique location of Alexandria city in the Mediterranean Basin has attracted several artistic civilizations ever since the time of Ptolemy. This has been the case during the Roman era, and the subsequent eras throughout which Alexandria remained the window of Egypt and most of the Middle East to the European cultures and arts. As a result, Alexandria has witnessed the cultural and artistic renaissance during the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, since "Muhammad Ali" –and his family–permitted the foreign delegations to come and form colonies fused with the human component of Alexandria that had a unique character. Consequently, the foreign artists’ rooms were widely spread and the Alexandrian pioneers of painting art, of the first and second generations, studied under their supervision. Despite being trained by foreigners, their sense of belonging to the Egyptian identity or their participation in laying groundwork for a national art project deeply rooted in the heritage of the nation wasn’t affected. However, they were receptive to maturely cope with the modernity of the western schools of arts. Mahmoud Said, a painter, after completing the art foundation phase, employed his art to portray the modern Egyptian man as a national hero. This portrayal was possible through his use of environmental elements and characters. Seif Wanli was one of the most receptive Egyptian painters to the modern and contemporary western schools of art. He was allegedly known to be unconcerned with the issue of national identity; however, Alexandria kept its high rank in his art despite being characterized by global features. Adham Wanli remained loyal to his impressive and symbolic realism as Alexandria, with all its components, was the core of his artistic creativity. Hamid Aweys left his hometown and went to Alexandria and spent most of his age therein. His belonging to the identity and environment of that ancient coastal city was the same as that of the previously mentioned artists. He was inspired by the city’s environmental and cultural elements in a distinctive way.
 
Historical, archeological parks such as Antoniadis garden, Al-shallalat gardens and the zoo are important assets in the city of Alexandria, Egypt. These parks suffer from severe neglect, damage and encroachments of street vendors. This study aims to find aesthetic solutions to improve these parks as part of Alexandria’s cultural heritage on the national and global levels. Mural paintings could be used to beautify the entrances of these parks along with the seating units, garbage bins, and water tap basins. This mural painting process could be well suited with the architectural styles of these parks to preserve their identity and still fit within the history and civilization of the ancient city of Alexandria. This will protect the historical features of these parks and make them touristic destinations instead of being abandoned and neglected over time.
 
This paper explains the precept and methodology of FSW. It covers some of the technical sides which influence the process and quality of FSW joint. Large advance has been accomplished in friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum in every side of tool manufacture, microstructure properties estimate in the last decennia. With the development of reliable welding tools and precise control systems, FSW of aluminum has reached a new level of technical maturity. influence on butt joint arrangement is studied. Effect on welding quality of main parameters: rotation speed, travel speed, tool tilt angle, axial force and weld time has been studied. Finally, FSW is identified as an additional area for research can be carried out in the welding science.
 
Cultural tourism roughly contributes to 40% of the international tourism arrivals. However, marketing for it is a dilemma between maximizing the economic return and nurturing the culture’s social functions because, in cultural tourism, a culture is a “product” to be “consumed”. Marketers need to attract the “correct” segments of cultural tourism, which have cultural motives as opposed to those of mass tourism. Research shows that attracting such segments can be done through a differentiation based on authenticity. However, in cultural tourism, authenticity is a relative and negotiable term. Perceived authenticity is more applicable than the traditional, objective authenticity. Previous research has been done to understand how authenticity is perceived by tourists but how it changes over a time remains elusive to researchers. This research focuses on the dynamics of perceived authenticity; how it changes over a time. A temporary, hypothetical model is proposed that is subject to a further seeking of variables and their relationships. The research is conducted in two stages: qualitative for building the model and quantitative for confirming it. Two cases will be built i.e. Alsace in France and Bali in Indonesia. The two regions will represent two different points on a spectrum. This research is a work in progress.
 
«“Sacred” is an Indo-European word meaning ”separate”. The Sacred, therefore, [. . . is] a quality that is inherent in that which has relation and contact with powers that man, not being able to dominate, perceives as superior to himself, and as such attributable to a dimension [. . . ] thought however as ”separate” and ”other” with respect to the human world » Galimberti, (2000). The so-called votive altar, autonomous or attached to a major building often present in the Mediterranean countries, belong to the dimension of the Sacred.Votive altars - present in an old neighborhood of peasant origin in the suburbs of Naples called Ponticelli - are almost always placed in the interstices between street and courtyard (a self-built residential typology modeled over time by the inhabitants and which often forms the matrix of many neighborhoods popular Neapolitan). They keep and exhibit little sculptures and drawings of Jesus, Madonnas, and Saints of the Catholic religion, mixed with ancestors portraits and photos of relatives dead of the inhabitants, drawing on the ancient domestic cult of the Romans of Lari and Penati; it is certainly not a consciously cultured reference, but a mysterious ”feeling” that is common among primitive and popular cultures and that unravels through the centuries unscathed. Placed at the entrance of the living space, the altar expresses the sign of a difference, of a territorial change, separates ”ours” from ”yours”, welcomes, does not reject, but marks an open and inclusive threshold.With the paper, we want to study this phenomenon of ”primitive” culture and not regulated by laws, a mix of diffuse sacredness and popular magic, deepening the ”design” aspects of it, building an abacus in which to highlight potential and free references to the visual arts of these ”design works without designers”, and finding out new signs of the Sacred in the City in our time.
 
The research explores the impact and influence the community has on the identity of a city. The construction of the city follows certain standards acquired by the nation with respect to its ideologies and ambitions while the essence of the city is shaped and formed by the communities. The community is based on a mix of tradition, culture and habits, creating the identity of the group. The individual, as part of the larger group, shapes the identity of his/her city. The essence of the city reflects the identity of its community. The norm of a certain community along with its irregularities constructs the identity of their surrounding, hence the city. Therefore, one can assume that the identity of a citizen is equal to the identity of the city. In a visual art project consisting of a series of digital prints (mixed media), the researcher explores the relation between man and his surrounding atmosphere; between man and his home; between man and his city. This visual project delves in presenting how the surrounding atmosphere is affected by the human identity living within it. The community paints the city with its color, thus the city reflects its community.
 
Being able to recognize your own individual rights in vulnerable situations is a good way to live. A new curriculum developed under Ecuador’s Higher Education Board brings together the inter-cultural concept. In ancient cultures, segregation existed among Latin American people in higher education. In this way, the new proposal for education makes it vital for future professionals to develop in the domain of methods and proceeds about ancient acknowledge, traditions, and cultural. To achieve the purpose of having inclusive curricula, it was needed to analyze ancient thoughts focused in the Salasaka community consmovision (descendant from Bolivia settled in Ecuador) and Chibuleos community who formulated the methodology that promotes cultural consciousness and is focused on the development and potentiation of habits and customs that generate different ways of living and thinking in the new educational environments. The obtained results are in function of statistics settings that show inclusive methodologies that link up the university professorship with ancient knowledge and culture. The use of this investigation is the implementation of methodologies in curricula in Ecuadorian universities in higher education. It’s about transforming the ideological challenges on the academic formation of the ancestral towns.
 
The article presents information about ancestral indigenous ethno-knowledge of the indigenous community Shuar; the data was collected through participatory workshops, interviews and expeditions in order to collect plant species, and identify them in situ, always accompanied by local people considered them with experience and knowledge of their territory, this plants are important in the indigenous population and tourists that visit the community because the ancestral architecture that they have its important for the tourism and design of Malocas or ancestral community tourist houses with low environmental impact and improved the ceremony and the intercultural connection between the shaman who has the ancestral heritage.
 
The identity of an animated character means who he really is, or what are the characteristics that would never change? How the character sees himself and how others see him? It includes shape, color, race, beliefs, and choices in life. The more the storyteller gives identity to his animated character, the more it is sound and convincing. In that sense, it touches the audiences’ hearts as they feel its pain or happiness. In other words, they are involved in the story and united with the character. As the story begins, characters and settings are presented before the audience to get an overview of the characters’ identity. Then, more elements are to show up, like the conflict, the problem that needs to be solved and the rising actions, which are series of events that lead to the high main point or the climax. It is considered as a turning point of the story after which the falling actions come. The falling actions are events and complications that start to loosen the plot. Gradually, the solution shows up as the story ends either happily or tragically. Throughout the story line, these groups of events that form the story sometimes account for the appearance of an identity crisis that impact the character. It means that he is uncertain of his feelings about himself; he gets confused about what type of person he is or what is the true purpose of his life. It always takes making an existential that plays a big role in the story line. The identity crisis appear in Toy Story 1995 to Buzz light-year when he discovers the truth of himself; that he is a toy, not a space ranger as he thought before. This made him give up hope of returning anywhere. It took him sometime to accept the fact of himself after seeing how Woody struggles to return them both to Andy. He tries his best to save his friend and return home safely, as being dictated by the role’s vision. In Toy Story 2 1999, the identity crisis appear to Woody when Buzz strikes him with the fact that he is not a collector’s item. He is a child’s play thing, he is a toy. Then, a decision has to be made to return to Andy, and the struggles start with the Prospector. In Toy Story 3, 2010, the identity crisis appear to Woody at the end of the story. He was suffering to be away from all his toy family that will be left in the attic, so he wrote on the box to be donated and he attached himself in, with them hoping that Andy gives him a very warm goodbye and leaves him with the rest of the toys in good hands. In Finding Nemo 2003, the identity crisis for Nemo is when he chooses to touch the boat, even though it is a dangerous thing, just to prove to his father and his friends that he is brave. It led him to fall in the capture and to meet other fish.
 
a. Data sets' components b. The structure of input data
The required input and the output of the support vector classifier.
Machine learning categories based on their functions.
In this paper, we represent an approach for combining machine learning (ML) techniques with building performance simulation by introducing four methods in which ML could be effectively involved in this field i.e. Classification, Regression, Clustering and Model selection . Rhino-3d-Grasshopper SDK was used to develop a new plugin for involving machine learning in design process using Python programming language and making use of scikit-learn module, that is, a python module which provides a general purpose high level language to nonspecialist user by integration of wide range supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms with high performance, ease of use and well documented features. ANT plugin provides a method to make use of these modules inside Rhino\Grasshopper to be handy to designers. This tool is open source and is released under BSD simplified license. This approach represents promising results regarding making use of data in automating building performance development and could be widely applied. Future studies include providing parallel computation facility using PyOpenCL module as well as computer vision integration using scikit-image.
 
Number of tourists coming to Turkey and Antalya by years
Tourism has begun to develop with the development of the socio-economic structures of the countries after the Second World War and has become one of the fastest growing and expanding sectors in the world economy since this period. When tourism is rapidly growing, developing countries that have limited resources such as Turkey have to make rational investment decisions for the economic future of the country. Turkey’s tourism policies that focus on coastal tourism began to be applied through development plans in the 1960s. In the five-year development plans that started in 1963, tourism was selected as the priority sector in the economic development of Turkey and the main principle of tourism sector was defined as mass tourism until the 1980s. In this period when tourism investments were increasing, for the preservation of the natural and cultural heritage, it was aimed to give priority to the regions which were seen as most convenient for tourism investments. In the 1960s, Antalya was one of the selected priority regions according to the directions of the development plans to concentrate on the regions with high ability to attract tourists and to get short-term results. After the 1980s, although the concept of individual tourism has been mentioned in the development plans, mass tourism investments in Antalya have increased rapidly with the Tourism Incentive Law No. 2634 issued in 1982. From the 1980s, accommodation facilities in various categories have filled the city, thus the negative impacts of tourism on the natural, cultural heritage and social structure have begun to become evident. The tourism sector contributes greatly to the economic, cultural and social development of both developed and developing countries. However, the rapid and unplanned development of the tourism sector and focusing just on the economic impact of tourism for a long time has caused negative natural and socio-cultural influences. In Antalya, overpopulation caused by the rapid development of tourism has caused deteriorations on the cultural and natural environment. Particularly, Kaleiçi which is the historic center of Antalya has been through cultural and social transformations and lost its original character. The aim of this study which is based on the ongoing doctoral thesis is to discuss the role of tourism developments shaped by national policies and legal regulations with reference to the transformation process of cultural values in the case of Antalya Kaleiçi. In the first part of this study, national tourism policies and investments in Turkey and the interaction between them and the protection of the historic environment are explained. In the second part, the cultural, spatial and social impact of national tourism policies and investments in the case of Antalya are determined.
 
The National Museum of EgyptianCivilization NMEC Source: (http://cairobserver.com)
Fustat Traditional Crafts Center, Source:https://archnet.org/sites/5065
Proposed strategy elements (The researcher)
Al Fustat area cultural mapping (The researcher)
The notion of ‘cultural district’ or ‘cultural quarter’ is not new. Cities have always had spaces for entertainment, arts, and cultural consumption, whether as scattered venues across the city or in clusters of entrepreneurial activity. Cultural districts are geographical areas which contain the highest concentration of cultural and entertainment facilities in a city or town. Cultural districts have a role to play if it is well defined inside the cities. It could be a catalyst for development as well as enhancing the image of the city. Thus, corresponding policies towards the recognition of these places and consequently adopting suitable plans for its development will result in economic benefits to the city. Although the fact that ‘cultural districts’ have been well identified in many international practices as well as in the literature, the concept is still vague in the developing countries. Cairo is possessing several places where culture is the main focus involving important intellectual and creative components. The city centre, Old Cairo, Khan El Khalili, Coptic Cairo are all districts with high potential of cultural and creative activities. They are a sound strategic investment for boosting the economic fortunes of the city. Thus, a dedicated plan should be tailored considering its capacity for local development and the recognition that culture could be facilitated for more benefits. This paper aims to address the notion and characteristics of ‘cultural districts’ and apply this concept to re-frame some specific areas inside Cairo and to explain how culture and creativity can act as a driver for identifying solutions to the main development challenges they face. The viability of cultural districts is discussed regarding the designation of potential territories, required and supporting legal frameworks, contributing stakeholders, ending by adopting a management plan that could lead to territorial competence and efficiency within the city. The research targets the area of Al Fustat specifically as a potential territory for applying the discussed notion. The paper is organized in two main parts to achieve its objectives: The first part is the theoretical part which discusses the definitions of cultural districts and its associated characteristics. The paper demonstrates the classification of cultural areas within the city and focuses on policies and approaches that govern them. The second part analyses some international experiences of cultural areas to conclude the “cultural districts model”. And consequently apply them to the Egyptian context, for future consideration of the culture and its role in development plans.
 
Along eras and civilizations, nature as a sustainable reference always has a great role in inspiration of the architectural form by the diversity of its vocabulary, rules, and colors…etc. Consequently, fractals as the main natural elements appeared in the achitectural morphology, since the ancient eras especially in the Islamic architecture in a various levels of forms, details, and patterns. However, nowadays the new architectural theories deal with fractals concept in a different ways depending on the deep understanding of universal and cosmic nature, also the new digital techniques in architectural design and construction that enhanced the appearance of new fractal forms. In this context, the research discusses the transformations of fractal systems, concepts and applications in architecture at the resent architectural theories, focusing on the digital architecture and how it deals with fractal forms, aiming to root the new architectural theories and link it with Islamic heritage to achieve a new Arab architecture that respects and reveals the local heritage and adapt with the latest architectural theories and techniques.
 
The Arab architectural identity is characterized by the originality of the various Arab cultures. Islamic culture is what makes Arab societies unique and it is what inspired Arab architecture. Consequently, the Arab architecture encounters contemporary challenges. If modern architectural trends influenced Arab civilization, it could then obliterate its identity over the years. Moreover, positively interacting with modern architectural trends must take place rather than negative interactions. The aforementioned reasons leave this phenomenon the subject of discussion and research and thus the lack of update and development of the vocabulary of Arab architecture. The proposed study discusses the problem of the correlation of deconstructive architecture with the architectural and Arabic identity through the end of the 20th century until 2017. In order to arrive at the definition of the philosophy of deconstruction architecture and the appropriate relationship between it and the Arab architectural identity, the study utilizes a qualitative descriptive methodology that tries to give a generic image of philosophy and characteristics. Deconstruction architecture attempts to link the positive aspects of architecture and Arab identity through the analysis of the frameworks of this philosophy of particular architectural works of various architects who adopt this philosophy of architecture. Responding to the above, the current study shows that it is better to strip the modern trends and take what suits the Arab culture.
 
Master plan of the sustainablecity in Dubai (Diamond, 2017)
Sustainable principles in thesustainable city in Dubai (Diamond, 2017)
In the last years, the world has jumped rapidly towards more urbanisation, and for the first time in the history in 2008 urban population exceeded the rural population. By 2050, it is expected that two-thirds of the world population will live in urban areas. As a result of this rapid urbanisation worldwide, Sustainable Neighbourhoods SN emerged as a significant formation of cities that help in achieving sustainable development. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development included this sustainability aim through the Sustainable Development Goal 11. This goal aims to “make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable.”The Sustainable City in Dubai is located in the United Arab Emirates, the development and construction started in 2014, and 95% of the site was completed in mid of 2016. The development of the Sustainable City shows that the occupation residents will have many incentives to buy a villa and live in the city such as free rooftop solar systems, open landscaped gardens, free Green Star rated home appliances, zero net maintenance fees, and zero net service charges. Additionally, the sustainable city in Dubai is an educational hub for sustainable design. It sponsored many students through its agreements with different universities and research labs. This research aims to understand the case of the sustainable city in Dubai as an Example of SN in the Arab world. The research will start with a literature review that identifies all related terminologies to SN, besides a comprehensive analysis of some fundamental principles of SN design. A case study analysis will be done including; site visit, and applying one of the principles of SN on the sustainable city in Dubai to understand and explore the sustainability principles in it.
 
Today, introducing Urban Heritage into the architectural education curriculum is becoming an important component of the learning experience. It strengthens the sense of belonging, national pride, and cultural identity of students as an active and remarkable part of their history that guides their future. Urban Heritage allows previous generations a better understanding of their long and rich history. The main objective for introducing Urban Heritage into the architectural education was to link heritage practice with teaching and research activities, as well as to create synergies between the educational activities and the surrounding community in order to ensure the preservation and the appreciation of the heritage. As part of Hekma School of Design and Architecture, the architecture department at Dar Al- Hekma University reflected its mission “To graduate professionals in the field of architecture and equip them with the necessary knowledge and skills, focusing on sustainable design while preserving the cultural and aesthetic values of Saudi Arabia.” within the curriculum. The mission was materialized through a set of interdisciplinary and co-curricular activities and initiatives for the promotion, conservation and revitalization of urban heritage in Saudi Arabia. Those actions were determined to create a dynamic environment for social, cultural and economic development at large. The plan was also to strengthen students’ appreciation of urban heritage through the sharing and exchanging of knowledge, skills, and experience between the pedagogical activities and the real practices for mutual enrichment. Often, each activity was dedicated to a given heritage theme. The activities are structured in thematic subjects covering many areas, such as heritage and sustainable development, theory and practices of conservation, adaptive re-use of heritage buildings, inter-disciplinary research investigations, heritage for dialogue, and reconciliation, among other themes. The creation of the architecture curriculum in the fields of urban heritage was the first step to share knowledge and competencies, and to encourage professors and students' participation in heritage safeguarding projects. Besides, this program tends to promote inter-cultural dialogues through heritage appreciation. The paper investigates the challenges associated with studying heritage in architecture, as well as opportunities for students to be more excited about studying heritage, develop their skills, and be self-motivated. It is expected that the paper will analyze Dar Al-Hekma University educational experience in integrating urban heritage within the architectural education curriculum among other national and international experiences. It will evaluate related teaching approaches and draw thoughtful conclusions in order to use this unique pedagogical process and learning outcomes in enhancing the heritage appreciation and its practices.
 
Building information modelling (BIM) has been adopted in the architectural heritage industry. The digital protection method with BIM Technology as the core can introduce the information management workflow into the protection of architectural heritage, which can provide possibility for the complete preservation of all kinds of information related to the architectural heritage, improve the efficiency of protection, and meet the management needs of the whole life cycle of the architectural heritage. This paper is based on digital technology and combined with the characteristics of architectural heritage to create a BIM model of architectural heritage. The Autodesk Revit software, which is commonly used in China, is used as the entry point, and the C# language is used to develop Revit to make up for the shortcomings of traditional architectural heritage protection. At the same time, all kinds of information related to the architectural heritage are completely preserved, improving the efficiency of protection work, and meeting the information management needs in the process of building heritage maintenance and management.
 
Top-cited authors
Heba Hamdy
  • Mansoura University
Rania Elghamry
  • Tanta University
Rabee M. Reffat
  • Assiut University
Koorosh Gharehbaghi
  • RMIT University
Ibrahim Sabry
  • Benha University