TAPROBANICA The Journal of Asian Biodiversity

Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online
Online ISSN: 1800-427X
Ceropegia odorata Nimmo ex Hook. f. 
The type locality of the critically endangered Ceropegia odorata Nimmo ex J. Graham is resurrected after a lapse of about 175 years. A detailed description, distribution, habitat, IUCN threat status and a nomenclatural note are provided along with a neotype designation. The main threat factors responsible for dwindling of populations of the species are discussed and measures are suggested to arrest the operative causal factors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/tapro.v6i2.7186 TAPROBANICA, 2014. Vol. 06, No. 02: pp. 79-82
The breeding ecology of the crested serpent eagle ( Spilornis cheela ), focusing on nest-site selection, food habits, and perch-site preference, was studied in the Kolli Hills of Tamil Nadu, India, from May 2005 to May 2010. Thirty-two active nests were located, with nest-site details collected from 27 nests that were accessible. The crested serpent eagle did not construct new nests, but did renew or alter old nests, mainly in December. Both sexes were involved in the nest renewal activities. The clutch size was one, the mean incubation period was 41.5 days, and the mean fledging period was 64.5 days. Nests were found largely along riverine patches. The results indicate the mature and less disturbed riverine forests with large sized trees are critical for the breeding and conservation of this species. The food habits of the eagle were known from prey items brought into the nest by the adult to feed the chick and prey items fed on by the adult. In total, 173 feeding observations were made and the prey items belonged to 17 species of vertebrates. The crested serpent eagle largely preferred reptiles, which accounted for 74% of their diet, followed by birds, which accounted for 18% of their diet. A total of 1237 perching records were observed. The crested serpent eagle preferred to perch on the outer canopy of the trees found largely in the forest edges. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/tapro.v4i2.5059 TAPROBANICA . October, 2012. Vol. 04, No. 02: pp. 77-82
The status of three species of high altitude butterflies, Polyommatus Latreille, 1804, from the Indian Himalayas has been assessed and the species P. florenciae (Tytler, 1926) has been recorded for the first time from India. Details of the genitalia for each species are illustrated and described for the first time.
A new species of the genus Pareas is described from northern Myanmar. It differs from all other known species of the genus by coloration, which is mainly uniform, and its size (one of the largest species in the genus). Furthermore it is characterized by a low number of supralabials (six), a loreal that touches the orbit, presence of a presubocular and absence of a preocular. The new species was found at an elevation of 1890 m a.s.l. and is regarded as an inhabitant of high elevation mountainous areas.
Qualitative composition of Benthic Macro- Invertebrates of the River Ganga at Patna with 95 identified taxa. 
General Feeding Guilds of Benthic Macro- Invertebrates in River Ganga with 51 classified families of the present study: Dominance of Detritivores (54 %), Herbivores and others (12 %) over Carnivores (34 %). 
Functional Feeding Groups of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in River Ganga with 51 classified families of the present study. 
Presence of Neozoa in River Ganga main channel in comparison with lowland-reaches of large river systems (main channels) in Central Europe, Germany. 
Benthic Macro-Invertebrates of River Ganga main channel in comparison with lowland-reaches of large river systems (main channels) in Central Europe:
From the main channel of River Ganga 95 invertebrate taxa have been recorded in the endangered Gangetic Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) habitat over an observation period of ten years. Mollusks, Annelids and Arthropods are the dominating benthic groups that constitute the detritivores, filter-feeders and sediment feeders, scrapers/grazers and herbivores. The benthic sediment fauna is rich in diversity and high in abundance. This enables carnivores to occupy a large variety of specialized ecological niches. The qualitative faunal composition of Ganga resembles in general large European rivers with similar representation of taxa. Twelve taxa of marine-originated families were identified, but none of them can be classified as invasive or non-indigenous species. Only two taxa are certainly recognized as non-indigenous neozoans, whereas the remaining fauna shows pristine and stable ecological conditions. In this aspect River Ganga differs from regulated large rivers, where faunal change has largely replaced the original species inventory. Despite the heavy pollution in parts of the river, the original composition of biological diversity is still persisting in the middle reaches of the Ganga. This provides hope for the survival of the Gangetic Dolphin. Introduction The Ganga is the largest river among the rivers originating from the Himalayan region in northern India. The river section in Bihar is one of the few natural and free-flowing large rivers in south Asia.
Here we present the first report of the occurrence of an endemic and little known colubrid, Sharma’s racer Coluber bholanathi Sharma, 1976, from the urban conglomerate of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, with a description of the male specimen including details on the hemipeneal structure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/tapro.v5i1.5659 TAPROBANICA , April, 2013. Vol. 05, No. 01: pp. 32-35
Current known localities of Pareas vindumi. the type locality (Lukpwi Village, Chipwi, Kachin, Myanmar) is shown with a star, the new record (this study) with a circle.
Maximum likelihood (ML) tree derived from partial sequences of the combined fragments of cyt b genes. Numbers at nodes correspond to Bayesian posterior probabilities (BI PP; >70% retained) and to Maximum Likelihood bootstrap values (ML BS; > 70% retained).
We report the first record of the poorly known slug-eating snake, Pareas vindumi from China: a female specimen collected from Dazhuba ranger station, Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, Tengchong city, Yunnan Province. The newly collected specimen represents only the second known specimen of the species and provides the first and valuable data on its morphological variation. Based on the new specimen, we revise the diagnostic characteristics of the species and provide additional data on its natural history and conservation status.
T he present study was carried out to monitor three roost sites of Indian flying fox ( Pteropus giganteus ) populations during the period November 2010 to October 2011 near Purulia, West Bengal, India. At all three sites, bats were found to occupy different tree species ( Eucalyptus sp., Dalbergia latifolia , Tamarindus indica and Terminalia arjuna ) outside villages for day roost sites in close proximity to water bodies. Behavioural observations were made based on all occurrence method where all behaviours observed for duration of 30 minutes was noted during each census for the entire study period. Favourable roosting conditions were found to support higher bat abundance. Moreover, bat abundance and ambient temperature were found to be negatively correlated, and mass die–offs and population decline were recorded in the hotter months of the year (April – July). Study of bat guano revealed aspects of their feeding habits and their pivotal role as seed dispersers. Information from local villagers affirmed that the bat populations occurring at the roost sites are more than a century old and are regarded as sacred. Moreover, no direct conflicts were recorded between the bats and villagers during the present study. According to the villagers bat populations are declining due to road expansion, cutting of trees and hunting by outsider nomads; these aspects need serious attention from the authorities concerned. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/tapro.v5i1.5664 TAPROBANIC A , April, 2013. Vol. 05, No. 01: pp. 60-66
No abstract available. Erratum An erratum for the second paragraph of the second column (page 73), in the article “Emiliyamma, K. G., Md. J. Palot, C. Radhakrishnan and V. C. Balakrishnan, 2013. Lyriothemis acigastra: a new addition to the odonata fauna of Peninsular India, 5 (1): 73–74”: “Van der Poorten (2009) compares L. defonsekai with L. acigastra mentioning a more pronounced anterior lamina for L. defonsekai….”. This is a misquote. In her paper, van der Poorten (2009) states (page 17), with respect to L. defonsekai, “Secondary genitalia (Figs. 2–3). Anterior lamina blackish and flat;”. With respect to L. acigastra (page 22), she states, "anterior lamina of secondary genitalia [of L. acigastra] more pronounced…” DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/tapro.v5i1.5672 TAPROBANICA , April, 2013. Vol. 05, No. 01: pp. 73-74 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.4038/tapro.v5i2.6298 TAPROBANICA , December, 2013. Vol. 05, No. 02: pp. 163 Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE
Pseudophilautus rus in Nawalapitiya 
(A) spectrogram, (B) waveform, and (C) power spectrum of the advertisement call of Pseudophilautus rus, recorded at 25.5 ° C.
The Kandyan Shrub Frog, (Pseudophilautus rus) is known only from two localities around Kandy (500–800 m a.s.l), Sri Lanka; Kiribathkumbura and Pilimatalawa. Mature males attain a SVL of 20.6– 24.1 mm and mature females up to 23.1 mm. P. rus perches on low vegetation, usually on leaves and branches of shrubs, grass, and logs, 0.1–1.5 m above the ground. Males of the species produce one of the most frequently heard calls in suburban and urban areas in Kandy, together with the common shrub frog P. popularis. Here, I describe for the first time the advertisement call of P. rus. The temporal parameters measured were duration of one call (DC) and intercall interval (IC). The number of prominent pulses in a note (NP) and the pulse rate (PR) were also recorded. The spectral parameters measured were lower frequency (F1), upper frequency (F2) and peak frequency (F3). Numerical call parameters are given as range followed by mean + SD in parenthesis.The advertisement call was the most common call emitted by P. rus, consisted of a short, multipulsed note. This note is amplitude modulated, with amplitude decreasing over time. The DC ranged between 27–36 ms (31.78 ± 1.178 ms, n = 77), and the IC was 4.29–10.36 s (6.02 ±1.428 s, n = 39). Each call consisted of 4–10 (6.31 ± 1.18, n = 77) prominent pulses and the pulse rate ranged from 129.03–312.50 s-1 (198.37 ± 34.56 s-1, n = 77). F1 ranged from 1.6–2.0 kHz (n = 77), F2 ranged between 3.3–3.8 kHz (n = 77) and F3 was 2.4–3.2 kHz (n = 77).
The current study describes and interprets the courtship behaviour exhibited by Sitana cf . ponticeriana. An ethogram comprised of 20 behavioural acts was compiled. Though complex communications were lacking in S. cf . ponticeriana, other acts were by and large similar (and perhaps evolutionarily homologous) to other agamids. The courtship behaviour was divided into three distinct patterns – orientation, persuasion and copulation. Gular flap extensions by the males of S. cf . ponticeriana was a peculiar display but not unique to this species. Head bobbing, which is a common feature to many agamids, was rare and functioned to enhance the visual acuity rather than to serve as a social signal. Neck grip was also a very short event performed rapidly by the male to subdue the female. Rest events of the courtship were more or less similar to other types of lizards. Tail twitching and tail twisting seemed to express high levels of arousal rather than ritualized social signals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/tapro.v5i1.5661 TAPROBANICA , April, 2013. Vol. 05, No. 01: pp. 44-49
b: Regression curves of TOL against SVL of mature male Sitana ponticeriana at BKWS 
c: Regression curves of TL against SVL of mature female Sitana ponticeriana at BKWS 
d: Regression curves of TOL against SVL of mature female Sitana ponticeriana at BKWS 
a: (A) Plot of TLagainst SVL of mature male Sitana ponticeriana at BKWS 
Mature (M) and immature (IM) eggs of dissected gravid Sitana ponticeriana (SVL: 49mm) from BKWS 
This paper presents the results of a two-year study of the sexual dichromatism, breeding, clutch size and development in a population of Sitana ponticeriana, conducted at Balukhand-Konark Wildlife Sanctuary, Orissa, India. Sexual dimorphism appears as a brighter overall colouration with red and dark blue gular pouch develops as outward projection at the neck. In the breeding season, mature males have crimson-red or brick-red colour at the base of the tail. Lizards start courtship in the early morning and afternoon, depending on the ambient temperature, during the early monsoons. Vitellogenic and gravid females occur simultaneously in early and midsummer , and lay eggs during the onset of rains. Potentially, 2-3 clutches of 6-23 eggs (mean 17.39 ± 4.39 eggs/clutch) are produced by each female each year. The smallest gravid female contained more eggs than larger ones. Eggs collected late in the reproductive season were significantly larger than those collected earlier. Freshly laid eggs are elliptical; during development, the shape, size and volume of the eggs were changed; hatchling success observed after 39 days of incubation.
The species composition of anurans was studied in the disturbed and undisturbed sub-montane forest habitats in the Riverstone of the Knuckles Mountain Forest Range of Sri Lanka. Twenty one anuran species were encountered. The distribution pattern of collected anuran species was related to the percentage of vegetational cover and they were categorized in relation to dependency on the vegetational cover. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/tapro.v4i1.4377 TAPROBANICA . April, 2012. Vol. 04, No. 01: pp. 12-19.
Locations of the commensal relationship between purple sunbirds and social spiders reported in India and Sri Lanka
Three clutches of the Purple Sunbird nesting on the communal web of social spiders: (A)
Two nestlings found in the first clutch; (B) Female parent waiting with the food on the electric wire above
the nest; (C)Male parent feeding nestlings present in the first clutch; (D) Female parent incubating two
eggs in the second clutch; (E) Female parent feeding the nestling present in the second clutch; (F) Male
parent waiting with the food on the electric wire above the nest; (G)Female parent feeding; (H) Female parent with two nestlings in the third clutch.
Parental activities of purple sunbirds; F= female, M= male, B= both
Nest fidelity observations of a purple sunbird pair using the same nest in STP
Breeding success of purple sunbird from three clutches in the same nest
The present study was carried out to understand the nest fidelity of Purple Sunbird Cinnyris asiaticus using the same nest built on the communal web of the Social Spiders Stegodyphus sarasinorum from the fencing pole of the sewage treatment plant present in the Mannampandal Village, Mayiladuthurai district, Southern India. The Purple Sunbird using the same nest for three clutches was recorded from February 2020 to May 2020. Understanding the breeding site and nest fidelity will help to protect these birds. In conclusion, the study indicates that the Purple Sunbird family gets benefitted from the nest built on the communal web and simultaneously without causing any damage to the Social Spider. This study has also generated information on the commensal relationship between the Purple Sunbird and Social Spider from the data collected from social networking sites.
Sri Lanka has a high diversity of avifauna, with 236 breeding and 203 purely migrant species. Among the former, 33 species and a further 68 subspecies are endemic to it. Since the systematic study of the birds of the island began in the 18th century intermittent discoveries of breeding and migrant taxa have led to a gradual increase in the total number of taxa known to occur in it. Different taxonomic treatment over time has resulted in the number of endemic species recognised varying from 47 in 1880 to 21 in 1978 and 33 in 2005. The present enumeration of species in the avifaunal list for Sri Lanka is based on the work of the Ceylon Bird Club Rarities and Records Committee, as embodied in Henry (1998) and relative to standard ornithological publications for the region. An authentic list for a country reflects the true diversity of the avifauna within it and contributes to the mapping of correct global distribution especially of widespread or migrating taxa. 46 species of birds in Sri Lanka, including 16 endemic to it, are recognised as Threatened.
Barytelphusa cunicularis feeding on Pterocryptis wynaadensis at Agumbe, Karnataka, India.
The freshwater crab, Barytelphusa cunicularis (Westwood, 1836), is a common and widespread crustacean species inhabiting freshwater streams throughout India except the northeast. It is an omnivore that feeds on small crustaceans, gastropods, insects and aquatic vegetation. This species is commonly collected as a food commodity and is also often reared in captivity for the same purpose. In captivity, these crabs seem to prefer animal-based food and are generally fed about 10% of their total biomass in prawn and rice flakes daily. Observations of B. cunicularis feeding in nature are scant in the literature, and to the best of my knowledge there have not been any reports of the species feeding on fish. Herein I report the first observation of B. cunicularis feeding on a Malabar silurus, Pterocryptis wynaadensis, a type of catfish.
Maharashtra state is the third largest by area in India. Maharashtra’s bat fauna comprises eight families, 23 genera, and 41 species, most of which are insectivorous microchiropterans. Eleven of the 41 bat species are found throughout the state whereas 21 species have few colonies with restricted distribution. Five species endemic to South Asia occur in the state. Maharashtra is separated into six divisions in this paper on the basis of geography, topography, and agro-climatic conditions; the presence of bat species and their roosting sites are reported per division. The IUCN status of bat species is listed, as well as endemism. Types of forests in the state and forest cover in each of the six divisions are considered for discussion in the context of bat distribution. Bat species richness and evenness are compared using the Shannon-Weaver (S-W) Index and Simpson’s indices (Reciprocal and Diversity). The results are discussed from the viewpoint of conservation of bat fauna in forest areas in general and the Western Ghats region of the state in particular. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/tapro.v6i1.7083 TAPROBANICA, 2014. Vol. 06, No. 01: pp. 32-45
Top-cited authors
A. A. Thasun Amarasinghe
  • University of Indonesia
D.M.S. Suranjan Karunarathna
  • Nature Explorations & Education Team (NEET)
Chandramouli S.R.
Gernot Vogel
  • Independent Researcher
S.R. Ganesh