Hesperotettix viridis grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Melanoplinae) exhibit intra-individual variation in both mitochondrial 12S-valine-16S and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA sequences. These findings violate core assumptions underlying DNA sequence data obtained via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification for use in molecular systematics investigations. Undetected intra-individual variation of this sort can confound phylogenetic analyses at a range of taxonomic levels. The use of a DNA extraction protocol designed to enrich mitochondrial DNA as well as an initial long PCR of approximately 40% of the grasshopper mitochondrial genome failed to control for the presence of paralogous mitochondrial DNA-like sequences within individuals. These findings constitute the first demonstration of intra-individual heterogeneity in mitochondrial DNA-like sequences in the grasshopper subfamily, Melanoplinae, and only the second report of intra-individual variation in nuclear ITS ribosomal DNA sequences in grasshoppers. The fact that intra-individual variation was detected in two independent DNA marker sets in the same organism strengthens the notion that the orthology of PCR-derived DNA sequences should be examined thoroughly prior to their use in molecular phylogenetic analyses or as DNA barcodes.
Abstract A phylogeny of the tribe Aphidini (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was reconstructed from three gene fragments: two mitochondrial regions, partial tRNA-leucine + cytochrome oxidase II (tRNA/COII), partial 12S rRNA + tRNA-valine + 16S rRNA (12S/16S) and one nuclear gene, the elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α). Bayesian phylogenetic (BP) analyses were performed on each individual dataset of tRNA/COII, 12S/16S and EF1α, and maximum parsimony (MP), Bremer support test, maximum likelihood (ML) and BP analysis were performed on the combined dataset. After comparing our molecular phylogenetic results with the classic classification based on morphological and ecological data, we analysed three main issues: the monophyletic relationships among tribes and subtribes, the validities of the latest taxonomic positions of genera and species and the status of certain Aphis species groups. Our results indicate that 36 of the species analysed, with the exception of Cryptosiphum artemisiae, are clustered within the clade of Aphidini. Also, the 28 species representative of the subtribe Aphidina were separated from the eight species representative of Rhopalosiphina; each monophyletic subtribe was supported by significant P-values in the combined analysis. According to our results, Cryptosiphum should be moved to Macrosiphini because it is more closely related to the genera Lipaphis and Brevicoryne. The genus Toxoptera was recovered as non-monophyletic. In Rhopalosiphina, three genera, Hyalopterus, Rhopalosiphum and Schizaphis, were relatively closer to each other than to the genus Melanaphis. In the relationships between species-groups among Aphis, most species were separated into two main lineages; the fabae group seemed to be more closely related to the spiraecola and craccivora group rather than to the gossypii group.
Phylogenetic relationships among forty-nine taxa representing twenty-four genera of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were investigated using DNA sequence of a portion of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and parsimony analysis. Seven species in six other subfamilies of Braconidae were used as outgroup. The results suggested that members of Aphidiinae are monophyletic. The basal lineage of Aphidiinae was Aclitus in weighted and unweighted parsimony analyses and Praini was basal relative to Ephedrini. With the exception of Pauesia and Aphidius, all genera were monophyletic. The results support generic status for Euaphidius, but not for Lysaphidus. Diaeretus leucopterus was internal to a clade composed of three Pauesia species, suggesting that the latter genus may be paraphyletic. A combined analysis that included DNA sequence of 16S rRNA, NADH1 dehydrogenase and 28S rRNA resulted in more robust cladograms with topologies similar to those inferred from the 16S rRNA gene sequence alone. The results are compared to previously proposed phylogenies of Aphidiinae based on morphological and molecular characters.
The type genus for the dragonfly family Libellulidae is Libellula. At present, Libellula s.l. includes twenty-nine species, whose distribution is largely Nearctic. Whether two other libellulid taxa, Ladona and Plathemis, should be considered synonyms of Libellula, subgenera of Libellula, or separate genera, has been a subject of intermittent debate for over a century. Earlier proposals concerning Ladona and Plathemis were based on a limited number of morphological characters and lacked rigorous phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, we used the DNA sequence of a portion of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and parsimony, maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining analyses to explore whether Ladona and Plathemis are monophyletic lineages distinct from Libellula. We obtained ≈ 415 bp of DNA sequence from twenty-three taxa including thirteen species of Libellula s.s., all three recognized species of Ladona, the two species of Plathemis and representatives of four other libellulid genera. Tetragoneuria williamsoni (Odonata: Corduliidae) was included as the outgroup. Parsimony analysis suggested that Ladona and Plathemis are monophyletic lineages distinct from Libellula s.s. with a sister group relationship between Libellula and Ladona. The monophyly of Ladona, Plathemis and Libellula was supported in > 90% of bootstrap replications and in trees five to ten steps longer than the most parsimonious trees. Relationships inferred from maximum likelihood and neighbour-joining analyses also supported the monophyly of Ladona and Plathemis. The four other libellulid genera included in the study formed a monophyletic clade distinct from Libellula, Ladona and Plathemis. Based on our analysis, we propose that Ladona and Plathemis be considered either genera or subgenera within Libellulidae.
Abstract Phylogenetic relationships among the genera of the large braconid wasp subfamily Microgastrinae were explored using DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (16S), nuclear large ribosomal subunit (28S) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) genes, along with morphological characters, both new and from previous studies. The taxonomic history of this group of wasps is reviewed, along with a critique of previous phylogenetic studies on the group. Molecular data were sampled from forty-six species representing twenty-six genera of microgastrines, plus three species representing the close outgroup taxa Cardiochilinae and Miracinae. Some 2300 base pairs of aligned sequence were obtained per taxon from the three genes. In addition, fifty-three morphological characters were coded for all known genera, including two undescribed genera, except Semionis Nixon (known from only a single male type specimen). Relationships among several groups of genera are clarified and challenge some major assumptions made in earlier classifications. In particular, it is clear that dependence on one or a few major morphological character systems oversimplifies relationships, and can lead to misleading results. Despite the large amount of data analysed, basal divergences within the subfamily remain poorly resolved and essentially unsupported in any rigorous statistical sense.
Morphological characters and molecular sequence data were for the first time analysed separately and combined for the true water bugs (Hemiptera–Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). Data from forty species representing all families were included, together with two outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha and Leptopodomorpha. The morphological data matrix consisted of sixty-five characters obtained from literature sources. Molecular data included approximately 960 bp from the mitochondrial gene 16S and the nuclear gene 28S for all forty-two terminal taxa. The morphological dataset was analysed using maximum parsimony and the combined morphological and molecular (16S + 28S rDNA) dataset was analysed using direct optimization. A sensitivity analysis of sixteen different sets of parameters (various combinations of insertion–deletion cost and transversion costs) was undertaken. Character congruence was used as an optimality criterion to choose among competing phylogenetic hypotheses. The final hypothesis was obtained from the analysis of the combined molecular and mor phological dataset with the most congruent parameter set. This hypothesis supports the monophyly of all currently recognized families of Nepomorpha, and of the superfamilies Nepoidea (Nepidae + Belostomatidae), Corixoidea (Corixidae), Ochteroidea Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Notonectoidea (Notonectidae), and Pleoidea (Pleidae + Helotrephidae), but not the monophyly of the Naucoroidea (Naucoridae + Aphelocheiridae + Potamocoridae). The close relationship between the Notonectidae and Pleoidea is also supported. Our hypothesis concurs with Mahner in the placement of the Corixidae as a sister group to the remaining nepomorphan superfamilies except the Nepoidea, but differs in the placement of the Ochteroidea as a sister group to the Notonectoidea + Pleoidea. The superfamily Naucoroidea should be limited to only including the family Naucoridae and not the families Aphelocheiridae and Potamocoridae. The present analysis strongly supports a sister group relationship between the families Aphelocheiridae and Potamocoridae, a monophylum for which we propose a new superfamily, Aphelocheiroidea.
SYNOPSISA new synonymy (Saperda Fabricius, 1115 = Eutetrapha Bates, 1884) is proposed. Species formerly placed in Eutetrapha are transferred to Saperda and many new combinations are proposed. A key to 23 species and 5 varieties is given and a supplementary catalogue of the species is included. An account of new records and colour variation of the species in the Lyman Entomological Museum includes a note on copulation in S. lateralis.
We report on a sensational find in central Spain of six specimens of Thyreophora cynophila (Panzer, 1798), a colourful, strange-looking piophilid fly living on carcasses of big mammals in advanced stages of decay. Published data suggest that the species is known exclusively from central western Europe (Germany, Austria and France), and was observed last near Paris, France, in the late 1840s, i.e. more than 160 years ago. Accordingly, T. cynophila was placed in 2007 as the only dipteran on a list of recent European animals considered to be globally extinct. Collection-based data from all 16 known extant specimens found in seven European natural history museums revealed a specimen without date of T. cynophila from Algiers, Algeria. The status of the three thyreophorine piophilids known from Europe is summarized. For the smallest species we reinstate the name Centrophlebomyia anthropophaga (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) with Centrophlebomyia orientalisHendel, 1907 as a subjective junior synonym (syn.n.). We speculate as to why thyreophorines, and T. cynophila in particular, have evaded detection for so long.
An intermedia species-group is defined within Pollenia Robineau-Desvoidy. P.pseudintermedia sp.n. is described from Greece, Yugoslavia and Spain and compared with its closest relative P. intermedia Macquart. P.alajensis Rodendorf, stat.rev. is established as a new senior synonym of P.sytshevskajae Grunin, syn.n.
Harpactus Shuckard, 1837 (an unjustified emendation of the preoccupied name Arpactus Jurine, 1807) is an available name and must be restored as the valid name for the genus now called Dienoplus Fox, 1894. The latter name has been incorrectly interpreted as valid by Pate (1937), de Beaumont(1954a)and all subsequent authors.
Several unanswered questions remain regarding the taxonomy and phylogeny of inquiline gallwasps (Cynipidae: Synergini), obligate inhabitants of plant galls induced primarily by other gallwasps (Cynipidae: Cynipini and Diplolepidini). Here we use morphological and molecular data to revise the inquiline genus Synophrus, members of which are notable for extensively modifying the structure of galls induced by oak gallwasp hosts on oaks in the section Cerris of Quercus subgenus Quercus in the Western Palaearctic. Previous taxonomic treatments have recognized three Western Palaearctic species of Synophrus: S. pilulae, S. politus and S. olivieri. Our results support the establishment of four additional Western Palaearctic species: Synophrus hungaricussp.n., S. libanisp.n., S. syriacussp.n. and S. hispanicussp.n. We describe and diagnose these new taxa, analyse their phylogenetic relationships, and show that Synophrus inquilines are able to impose their own gall phenotypes on those of their hosts. We provide an updated key to Synophrus.
SYNOPSISA new species of Tetrastichus Haliday, 1844, parasitic on the nymphs of the Psyllid Paurocephala calodendri Moran, is described from South Africa. The affinities of the parasite to closely related species are briefly discussed.
The subfamily Polyphaginae is assessed using phylogenetic methodology, which has resulted in a revised concept of this taxon which includes the Homoeogamiidae, Mononychoblattidae and Cryptocercidae. A redescription of the subfamily is offered, and synapomorphic characters are provided to support the monophyly of both the Polyphaginae and the family Poiyphagidae. A phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships of polyphagine genera is proposed, based on fifty morphological characters polarized in reference to six outgroups (one tree, CI = 0.79, RI = 0.87). The Polyphaginae now includes the following sixteen genera: Anisogamia, Arenivaga, Cryptocercus, Eremoblatta, Ergaula, Eucorydia, Eupolyphaga, Hemelytroblatta, Heterogamisca, Heterogamodes, Homoeogamia, Leiopteroblatta, Mononychoblatta, Nymphytria, Polyphaga and Therea. Three genera are removed from the Polyphaginae: Austropolyphaga, Miroblatta and Polyphagoides. One new generic synonymy is proposed: Psam-moblatta as a synonym of Hemelytroblatta. The subgenus Heterogamisca is elevated to generic status. The genus Nymphytria is removed from synonymy with Mononychoblatta, and restored to generic rank. The subfamily Polyphaginae in its present sense has a large ecological range, including deserts of North America and the Old World, and tropical and temperate biomes such as dry and rain forests of Africa and Asia, but excluding Australia.
Abstract We investigated the phylogenetic patterns, evolutionary processes, and their taxonomic implications, of two closely related shield-backed katydid genera endemic to the Macaronesian archipelagos: the monotypic Psalmatophanes Chopard, 1938 endemic to Madeira and Calliphona Krauss, 1892, which includes three species restricted to the Canary Islands. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin and colonization pathways of these two genera: a single origin with subsequent sequential colonization of the islands, or three independent colonization waves from continental Africa. We used DNA sequence information from the mitochondrial genes cox1, tRNAleucine, rrnL and nad1 to infer phylogenetic relationships among Psalmatophanes and Calliphona species. Our results provide support for the independent colonization of Madeira and the Canary Islands, and suggest that Psalmatophanes is actually more closely related to the continental genus Tettigonia than to the Canarian representatives. Deep genetic divergence among Canarian species provides further support for the assignment of the Canarian species into two subgenera. Tree topology along with Bayesian-based estimates of lineage age suggest a pattern of colonization from Tenerife to La Palma, and from Tenerife to Gran Canaria with subsequent dispersal to La Gomera. We report the first collection of a Calliphona specimen in the island of El Hierro, which molecular data suggest is a recent immigrant from La Gomera. We hypothesize that the patterns of distribution and genetic divergence exhibited by Calliphona in the Canary Islands are compatible with a taxon cycle process. Our results have further implications for the higher level phylogeny of the subfamily Tettigoniinae and suggest that some of the tribes as currently delimited may not correspond to natural groups.
The following species of encyrtids described by Howard (1894, 1897) from St Vincent and Grenada are redescribed or dealt with in some other way. The current generic placements and synonymies are indicated in parentheses. Archinus occupants (Archinus), Aphycus amoenus (Metaphycus comb.n.), Aratus scutellatus (=brasiliensis Subba Rao syn.n., Zeteticontus), Blastothrix insolitus (Anagyrus comb.n.),Bothriothorax insularis (Zeteticontus), Cerchysius terebratus (Anagyrus), Cerchysius pulchricornis (Anagyrus), Chieloneurus funiculus (=cupreicollis Ashmead syn.n., Cheiloneurus), Cheiloneurus nigrescens (=longisetaceus De Santis syn.n., Cheiloneurus), Copidosoma diversicomis (Apoanagyrus comb.n.), Encyrtus argentipes (Zaomma), Encyrtus crassus (=Encyrtus gargaris Walker syn.n. =Giraultella lopesi Costa Lima & Ferreira syn. n, Coelopencyrtus comb.n.), Encyrtus conformis (Encyrtus), Encyrtus convexus (= Encyrtus nitidus (Howard) syn. n.), Encyrtus flaviclavus (Encyrtus), Encyrtus hirtus (Hunterellus comb.n.), Encyrtus moderatus (= Adelencyrtus femoralis Compere & Annecke syn. n. =Adelencyrtus miyarai Tachikawa syn. n., Adelencyrtus comb.n.), Encyrtus nitidus (=Protyndarichus proximus De Santis syn. n., Protyndarichus comb.n.), Encyrtus quadricolor (Encyrtus), Encyrtus rotundiformis (Psyllaephagus comb.n.), Encyrtus sordidus (Forcipestricis comb.n.), Encyrtus submetallicus (Ooencyrtus), Habrolepoidea glauca (Habrolepoidea) and Homalopoda cristata (Homalopoda). Xiphomastix De Santis is synonymized with Anagyrus Howards (syn. n.), both included species (X. nigriceps De Santis and X. bellator De Santis) being transferred to the latter. Propsyllaephagus Blanchard is synonymized with Psyllaephagus Ashmead (syn.n), Aratiscus laevigatus De Santis is transferred to Zeteticontus Silvestri (comb n.) and a key to the South American species of the genus is provided.
SynopsisTwo new species of Anicetusare described from females taken on Ceroplastes spp. in India, and additional characters are given for A. dodonia. A key to the known species of the genus and a host-parasite index are included.
The phylogeny of carabid tribes is examined with sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA from eighty-four carabids representing forty-seven tribes, and fifteen outgroup taxa. Parsimony, distance and maximum likelihood methods are used to infer the phylogeny. Although many clades established with morphological evidence are present in all analyses, many of the basal relationships in carabids vary from analysis to analysis. These deeper relationships are also sensitive to variation in the sequence alignment under different alignment conditions. There is moderate evidence against the monophyly of Migadopini + Amarotypini, Scaritini + Clivinini, Bembidiini and Brachinini. Psydrini are not monophyletic, and consist of three distinct lineages (Psydrus, Laccocenus and a group of austral psydrines, from the Southern Hemisphere consisting of all the subtribes excluding Psydrina). The austral psydrines are related to Harpalinae plus Brachinini. The placements of many lineages, including Gehringia, Apotomus, Omophron, Psydrus and Cymbionotum, are unclear from these data. One unexpected placement, suggested with moderate support, is Loricera as the sister group to Amarotypus. Trechitae plus Patrobini form a monophyletic group. Brachinini probably form the sister group to Harpalinae, with the latter containing Pseudomorpha, Morion and Cnemalobus. The most surprising, well supported result is the placement of four lineages (Cicindelinae, Rhysodinae, Paussinae and Scaritini) as near relatives of Harpalinae + Brachinini. Because these four lineages all have divergent 18S rDNA, and thus have long basal branches, parametric bootstrapping was conducted to determine if their association and placement could be the result of long branch attraction. Simulations on model trees indicate that, although their observed association might be due to long branch attraction, there was no evidence that their placement near Harpalinae could be so explained. These simulations also suggest that 18S rDNA might not be sufficient to infer basal carabid relationships.
Evolutionary affiliations of eighteen families of Hemiptera (s.l.) are inferred using molecular phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide (nt) sequences of 18S rDNAs. Exemplar taxa include: Archaeorrhyncha (=Fulgoromorpha): flatid, issid, dictyopharid, cixiid and delphacid; Prosorrhyncha (=Heteropterodea): Peloridiomorpha (=Coleorhyncha) -peloridiid, Heteroptera gerrid, lygaeid and mirid; Clypeorrhyncha [=extant (monophyletic) cicadomorphs]: cicadid, cercopoids (cercopid, aphrophorid), membracid and cicadellids (deltocephaline and cicadelline); and Sternorrhyncha: psyllid, aleyrodid, diaspidid and aphid. Analysed sequences encompass a region beginning ≅550 nucleotides (nts) from the 5'-end to ≅200 nts upstream from the 3'-end of the gene [≅1150 base pairs (bp) in euhemipteran to >1400 bp in sternorrhynchan taxa]. Maximum parsimony and bootstrap analyses (PAUP) identify four principal hemipteran clades, Stenorrhyncha, Clypeorrhyncha, Archaeorrhyncha and Prosorrhyncha. These lineages are identified by synapomorphies distributed throughout the gene. Sternorrhyncha is a sister group to all other Hemiptera (i.e. Euhemiptera sensu Zrzavy), rendering Homoptera paraphyletic. Within Euhemiptera, clades Clypeorrhyncha, Archaeorrhyncha, Prosorrhyncha and Heteroptera are supported by one, three, two and three synapomorphic sites, respectively. There is equitable parsimonious inference for Archaeorrhyncha as the sister group to Prosorrhyncha (Neoherriiptera sensu Sorensen et al.) or Clypeorrhyncha, in either case rendering Auchenorrhyncha paraphyletic. Neohemiptera is supported by one synapomorphy. Within Clypeorrhyncha, clade cicada + cercopoids is the sister group of the clade cicadellids + membracid (Membracoidea sensu Dietrich & Deitz). Among archaeorrhynchans, clade delphacid + cixiid is the sister group of the clade dictyopharid + flatid + issid. Within Prosorrhyncha, the peloridiid is sister to the Heteroptera. Within Heteroptera, gerrid is the sister group of the clade mirid + lygaeid (Panheteroptera sensu Schuh). Based on secondary structure of synonymous 18S rRNA, two synapomorphies each of Sternorrhyncha, Prosorrhyncha and Heteroptera are compensatory substitutions on stem substructures. All other synapomorphies identifying major lineages of Hemiptera are noncompensatory substitutions on either bulges or stems. Short basal internodal distances suggest radiation of hemipteran lineages at the suborder level occurred rapidly. Morphological, palaeoentomological and eco-evolutionary factors supporting the 18S rDNA-based phylogenetic tree are discussed.
SYNOPSISThe validity of Cavariella angelicae is confirmed, and the taxonomic status of C. hendersoni and C. konoi is discussed. The fundatrix of C. hillerislambersi, and the alate and apterous viviparous females, alate male and oviparous female of C. salicis are described. A key to the species of Cavariella so far described and known to be residentin the United States and Canada is included.
The fruit fly genus Ceratitis (Diptera: Tephritidae) comprises several important pest species attacking a wide range of unrelated fruits. In this paper the subgenus Ceratitis (Pardalaspis) Bezzi is revised. Ten species are recognized of which five are described as new: C.(P.)hamata sp.n., C.(P.)munroi sp.n., C.(P.)serrata sp.n., C.(P.)semipunctata sp.n. and C.(P.)zairensis sp.n. A key to both sexes is provided. All species are restricted to the Afrotropical Region and distributional and known host plant data are given.
The genus Deinopteroloma Jansson 1946 is transferred from the family Silphidae to the family Staphylinidae and assigned to the subfamily Omaliinae, tribe Anthophagini. The genus Mathrilaeum Moore 1966 is shown to be congeneric with Deinopteroloma and considered a junior synonym. The genus Deinopteroloma is redescribed and its position in the Anthobium group of genera is discussed. Nine species are recognized, five in the Nepal Himalayas, two in northeastern Burma and two on the Pacific coast of North America. A key for identification is given. Each species is described and illustrated and all available bionomic and distributional data are presented. Deinopteroloma crenatum, D.spectabile, D.egregium and D.insigne, all from the Nepal Himalayas, are described as new and Lathrimaeum subcostatum Maklin, L.pictum Fauvel and L.notabile Cameron are transferred in Deinopteroloma (comb.nov.). Lectotypes are designated for D.subcostatum (Mäklin), D.humerale (Casey), D.pictum (Fauvel) and D.notabile (Cameron).
The grylloblattidan species briggsisp.n. from the Stephanian (Late Carboniferous) deposit of Montceau-les-Mines (France) is described from a well-preserved specimen exhibiting parts of both wing pairs. The forewing variability of the closely related species elongatumSellards, 1909: 156, from the Artinskian deposit of Elmo (KS, U.S.A.), is documented. On the basis of new data, the taxon name PhenopterumCarpenter, 1950 is associated with a definition under the cladotypic nomenclatural procedure. The species briggsisp.n., elongatumSellards, 1909: 156, unicolorStorozhenko, 1992, elegansHandlirsch, 1911 and raketaKukalová, 1964 belong to Phenopterum as defined. Advantages of the cladotypic nomenclatural procedure are discussed in this case. For compliance with the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, it is proposed to assign the species briggsisp.n. to the taxon Phenopterum, which has the status of a genus under the Linnaean nomenclatural procedure.
SYNOPSISThe fundatrices, alatae viviparae, males, oviparae, eggs and egg-laying procedure of a new species of Sensoriaphis from Nothofagus moorei are described. An account is given of the unusual composition and seasonal distribution of its morphs. The eggs and egg-laying procedure of Neophyl-laphis brimblecombei Carver are also described.
New biological and bibliographic information confirms that the widely accepted name Drosophila yakuba Burla, 1954 and the unused name Drosophila opisthomelaina are synonymous. The latter was coined by Nolte & Stoch in a 1950 work containing a disclaimer and is unavailable by strict application of Article 8b of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (3rd edn, 1985). In a previously overlooked publication, Nolte (1958) cites D.opisthomelaina as a senior synonym; the work also contains diagnostic information. Synonymy is not disputed but before 1958 the name was unavailable. Thus D. opisthomelaina Nolte, 1958 is treated as a junior rather than a senior synonym of D.yakuba. These nomenclatural corrections remove confusion concerning records of this species in southern Africa and will probably be met with general approval. The distribution in southern Africa and Madagascar of D.yakuba and closely related species: D.melanogaster Meigen, 1830, D.simulans Sturtevant, 1919 and D.teissieri Tsacas, 1971, are summarized.
Biting midges of the genus Culicoides include vector species for orbiviral diseases, such as bluetongue and African horse sickness. Although the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola is the major vector of bluetongue in the Mediterranean basin, recent outbreaks in regions where C. imicola is absent has incriminated other Culicoides, including those belonging to the Obsoletus Complex of the subgenus Avaritia Fox, 1955. The classical taxonomy of this species complex is unclear and this stimulated the molecular analysis of twenty Culicoides populations sampled from eighteen localities across Italy. Ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences were used to characterize the intra- and interspecific variation between Italian members of the Obsoletus Complex and related species, by means of an analysis of molecular variance and phylogenetic analyses. Although morphological differentiation is often extremely difficult, the molecular analysis clearly demonstrated a high degree of divergence between most species. The study showed that at least seven species of the subgenus Avaritia occur in Italy; these are C. obsoletus, C. scoticus, C. montanus, C. dewulfi, C. imicola and two species that could not be identified with certainty, but one of which is similar to C. chiopterus. Finally, a simple polymerase chain reaction assay was developed that rapidly discriminates between four members of the Obsoletus Complex in Italy, a prerequisite for vector identification.
The subfamily Rhachiberothinae Tjeder, 1959, originally included in the Berothidae and recently transferred to the Mantispidae, is revised and elevated to family rank. A historical review and redescriptions of the family Rhachiberothidae stat.n. and of the genera Rhachiberotha Tjeder, 1959, and Mucroberotha Tjeder, 1959, are presented. Five new species, R.ingwe, R.sheilae, M.aethiopica, M.angolana and M.minted, are described and differentiated from the five hitherto-known species. The hypothesis of a sister-group relationship of the Rhachiberothidae to the Berothidae is re-established. The phylogenetic position of the Dilaridae as an adelphotaxon of the monophyletic group ([Rhachiberothidae + Berothidae] + Mantispidae) is discussed.
SynopsisA new genus of Neophyllaphidini is established for two new species from Tasmania and Western Australia, respectively, descriptions of which are given. The alate viviparous female of Sensoriaphis tasmaniae is also described.
SynopsisA new species of Parucnephiu, near dumurensis, is described from males, females, pupae and larvae taken from an isolated mountain in Uganda just north of the equator. The characters in which it differs from other species of Parucnephiu are discussed and notes on the habitat and habits are included.
Phylogenetic relationships between water striders (Heteroptera: Gerridae) of genus Gerris Fabricius were examined using molecular and morphological characters. The molecular dataset was 820 bp DNA from the 3′ half of the mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 515 bp DNA from the nuclear gene encoding elongation factor 1 alpha. The morphological dataset was a slightly modified version of a previously published dataset. Representatives from all eight recognized species groups of Gerris, as well as six species from three related genera, including Gigantometra gigas, Limnoporus esakii, L. rufoscutellatus, Aquarius najas, A. conformis and A. paludum, were included. Unweighted parsimony analyses of the COI sequences gave a topology with strong support for only those nodes that were already recognized as closely related based on morphological characters. Similar analyses of EF-1α gave a cladogram with a topology quite different from that based on morphology and COI. Unweighted parsimony analyses of the ‘total evidence’ dataset largely supports the traditional view of Gerris phylogeny. Finally, the implications of the reconstructed phylogeny in relation to biogeography and ecological phylogenetics of Gerris is discussed.