Publications
The objective of the study was to estimate the carrying capacity of forest roads with slag and gravel pavements. Deformation module and elastic deflection were used as characteristic parameters of road carrying capacity. There were 9 tested sections divided into set groups. All investigated sections were measured using VSS plate (29 measurements) and deflectometer (53 measurements). Averaged results of the measurements of specific pavements were introduced in the analysis. The present study proved that the carrying capacity of slag and gravel pavements defined according to mean module ME is insufficient. The largest (122.87 MPa) mean deformation module was detained for gravel pavement. Two slag pavements with significant constructional differences had very similar values of deformation modules 98.26 and 94.84 MPa. Taking maximum deformation modules ME into consideration, slag, gravel and gravel-broken-stone pavements comply with the requirements for low traffic intensity (ME=130–200 MPa). Only two-ply gravel pavements (about 25 cm thick) have the mean carrying capacity complying with the requirements of low traffic intensity.
 
Climate change, which was particularly marked at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries, was accompanied by unfavourable weather phenomena. One of whose effects cannot be prevented is hurricane. Much of the most devastating storms (e.g. Kyrill in January 2007, Carmen in November 2010), which crossed over Poland, was associated with low pressure systems. The occurrence of high wind speeds in the cold season is a natural feature of Polish climate. Hurricanes in the summer are generally characterized by more complicated origin. The cause of the damage at this time of year may be squall fronts and tornados (e.g. July 4th, 2002 - Puszcza Piska; July 20th, 2007 - Czȩstochowa region). An important issue is to develop a category of winds for the forest district, which can have destructive effect on the stands. Current research shows that gusty winds exceeding 11 m/s may cause first damage to the trees, while blows with velocity exceeding 30 m/s result in severe damage. Knowing and monitoring the mechanisms that leads to strong winds, assessing their impact, and managing risk in the context of their effects is one of the important elements of a forest management strategy. On August 11th, 2017, after the influx of hot tropic air, much cooler polar air began to flow from the west. In the afternoon and evening storm cell and supercell began to form in the south-west of the country. Later on, they moved in the north direction forming a squall line. With a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) moving to the north, there was a gusty wind exceeding 40 m/s in some places. A gust of wind occurred around 18.30 (EET) in Dolny Śląsk (SW Poland) and after about 2 hours in Pomerania (N Poland). The pressure tendency during the transition reached 4-5 hPa. In the northern part of the country, gusts of wind were the largest and occurred several times in 2-3 hours. The system was accompanied by heavy precipitations, which in north Poland determine more than 60% of the average monthly rainfall. The effect of moving MCS was the damage of almost 80 thousand hectares of forests in Poland, which of more than 39 thousand hectares were classified to complete restoration.
 
Jonczak J. 2011. Struktura, dynamika i wlagciwosci opadu roslinnego w 110-letnim drzewostanie bukowym z domieszka sosny i swierka. Sylwan 155(11): 760-768. The aim of this study was to characterise the aboveground litterfall in a 110-year-old beech stand with admixture of pine and spruce based on a 3-year measurement series. The studies were conducted in 2007-2009 in the Lesny Dwor Forest District (NW Poland). The input of litterfall during the study period amounted from 3.234 to 4.871 t/ha/year. Beech, pine and spruce contributed in the total litterfall mass in 50.8-70.1%, 11.4-11.9% and 1.6-24.0% respectively. Beech leaves were the main component of litterfall, accounting for 39.6-52.4%. In the masting year for beech (2009), seed coats and beech seeds had also a significant share in the mass of litterfall. The bark beetle outbreak, which occurred during the study period, influenced the dynamics and properties of spruce needle fall. In the outbreak year (2008), a several fold increase in the mass of needle fall, mainly green needles, from spruce trees was observed. The beech leaf fall compared with other components of the stand was rich in phosphorus, potassium and calcium, and moderately rich in nitrogen, had the lowest C:N and C:P ratios and the highest pH value. The needle fall of pine and spruce was much less rich in nutrients and strongly acidic. It also showed a broad range of C:N and C:P values.
 
The paper presents the results of an analysis of the features of the growth space of a single tree in a 13.5 years old oak stand. The following measures of the growth space of a tree were selected and determined: crwn projection area-p(k) [m(2)], crown diameter-d(k) [m], Seebach's growth space number (also called the crown deflection degree) - crown projection area to basal area ratio - d(k)(2)/d(1.3)(2), space use degree - r/s, space of a single tree - ppd=p(k).h [m(3)], crown spread (crown deflection coefficient) - d(k)/h and percentage use of a unit area -pwjp=100.p(k)/p(J)[%]. Also the biosocial position of each tree was determined.
 
The article presents the execrpts of the Warta Act (1423) that concern forest protection. Interpretation of the provisions in terms of the yew protection was performed in the connection to the political and economic situation of that time. It was demonstrated that the prohibition on the yew felling was connected to the fact of protection against intensive export of yew timber to the Western Europe and the lack resources for own purposes, and therefore was not related directly to the nature protection itself.
 
The use of Nomolt 150 in 2003 to control nun moth population had significant effect on the decline in the number of two abundant ground beetle species: Pteroctichus oblongopunctatus and P. niger. The number of trapped insects in the area covered by control treatment was significantly reduced in comparison with the area where such treatment was not performed. This particularly referred to P. niger. While this common species occurred in great number before the treatment in each of three years of observation, it almost disappeared aftermath.
 
The use of Nomolt 150 to control nun moth population in 2003 had no practicaly effect on the change in the abundance of this insect pest. The markedly increased larval mortality as a result of the performed treatment was set off by a fast growth in their occurrence after the treatment and the abundance dynamics model was identical on both areas where treatments were and where were not performed.
 
The paper analyzes the changes of forest fragmentation in the Western Pomerania region (NW Poland). The analysis was carried out basing on maps from 16th and 18th century as well as 1930s, when the forest cover in the studied area was the lowest. The historical area of forests was assessed on the basis on Hartnack utilization maps. The analysis of numerical maps was carried out in the GUIDOS program, which enables to evaluate the fragmentation of the forests through Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis (MSPA) that describes the geometry of patches and their interconnectivity. The program calculated the forest areas classified for the seven categories according to their functions in the landscape (MSPA classes). In the 15th century the forests coverage was around 52.5%. There was a significant loss of forest area between the 16th and 18th century, and in the 18th century they occupied 24.7% of the researched area. Because of the economic changes in the country that took place after the World War II, the forest area in Pomerania increased to 33.7%. It was found that changes in the forest area in the examined period resulted in a decrease in the area classified as forest interior (CORE) and an increase in the boundary area (EDGE). Taking into account the equidistant of 1 km(2), the area occupied by the core patches dropped in the analysed period from 59.9% to 35.6%. At the same time the spatial isolation of many patches increased, which was reflected in an increase in the area classified as 'islands' (ISLET). Their share in relation to the entire forest area increased from 4.4% to 23.6%. This could be particularly seen in the area of Pyrzycko-Stargardzka Plain and Choszczno Lakeland, where in the 1930s the so-called forest islands constituted the entire forest area of these mesoregions. The MSPA analysis enabled to specify forest patches classes, which can be useful for landscape characterization, including the patch and corridor model. The fragmentation of forests can be objectively assessed using GUIDOS and it can make the output results obtained in GIS programs complete.
 
Article describes Prussian forest policy according to three kinds of property: state, private and other, i.e. Catholic Church and local communitics. In period 1772-1914, in the contemporary western and northern Poland, the Prussian government realized the forest policy that was a response to industrial challenges. It established a stable infrastructure, which lasts until now. However, the consequences of this policy are not unequivocal. Citizens who belonged to the Polish national community very often lost their forest property. Prussian state became the main owner and manager as well as administrator of forests.
 
Jazdzewski K. 2010. Administracja lasami panstwowymi na obszarze dzisiejszej RDLP w Gdansku w latach 1772-1815. Sylwan 154 (7): 506-512. The present article is the third in a series on the administration of state-owned forests in the territory of the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Gdarisk during Poland's partition. In the period under review, vast stretches of forests, which formerly belonged to clergy, private owners or royalty, in the majority came under the rule of the Prussian King. To manage the taken-over property efficiently, the conqueror started to build a centralised forest administration structure abolishing the administrative division in place during the Republic of Poland.
 
Macias A., Szymczak M. 2012. Zmiany powierzchni lesnych na terenie miasta i gminy Krotoszyn w latach 1793-2005. Sylwan 156 (9): 710-720. The aim of this study was to show the changes in forest cover in the town and commune of Krotoszyn in the last 200 years. The analysis of topographic maps, with the use of landscape indicators showed that despite the relative stability of the size of forest area from 1829 to the present, significant changes in their structure caused by human activity occurred.
 
The aim of the study was to research which wood species were used to make constructions and everyday objects in the Œwitokrzyski, Rural Town, and Manor sectors of the Ethnographic Park (an open-air museum) in Tokarnia (central Poland). The objects on display are in the natural village environment. Apart from the traditional architecture there are also permanent exhibitions of furnishings belonging to people of different social classes. In all investigated sectors we found thirty five items. Wood species were determined using the macroscopic method. The Ethnographic Park archives contain residual information about wood species. Larch was the most commonly used wood species in the whole area. Other species used in the architecture include oak, pine and fir. Chairs and beds were made from pine and oak. For upright furniture, oak and less often pine were used. The other wood species used in this kind of furniture were larch, ash, beech and walnut. Kitchen utensils were mostly made from pine, poplar, birch, beech and oak. School utensils were made from beech, birch and pine. Oak, beech and birch were used in others items. Wood species used in construction and the production of everyday objects in the Kielce region from the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Localization and investigation into others traditional objects in œwitokrzyskie voivodeship should be further discussed in the next study. Moreover, maps of tree stands from the end of the 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century should be analysed. Consideration of these aspects may help find the reason why larch was the most popular wood species in the Ethnographic Park in Tokarnia.
 
The 19th century game management in Bialowieża Primeval Forest (BPF), especially hunts for European bison, have been a subject of several works. The aspect of hunts motivated by research and museum needs have not been described in detail yet. The paper attempts at describing the administrative process behind such hunts and collecting all records of bison hunted or captured and carcasses acquired in BPF for museums, natural collections and universities in 1811-1914 (period covered by manuscript sources and published historical works with data on bison hunts available). Based on available sources, we calculated that in the period in question a total of 153 bison were hunted during 'recreational' hunts (by tsars, their families and exalted guests with special tsars' permissions) and 56 were shot for purposes of study and research - therefore 27% out of 209 hunts had research motivations. Furthermore, 72 bison were captured alive (for zoos, cross-breeding and taming experiments) and carcasses of 89 bison (plus another 9 of unknown origin) were sent to museums and universities all around Europe. We believe that this little known aspect of the 19th century game management in BPF has had a significant impact on informing the scientific world and especially the general public about the European bison species, which in turn could have contributed to successful, international collaboration after the extinction of the species in the wild in 1919.
 
Administration of the state-owned forests in the territory of the Gdansk Regional Directorate of the State Forests in years 1815-1867 was an important fragment of functioning of the Prussian State. It's efficiency had an impact on state revenues and, consequently, on its economic situation and, what was of primary importance at that time, on its military condition. In the period under review, a four-tier forest administration system was in place, headed by a director-general. The second tier consisted of forest inspectors responsible for forest inspections, usually acting in the territory of dozen or so forest districts. The last two tiers consisted of forest district managers and forest rangers. Wardens and guards often assisted forest rangers.
 
Based on literature review, the occurrence and biology of the sharp-dentated bark beetle Ips acuminatus (Gyll.) in Scots pine stands of Europe was presented. The economic significance of this species in Poland over the past 50 years was also characterized, including the size of the damage caused as a result of trees infestation. The sharp-dentated bark beetle belongs to the most dangerous pest of pine stands, which is mostly due to the fact that it attacks trees without visible symptoms of weakness. Furthermore, the trees in the early stages of infestation are very difficult to identify in the field. In addition, stain fungi are introduced into the wood as a result of tunneling of both, adult beetles and larvae under the bark, which cause staining of wood and thus substantially reduce the quality and economic value of timber. Since 2015, in Scots pine forests in Poland the systematic increase in the abundance of population of sharp-dentated bark beetle is observed, resulting in increasing amount of Scots pine wood harvested in the sanitary cuttings. To reduce the damage caused by I. acuminatus in the endangered pine stands a number of activities related to active forest protection should be implemented. It is also necessary to monitor the population of this species continuously.
 
The paper presents results of the study concerning Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) that larvae cause galls on leaflets of Robinia pseudoacacia L.
 
Jazdzewski K. 2009. Administracja lasami panstwowymi w latach 1868-1914 na terenie dzisiejszej RDLP w Gdansku. Sylwan 154 (2): 139-144. This article is the second in a series about the state forests administration in the territory of the Gdansk Regional Directorate of the State Forests National Forest Holding in the time of Poland's partition. In the period under study (1868-1914), increase in the number of Forest Inspectorates and Forest Districts was observed. This growth was mainly the result of acquisition by the German government of new lands and forests and their transfer to forest administration.
 
The aim of the studies was to check the usefulness of ITS1/2 rDNA and 18S rDNA regions in the molecular investigation of forest soil microbiota structure. Soil studied, originated from a 1-year-old plantation and a 40-year old stand of Scots pine located in Bierzwnik and Miedzychow forest districts located 200 km apart. The hypothesis assumed that both approaches lead to the discovery of abundant microbiota communities with different structures and with rare common species. The environmental DNA was extracted with a Power Soil DNA Isolation Kit from two soil samples in each site. The ITS1/2 rDNA was amplified with specific primers ITS1 and ewfitsrev 1, and 18S rDNA with universal primers NS1 and NS2. PCR products were cloned into pGEM-T Easy. Inserts were primarily selected in blue/white screening on a X-gal medium. Representative clones were further selected in two separate RFLP analyses with HhaI and BsuRI restriction enzymes. Representative clones purified and sequenced using the Sanger Method in the DNA Research Centre (Poznan). Each sequence was identified to the lowest taxonomic rank. Ninety to 233 clones with DNA of 5-44 taxa including 3-37 taxa of fungi were obtained from 4 samples of soil. After application of ITS1/2 rDNA and 18S rDNA, the fungal DNA was detected respectively in 89,60-100,00% and 11,77-64,8% clones and the number of fungal species detected was respectively 12-37 and 3-19. Fungi were represented by four orders: Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Both primers also amplified also DNA of other organisms (mostly from Animalia and Protista Kingdom) represented by 0-9 taxa. If compared, the application of forest soil microbiota structure with ITS1/2 rDNA and 18S rDNA led to detect a lower abundance of fungi and a bigger abundance of other organisms. Considering the higher number of clones and taxa recognized, the region of ITS1/2 rDNA was more effective in the studies of the soil microbiota structure. The region of 18S rDNA was efficient in local detection of Chytridiomycota and Zygomycota and of rare species of fungi from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Despite the deficiency of NCBI database the use of the 18S rDNA region in studies on fungal community the region should be included in molecular studies of fungal diversity. It is concluded that studies on the biodiversity of soil microorganisms need the application of a few independent methods of detection and identification.
 
Nearly one and a half century ago, a large territory of Poland became part of the Prussian (since 1871-German) State. to the territories annexed as a result of the Three Partitions, forest administration structured on the Prussian model was very soon installed. This entailed adoption of the Prussian uniforms by the new forest administration. The forest service uniforms studied in this paper were introduced by virtue of the Regulations of 29 December 1868. Three kinds of uniforms were in use at the end of the 19(th) century: forest, temporary and state one. These basically consisted of a frock coat, trousers, a hat or a cap, and a coat.
 
In the 1800s forest management in Polish forests was still in its infancy. This article reminds presents tree stands were described in those days. The then concepts of: the forest, tree stand, bare land and large tree group were explained. In addition, the notion as well as the method of determination of the stand species composition and its age, perpendicular structure, closure, mixture proportion, stocking and condition was discussed in detail. For this purpose, available nineteenth century instructions, glossaries and books were employed.
 
The paper presents Polish translation of the article by Mitrofan Golenko (originally published in 1935) reporting the last imperial hunts that Russian tsar and his family held in Bialowieza Primeval Forest in 1912-1913. The article gives Information on the hunting techniques and organisation of monarchical hunts in the early 20(th) century.
 
The article describes courses organized for foresters in Poland in 1918-1939. It demonstrates the importance of such trainings as a supplementary education of forest rangers, timber sorters and resin extractors.
 
Paper evaluates the conditions that affect the functioning of the timber market and its role in the development of forestry and timber industry during the ninety-year-history of the State Forests. Four periods were distinguished, which, according to the authors, correspond to the key stages of development of the Polish State: the interwar period (1918-1938), the period of the Second World War (1939-1945), the post-war period (1946-1989) and the period after the change of the political system in Poland (1990-2008). Data concerning both forestry and the timber industry in these periods were collected, processed and compared to the general conditions of functioning of the Polish state.
 
The paper constitutes the fourth successive publication in the cycle presenting the history of forest management in Poland up to the year 1939 and deals with the history of forest management in Poland during the period between World War I and World War II. It presents instructions for the state and private forests which were in force at that period.
 
The paper constitutes the second successive publication in the cycle presenting the history of forest management in Poland LIP to the year 1939. It deals with the history of forest management in the Polish Kingdom on the basis of legislative acts, books and instructions issued at that time.
 
The paper constitutes the third successive publication in the cycle presenting the history of forest management in Poland up to the year 1939 and deals with the history of forest management of the Polish land ruled by the Austrians and Prussians based on various legislative acts and instructions issued at that time.
 
The paper is the first study from the cycle dealing with the history of forest management in Poland up to the year of 1939. It describes the beginnings of the forest management on Polish territories on the basis of legal acts, books and instructions published at that time.
 
Sudden progress of monastic metallurgy at the end of the Thirty Years War created an increased demand for charcoal, which caused in second half of the 17(th) century changes from exploitation to rational forest economy. During 1690s, the Cistercians from Rudy ran on a big scale logging and artificial revival of forests of today's Rudy Raciborskie Forest District, so that they become precursors of modern forestry not only in Upper Silesia, but also throughout Poland.
 
The long-term changes of vegetation cover at the level of woodland community taking place between 1959 and 2016 on the permanent study plot located in the compartment 319 of Bialowieza National Park are discussed. In 1959 two distinctive woodland community types occurring on sample plot were distinguished: Subboreal mixed pine-oak forest (Serratulo-Pinetum) and hornbeam- -lime forest (Tlio-Carpinetum). The phytosociological investigations, carried out almost 60 years later, revealed that in case of both communities, significant, directional changes of their floristic composition took place. Particularly high rate of change occurred in case of the phytocoenosis representing the Senatulo-Pinetum community. In 1959 it contained a full set of characteristic plant species. During the study period, this community type representing the Vaccinio-Piceetea class, was replaced by the initial form of lime-hornbeam forest belonging to the Querco-Fagetea class. Also, in case of the previous Tilio-Carpinetum association, the significant changes in the floristic composition occurred, although not as large as In case of Serratulo-Pinetum community. 60 years ago this community type contained several plant species typical for thermophilous oak forests. Nowadays, it represents a typical form of lime-hornbeam association. The changes in both community types were mainly related to the strong expansion of lime and hornbeam, which took place during the study period and involved the whole study plot. As a result, the vegetation occurring on the study plot is much more homogenous now than it was ca. 60 years ago. The maintenance of Serratulo-Pinetum phytocoenoses distinguished by a high floristic diversity calls for active protective measures in all cases where such measures are allowed and where this community type can potentially develop.
 
Changes in the herbaceous layer (vascular plants), taking place between 1959 and 2016 on the permanent study plot in the compartment 319 of the Strict Reserve in the Bialowieza National Park are presented. Zareba [1972] presented phytosociological research carried out in 1959 on the 1.2 ha plot. The author established 10 releves (size between 100 and 400 m2), in which in total 91 different species of vascular plants were noted. In 2016, the similar study was conducted, using slightly modified methods (the inventory of plants involved the total area of the study plot). The comparison of data recorded during both investigations revealed that the total number of plant species declined from the initial 91 to current 83. During the ca. 60-year long period, 43 plant species disappeared completely and were replaced by 35 new species. In the declining group, almost the half (20) were species important from the point of view of nature conservation, including four Red List species (Arnica Montana, Goodyera repens, Lathyrus laevigatus, Trolius europaeus), 10 plant species protected by law, and several other precious species related to rare and declining woodland community types. The obtained results confirm the findings of other authors describing unfavourable changes in the flora of the Bialowieza Forest during the past several tens of years. The floristic richness is an important part of the overall biodiversity of Bialowieza Forest. It appears that strict protection does not secure the maintenance of this key component. Thus, an attempt to preserve diverse values of Bialowieza Forest on a sustainable basis should, first of all, look for a proper balance between strict and active protection. The later can (and should) be integrated within the multifunctional forest management, conducted on the prevailing area of the Bialowieza Forest.
 
Fires that are one of the most classic disturbance of plant communities have had a great impact on the development of Scots pine communities. Restoration of vegetation disturbed by fire in this type of community starts almost immediately after disturbance. The intensity of fire significantly influences the future composition of vascular plant species and also the rate of change. The aim of the study was to describe the effect of intensity of the surface fire on the forest floor vegetation response and to preliminary attempt to characterize the syndynamic processes occurring after the disturbance. The research was conducted in Scots pine forest Peucedano-Pinetum in the Kampinoski National Park (central Poland). We established 45 permanent study plots, including 17 not burnt (control) and 28 burnt ones. Each plot covered area of 100 m². On each plot at first we separated the areas which were not burnt, surface burnt and characterized by complete burnout of the organic horizon of the soil. Than we measured the thickness of this horizon. Additionally the volume of organic matter burnt within each plot was calculated. Vegetation was sampled using Londo scale in the year of fire (2015) and the year after (2016). We used DCA ordination and UPGMA classification methods. Recorded species were divided into forest and non-forest groups and additionally for trees and shrubs, and the others, containing dwarf shrub, herb, bryophyte and lichen species. The linear regression method was used to estimate the relationship between measured parameters, vegetation change and changes in the species richness of distinguished groups. Two processes of vegetation reaction were observed. The first was classified as regeneration and occurred within surface burnt plots. Its characteristic feature included the higher increase in forest species richness than in case of non-forest species. The other process was defined as secondary succession alike. It occurred on plots with highest burnout of soil organic matter horizon. The increase of richness of non-forest species predominated within it. The change between two processes is smooth and depends on the participation of area with complete burnout of soil organic horizon within plot. The results show, that more than one process of recovery of community can occur in the same site and it depends especially on the proportion of soil organic horizon area burnout.
 
Koczur A. 2012. Wtorna sukcesja roslinnosci w kierunku bagiennej olszyny gorskiej Caltho laetae-Alnetum (Zarz. 1963) Stuchlik na dawnych lakach Beskidu Niskiego. Sylwan 156 (10): 784-791. On the abandoned wet meadows in the Beskid Niski Mts. secondary succession to the community Caltho laetae-Alnetum proceeds. In the initial phases of succession significant similarity between patches of meadows communities and grey alder bog forest in floristic composition and structure of vegetation is observed. Particular stages of succession (non-forest and forest) are characterized by occurrence of big group (43.5%) of shared species.
 
Koczur A. 2011. Zroznicowanie siedliskowe bagiennej olszyny gorskiej caltho laetae-Alnetum (Zarz. 1963) Stuchlik 1968 w Babiogorskim Parku Narodowym. Sylwan 155 (2): 112-119. The grey alder bog forest caltho laetae-Alnetum occurs in the Bahia Gora region in two variants differing in the composition of the tree stand, ground cover and habitat conditions. The variant with Alnus incana is similar to universally met in the Polish Carpathians. In turn, variant with Alnus glutinosa is characterized by a bigger participation of Aconitum variegatum and the presence of plants typical for fens and willow brushwood from the range adler carr.
 
In this study the genetic structure of Istebna and Tarnawa plus trees was studied and polymorphism of twenty four provenances of spruce tested in a IPTNS-IUFRO 1964/68 site in Krynica representing selected regions of the species occurrence was analyzed. The genetic diversity was estimated with seven isoenzyme systems encoded in eleven loci. The highest genetic polymorphism was shown by plus trees of the Istebna and Tarnawa race and the lowest by spruce from IUFRO experiment. There was a statistically significant effect of origin on the mean number of alleles per locus. The origin of the analyzed trees had no effect on other parameters of genetic variability: the effective number of alleles per locus, observed and expected heterozygosity and Wright index.
 
The genetic variation of Norway spruce provenances from fourteen geographical regions were tested in the IPTNS-IUFRO 1964/68 experiment in Krynica. The genetic structure of sevcn isozyme systems coded by eleven loci was desetibed. Parameters of genetic polymorphism i.e. the average number of alleles per loeus and observed heterozygosity were 1.47 and 0.12, respectivcly. The spruces from Belarus were characterlsed by the highest genetic diversity, while the provenances from south-eastern Styria - the lowest. The valucs of Wright's inbreeding coefficient varied from -0.417 for the Romanian provenances to 0.223 for the provcnances from 28th Krutzsch regions (Tyrol-Salzburg; Austria).
 
The Wronie nature reserve was established in 1978 for conservation of Pomeranian fertile beech forest Galio odorati-Fagetum (=Melico-Fagetum) outside of the natural range of European beech Fagus sylvatica. Reserve is located in Golub-Dobrzyn Forest District (53 degrees 18'39.52"N; 18 degrees 54'3.89"E; N Poland). The aim of our study was to determine the influence of passive protection for beech forest herb layer biodiversity. For our research, we used four series of phytosociological releves made in 1967, 1984, 1995 and 2005. To investigate changes in habitat conditions we used Ellenberg indicator values. Differences between years were analysed with ANOVA and Tukey test. In subsequent years, the frequency and cover of non-forest species, mainly from Epilobietea, Artemisietea, Trifolio-Geranietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea classes increased. This is caused by the increase in light availability, as result of disturbances in the tree stands (windthrow, oak decline, insect gradation). Light is the only Ellenberg coefficient that has significantly changed during 38 years (fig., tab. 2). Increase of light availability had no effect on biodiversity of forest herb species from Querco-Fagetea class. In comparison, with other studies in similar forest communities, our results suggests that passive protection might give different effects on biodiversity in similar forest communities, depending on tree stand dynamics.
 
Zieba S. 2010. Wskaznikowa analiza stanu lasow karpackich w latach 1967-2006. Sylwan 154 (7): 478-487. The paper is an attempt to evaluate the forest management pursued in the mountains on the basis of the analysis of the volume and structure of Carpathian forest resources in the space of nearly forty years, i.e. from 1967 till 2006. The studies comprised 68 forest divisions (previously having the rank of forest districts) covering an area of 467,226 hectares of forests administered by the State Forests National Forest Holding and forests of the Forest Experimental Station in Krynica. The same research method and research material as in 1967 were used for the comparison of the results. The material included overall inventory results obtained from individual forest divisions, so-called "tables of age classes by dominant species".
 
In Poland, since 1970, the impact of the industrial air contamination on forests was determined during the management work in individual forest districts. For that purpose, various methods were employed published in successive forest management instructions (1970, 1980, 1994 and 2003). Within the framework of large-area inventories, since 1983, forest health and sanitary conditions were also determined on the entire area of Poland (1983, 1985, 1988, 1991, 1999-2001, 2005-2009). The size of imissions reaching stands was assessed on the basis of the so-called technical monitoring carried out jointly by the Office of Forest Management and Forest Geodesy and Forest Research Institute. The aim of the study is to present a short historical outline as well as to review advantages and disadvantages of the applied methods and their significance for Polish forestry.
 
Studies on changes in the vegetation of the Grad Radziwillowski nature reserve were carried out between 2005 and 2008. The nature reserve is situated in the southern part of the Podlasie region, near Radziwillowka village (Mielnik county). The results were compared with the research conducted by Sokolowski in 1971 and 1989 [Sokolowski 1993] and with data from establishment statement of the nature reserve. Structure and physiognomy of the forest stand as well as quantitative and qualitative proportions in the flora have changed in the studied period. The vegetation of the reserve ought to he monitored.
 
The paper presents changes (in 1990-2001) in species composition, growing stock, dbh structure, height and storey structure, increment, density of dead trees and regeneration of primeval spruce forests situated in the Rybi Potok Valley in the Tatra National Park on the example of two permanent study sites. The stands discussed in the paper (in comparison with other stands at a similar altitudinal zone in the Polish Carpathians) feature high productivity expressed in annual volume increment amounting to 5.3-5.6 m(3)/ha and high stability.
 
The study analyses accident rate in the Regional Directorate of the State Forests in Szczecinek (N\V Poland) in the years 1990-2009. 1042 accidents occurred in the analyzed period. The frequency rate equalled to 14.75, i.e. almost 15 accidents per 1000 employees. The severity rate amounted 48.65. The analysis showed that privatization of forest works did not have significant impact on accident rates.
 
The research presents changes (in the period of 1991-2002) in species composition, volume, dbh structure, height and storey structure, increment value, self-thinning rate and regeneration dynamics of the primeval-type spruce forests of the tipper montane zone in the Panszczyca Valley and the Stawy Gasiennicowe Valley in the Tatra National Park on the example of three permanent experimental plots. The stands under Study (as compared with other stands in the Polish Carpathians from the similar altitudinal zone, feature high productivity expressed by the current annual volume increment value of 4.1-4.5 cu.m./ha, diverse structure and composition depending on the represented stages and phases of stand development, as well as high stand stability.
 
In the presented article there was an evaluation made to determine the impact of alkali anthropopressure on the compositions and construction of the forested complex. The basis for this analysis was a set of pictures taken in two time intervals around Ozarow cement plant. The dynamism of all changes in the biocenosis diversification in time was prepared with the use of basic diversification indicators: Shannon's, Simpson's, sustainability.
 
The study objective was to verify the hypothesis on ecotypic variation in beech and ineffectiveness of transferring its reproductive material over larger distances. Beech nuts were collected in the autumn of 1990. Experimental sites were established in the Baligród and Oleszyce forest districts (SE Poland). On single plots of 18.00x13.75 m (247.5 m2), a total of 110 three-years-old seedlings were planted in a 1.50x1.25 m spacing in autumn 1993. Single row of mountain ash was left between the plots. In the period of 1994-2016 a series of analyses was conducted concerning adaptation, growth, phenological and qualitative traits. Height was measured on all trees using a measuring stick, except for the year 2016, when hypsometer was used to measure approximately 20 heights and remaining ones were determined based on the height curve. Results were analysed using univariate analysis of variance based on the random model, followed by Duncan's multiple range test for each experimental site and year of the study. For 2016 ordering of populations in each of the experimental sites was compared using Spearman's rank correlation test. In terms of survival rates in Oleszyce site the local provenance from Oleszyce proved to be superior. In all the years of the measurements it was characterised by the highest survival rate. In this respect the Komaricza and Lutowiska provenances from the Bieszczady Mountains turned out to be the worst ones. In the experimental site in Baligród, the Barlinek and Polczyn provenances outranked the others in terms of their survival rates, while in 2016 it was the population from Komadcza. Tree height effects in Oleszyce site showed that the local population from Oleszyce grows best, while the Pomeranian population from Jamy was also exceptional. The Bieszczady populations (Komaricza and Lutowiska) are characterised by the worst growth traits. In the experimental site in Baligród, the local Baligrdd population is characterised by poorest growth, similarly to the other ones from the Bieszczady. In terms of growth, the Western Pomeranian population from Gryfino is exceptional. As far as all the evaluated traits are concerned the investigated populations exhibit considerable variability, as no geographic ordination could be found. It was confirmed that imported populations, even from long distances, may exceed local populations in terms of their adaptation traits and growth rates.
 
Local Seed Testing Stations quarterly send a report to Forest Research Institute (FRI) referring to seed analysis results. The FRI prepares a summary from these data. On the basis of ten-year period of research one has discovered significant differentiations in mass and viability of European alder seeds (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.) within years and among natural-forest regions.
 
A new stand of rare in the Polish flora subshrub of Fabaceae family - Genistella sagittalis was recorded in 1997 in the area of Kozienicki Landscape Park and subjected to monitoring. The analysis covers the observation period from 1997 to 2007. On the basis of phytosociological releves a negative effect of such factors as undergrowth overshading and interspecies competition on condition of Genistella sagittalis population was stated. The species demonstrates expansive tendencies in insolated habitats of little undergrowth cover. The population seems to be stabile and is not endangered at present.
 
Top-cited authors
Michał Zasada
  • Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW
Jarosław Socha
  • University of Agriculture in Krakow
Andrzej M Jagodziński
  • Institute of Dendrology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kórnik, Poland
Szymon Bijak
  • Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW
Tomasz Jelonek
  • Poznań University of Life Sciences