Species of the diaporthalean genus Gnomonia are common yet inconspicuous and poorly known microfungi occurring mostly on overwintered leaves of trees and shrubs in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere. Confusion exists about the type species of Gnomonia because a type was not designated. Three specific names have been mentioned in the literature as the type species: G. gnomon, G.vulgaris and G. setacea. Gnomonia gnomon was designated as the lectotype species; however, some authors have considered all three taxa to be synonymous with G. setacea having priority. Gnomonia vulgaris is a nomenclatural synonym of G. gnomon. Observations of type specimens and fresh material of G. gnomon and G. setacea reveal that these two species are distinct and can be distinguished by the position of perithecia in the leaf tissue and ascospore morphology. Descriptions and illustrations of G. gnomon and G. setacea are provided. A lectotype specimen and an epitype specimen with ex-type culture for G. gnomon are designated; an epitype for G. setacea is designated. The distinction between G. gnomon and G.setacea is supported by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis.
New combinations and new species are proposed in Neobarya: N. aurantiaca comb. nov., N. byssicola comb. nov., N. lichenicola comb. nov., N. lutea sp. nov., N. peltigerae sp. nov., N. xylariicola sp. nov. Neobarya agaricicola, and N. parasitica are redescribed. Anamorphs associated with N. agaricicola (Calcarisporium), N. aurantiaca (paecilomyces-like), N. byssicola (Diploospora), N. danica (lecanicillium-like), N. parasitica (lecanicillium-like), N. peltigerae (acremonium-like),and N. xylariicola (Calcarisporium) are described. Barya montana and B. salacensis are excluded from Neobarya. A key to species is provided.
In this study, type specimens of Fomes angularis, Pileodon megasporus, Veluticeps philippinensis, V. pini, V. setosa, and V. tabacina are described and illustrated. Fomes angularis and V. pini are conspecific with V. berkeleyi. Basidia and basidiospores of V. philippinensis are described for the first time, and the new combination Pileodon philippinensis is proposed. Veluticeps australiensis Nakasone nom. nov. is proposed for V. setosa G. Cunn., an illegitimate name. The new genus Campylomyces is proposed to accommodate V. tabacina and V. heimii. The type specimen of Hymenochaete setosa is an amalgam of two or three species; thus, this name should be dropped. Observations on Hymenochaete japonica and Stereum medicum are noted. The genera Veluticeps, Pileodon, and Campylomyces are discussed and compared, and a key to the known species of Veluticeps and related taxa is provided.
An interesting pyrenomycete with an amyloid ascal ring and apiosporous ascospores with germ slits was collected in Brazil. It possesses a unique stromal wall in which the hyphae in the endostroma disintegrate into a bright yellow powder. This species cannot be accommodated in any recognized genus in the Xylariales and is therefore described as Diamantinia citrina gen. et sp. nov.
A fungus isolated from bark beetles infesting conifers in Germany is described as the new species Colacogloea papilionacea R. Kirschner & Oberw. It differs from the known species of Colacogloea by the production of zygoconidia. Colacosomes were detected by studies with transmission electron microscopy and the host fungus was assigned to the ascomycetes.
This contribution is the forerunner of a forthcoming monograph of Heimioporus E. Horak which replaces the synonymous, hence invalid name of the boletoid genus Heimiella Boedijn (1951). New combinations are proposed for 16 taxa.
Eighty-six lichen taxa are reported from Guatemala, most of them are new records for the country. Six of these, Bacidina dichroma, B. fuscosquamulosa, Fellhanera guatemalensis, Graphis barillae, G. bernadetae and G. submirabilis, are described as new for science. Notes on morphology, chemistry and ecology are given.
Three undescribed taxa of family Xylariaceae are described from Hawaii, Hawaiian Islands. Hypoxylon subdisciforme is a discoid to subdiscoid species with plate-like ascus apical ring that does not stain or stains lightly in iodine. Nemania abortiva features asci with 4 or fewer ascospores, the first described Nemania species with consistently fewer than 8 ascospores. Xylotumulus gibbisporus shows mound-shaped erumpent stromata with 1-5 perithecia, ascus apical ring that does not stain in iodine, gibbous ascospores with spiraling germination slit, and anamorph produced on a sporodochium.
Soil salinity is a major threat to agricultural productivity and natural ecosystems in Australia. The effect of rising salinity on soil organisms in general and fungi in particular is almost unknown in Australia. The purpose of the study reported in this paper is to examine the effects of salinity on fungal abundance and diversity in a saline soil in a dryland-agricultural region of central-west NSW. Soil fungal abundance and diversity were compared across four sampling sites in spring 2005 and autumn 2006. Species richness, diversity measurement using Shannon-Wiener index, and evenness measurement using Smith and Wilson index of soil fungi were obtained by sampling soil from 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths, and culturing fungi using Dilution plate and Warcup's plate methods. Soil salinity recorded at the time of sampling did not exceed 2 dS/m, but a negative correlation occurred between soil salinity and soil fungal abundance in spring 2005 and autumn 2006 (ANOVA; p <0.05). No relationship between soil salinity and fungal diversity existed. Penicillium was the dominant species in 30-40 % of the identified fungal samples. Also no correlation existed between low fungal abundance and diversity in salt-affected soils with little or no vegetation cover.
A new genus, Ramoacrodictys, is erected to accommodate one species, R. malabarica, formerly placed in Acrodictys, on the basis of examination of literature and a specimen collected on Bambusa sp. in China. Ramoacrodictys is mainly characterized by erect, macronematous, multi-branched conidiophores, monoblastic conidiogenous cells and production of gangliar conidia. R. malabarica is compared with closely related species.
Rodriguez, J. M., Estrabou, C., Garcia, C., & Farias, G. (2010) High linear growth rate of the pendulous lichen Usnea angulata Ach. in Sierra Chaco Forest of Central Argentina. - Sydowia 63 (1): 105-112. The purpose of this study was to identify the growth rate of the pendulous lichen Usnea angulata in the Sierra Chaco forest using transplanted and non transplanted thalli of different initial sizes. Fifty trees with U. angulata thalli were selected in a protected forest in central Argentina. On each thallus, we selected the two longest branches (BSL and BL) and we cut fragments of 10 cm and 5 cm (FL and FSL) and attached them to the side. In addition, we randomly selected 96 thalli of U. angulata from the surrounding environment and we cut a fragment of 10 cm (FT). The fragments were attached to four different trees, and located in the same area. The linear growth of cut branches and fragments were measured for three years at intervals of six months. On average, the growth of U. angulata was 23.5 mm per year. The FT growth rate was significantly higher. In comparison with previous studies, the growth rate found is high. More studies are needed to determine the effect of the transplant method and the initial size of thalli at growth.
Butin, H. (1993). Morphological adaptation and spore pleomorphism in the form-complex Dichomera-Camarosporium and Fusicoccum-Dothiorella. -Sydowia 45(2): 161-166. Affinities between morphologically different form-taxa of some Deuteromyee-tes were demonstrated with the aid of cultural experiments. The conidiomata of Camarosporium oreades and Dichomera saubinetii differed only in the presence or absence of a pseudoparenchymatous stroma. This was similarly the only difference between Dothiorella cf. aesculi and Fusicoccum cf. aesculi. All the form-taxa examined were able to produce two different types of spores, together with interme-diate forms. The existence of more than one distinct morphological state with-in a single fungal species is a well known phenomenon, and there are many species in which the development of one state or another is known to be influenced by environmental factors. In particular, the nature of the growth substrate can be of paramount importance for morphological features (v. Arx, 1981; Butin, 1981; Klebahn, 1918; Sutton, 1980). The present study was undertaken to confirm observations of the close association in nature of certain form-species of oak-inhabiting fungi, for which initial indications exist that they might represent modified stages of a single biological species. The taxa concerned belong to the Dichomera-Camarosporium form-complex and the Fusi-coccum-Dothiorella form-complex.
Twenty-nine species of arthropod-pathogenic Entomophthorales new to Switzerland are described. Nine are described as new species, namely Batkoa hydrophila from Plecoptera, Conidiobolus caecilius from Psocoptera, Entomophaga antochae from Limoniidae (Diptera), E. thuricensis from Cicadellidae (Homoptera), Erynia fluvialis from midges (Diptera), E. tumefacta from Muscidae (Diptera), Eryniopsis rhagonidis from Rhagionidae (Diptera), Pandora longissima from Limoniidae (Diptera) and Strongwellsea pratensis from Muscidae (Diptera). Pandora americana, P. sciarae, Zoophthora aphrophorae and Z. rhagonycharum are new combinations. Eleven species are first records since the original description. The list of species recorded from Switzerland amounts to 90 species representing 38 % of the world-wide known species of arthropod-pathogenic Entomophthorales.
Three hitherto unknown taxa of Mycovellosiella Rangel including two new species and a new variety, viz. Mycovellosiella anamirtae sp. nov., M. perfoliati (Ellis & Everh.) Muntañola var. nepalensis var. nov. and M. ziziphi sp. nov., collected on Anamirta paniculata, Ageratum conyzoides and Ziziphus mauritiana, respectively, are described, illustrated and compared with allied taxa.
Fusarium is an economically important fungal genus due to its pathogenic and endophytic behaviour. In the present study, endophytic fungi from Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae) growing in tropical rainforest of BRT wildlife Sanctuary,Yelandur, Karnataka, were isolated, characterised and screened for their proteolytic and fibrinolytic properties. The molecular phylogenetic analysis of the isolates using multilocus sequence typing (ITS, RPB2 and EF-1 alpha) and geneological concordance phylogenetic species recognition approach indicated that Fusarium sp. NFCCI 2946 and Fusarium sp. NFCCI 2904 belong to Fusarium equiseti whereas Fusarium sp. NFCCI 2905 belong to Fusarium incarnatum. Morphological characters also suggested their specific identity as F. equiseti and F. incarnatum. Further, all the three isolates were found to be producers of proteolytic enzymes whereas only two isolates, Fusarium sp. NFCCI 2904 and Fusarium sp. 2905, were efficiently producing fibrinolytic enzyme. Both the isolates displayed bifunctional activities forming similar halos (94.98-125.81 mm(2)) over plasminogen rich and deficient plates. The present study also marks the first report of endophytic association of Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex with Aegle marmelos.
Kirschsteiniothelia aethiops, typifying Kirschsteiniothelia, is redescribed to clarify its delimitation. Microthelia incrustans, previously synonymized under K. aethiops, is proved to be a distinct species; therefore a new combination, K. incrustans comb. nov., is proposed. The definition of this genus is thus further clarified.
Unfortunately Ain Raitviir died on September 17th, 2006. He was one of the best experts on Helotiales, especially on the family Hyaloscyphaceae. He prepared the descriptions of the new taxa and wrote a nearly complete draft which has been used for the final version of this article. Five new species of small discomycetes, Crocicreas blechni, Lachnum capense, Niptera capensis, Phaeoscypha pteridicola, Urceolella todeae, and one new variety, Incrupila aspidii var. pteridicola, are described. All of them were collected on dead fronds of ferns in South Africa.
Phanerochaete "pseudomagnoliae" nom. prov. isolated from decayed wood, collected in Stellenbosch, South Africa, is described and illustrated. From fruiting in culture it differs from previously described species of the genus Phanerochaete in that the basidiospores are smaller and it does not produce many chlamydospores on Malt Extract Agar but only on xylose containing liquid media. Phanerochaete "pseudomagnoliae" is compared with other similar species in Phanerochaete. Preliminary biochemical characterization of the strain is included.
Eight species of Psilocybe s. 1. which have been reported from Africa are discussed. Psilocybe aquamarine, P. cubensis, P. cyanescens, P. goniospora, P. mairei, P. natalensis, R semilanceata and P. subcubensis are considered, of which P. cyanescens, P. goniospora and P semilanceata were reported in doubtful way. A new species, Psilocybe congolensis is described, which is the first hallucinogenic mushroom known from the Democratic Republic of Congo. For the first time we established a connection between P. subcubensis described from Mexico and P. aquamarine from Africa. Traditional use in the past of the Psilocybe cubensis-complex in Africa is discussed.
Mossebo, D. C. & L. Ryvarden (1997). Fomitopsis africana nov. sp. (Polyporaceae, Basidiomycotina). - Sydowia 49(2): 147-149. Fomitopsis africana Mossebo & Ryvarden is described as new and characterized by a flabellate, dimidiate to semicircular basidiocarp, pinkish context, dimitic hyphal system and navicular spores.
Psilocybe taiwanensis is described as a new species from a subtropical mountain rain forest in Taiwan, China with Cryptomeria japonica and Taiwania cryptomerioides (Cupressaceae). - The species belongs to section Stuntzii; all species of the section contain the psychoactive compound psilocybine.
A revision of 40 types from ten herbaria is presented to contribute to the taxonomic understanding of Psilocybe and Deconica. In all cases, descriptions of the types were completed, with characters not previously included such as the presence of pileocystidia, subhymenium type, and arrangement of the hyphae from pileus trama. We found that P. chiapanensis and P. subyungensis are synonyms of P. yungensis, P. bipleurocystidiata of P. subtropicalis, P. subacutipilea of P. mexicana, P. ochreata of D. montana, and P. overeemii is a synonym of D. neocaledonica. Also, five species that were formerly considered to be bluing actually correspond to the nonhallucinogenic genus Deconica: Psilocybe aureicystidiata, P. goniospora, P. neocaledonica, P. ochreata, and P. overeemii. Thus, the new combinations Deconica aureicystidiata, comb, nov., and Deconica neocaledonica, comb, nov., are proposed.
Based on the study of type specimens, we conclude that Psilocybe subbrunneocystidiata is a synonym of P. neorhombispora. Because of its non-bluing nature, it belongs in Deconica and is named Deconica neorhombispora, comb. nov. It is re-described, discussed and illustrated.