Sustainable Multilingualism

Published by Sciendo
Online ISSN: 2335-2027
Print ISSN: 2335-2019
Publications
Object pronoun-based results: accurate cases only
L3 acquisition has begun to attract the attention of many scholars in recent years. Heritage contexts are especially fruitful areas to understand how linguistic and nonlinguistic mechanisms interact with one another. The current study focuses on L3 English acquisition of object pronouns with L1 Turkish, L2 German speakers. We seek to find out whether the speakers could produce object pronouns accurately, whether L3 English proficiency has any effects on their acquisition, and finally, whether all object pronouns are acquired in the same way. Data for this study come from a corpus consisting of written and oral productions of 167 participants, who were students in four distinct grades, namely 5 th , 7 th , 10 th and 12 th graders at different schools in Berlin, Germany. The results reveal that participants were highly meticulous in their object pronoun use. Also, no clear L1 effect was observed, while L2 impact is implied. Lastly, proficiency and linguistic features are noted as significant factors that have an impact on L3 acquisition.
 
The paper aims to analyze the attitudes to German language in the Lithuanian public discourse. Texts written on this topic and chosen for the analysis appeared in two news portals – the national news portal delfi.lt and the regional news portal kaunodiena.lt . The database covers the period from 1 January 2011 to 1 March 2017; it consists of 82 articles from both news portals. For studying the image of German, the present study applies the framework of Critical Discourse Analysis taking into account different argumentation strategies for learning or not learning German as a foreign language as well as main topical priorities. The general attitudes towards countries can serve as an important foundation for motivation to language learning, so the analysis starts with the discussion of the specifics attributed to Germany and German-speaking countries (effectiveness governing the world, sympathy, economic success, and reliability). The analysis of the selected texts confirms that the image of Germany in Lithuania is quite positive: Germany, especially on delfi.lt , is presented as a target country for qualified Lithuanian experts, as an economically stable country having a large degree of political and cultural influence in the world. Regarding the status of German, the analyzed texts reveal a more ambiguous picture: on the one hand, it is stated that German is not popular in Lithuania, on the other hand it is emphasized that the popularity of the German language is increasing. The argumentation scheme for learning German consists of several argumentation lines: German is represented as a commodity in such domains as a professional career in Germany, in dealing with bilateral business relations, and to some extent in building a professional career in one’s home country and upholding cultural relations.
 
Integration into the European Union, increasing communication and cooperation between countries have brought an extensive interest in foreign languages and the need for foreign language teaching and learning has been recognized by the developers of Lithuanian education policy as an inseparable component of personal development. Teaching and learning of Romanic languages in Lithuania have been popular, exceptional, though varied. French language teaching has old traditions in both formal and non-formal education; while teaching of other Romanic languages (Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, etc.) has not been legally regulated yet – teaching traditions have not been formed, there are no specific teaching syllabi and programs, a lack of methodology and experts in didactics. However, Spanish language learning in Lithuanian secondary education schools and gymnasiums is becoming more and more popular in the recent years. In Lithuanian secondary education Spanish is taught as the second and third foreign language or as an extra-curriculum activity in non-formal education. The analysis of scientific literature revealed a lack of scientific studies and publications not only about the teaching of Spanish but also comparative studies between Lithuanian and Spanish languages. Research into Spanish language teaching and learning indicates not only the increasing number of learners, but also the increasing awareness with regard to the importance and usefulness of Spanish language competence acquisition for international encounters. However, Spanish language teachers face challenges such as insufficient number of teaching hours in general education institutions, lack of qualified Spanish language teachers, insufficient provision with teaching and learning aids and other support material, no state examinations are organized which could help to determine the learners’ Spanish language competences as well as motivate learners to learn this Romanic language.
 
The paper presents a new tool for approaching foreign languages. The “A1 for everyone” (A1FE1) project aims to promote multilingualism (meaning the ability of an individual to use different languages) in tune with the focuses of EU language policy, i.e. “to make a wider range of languages available to learners to allow individual choice”. A1FE1 aims to create a series of compact manuals, language introduction guides, different from self-study courses or tourist phrasebooks, which should allow everyone to reach level A1 (“Breakthrough”) in a foreign language (L2), using the technologies available today and a new reader-tailored approach. In fact it is not a guide for a single language being translated into several others, but each L2 guide is written specifically for a type of L1 users, since combinations of typologically distant languages (Danish for Spanish, Czech for Finnish) must tackle the same A1 material in a different way compared to especially genetically similar languages (Danish for Swedish, Czech for Slovaks). The paper introduces the Italian language guide for Lithuanians (Italų kalba šnekantiems lietuviškai). There are two main principles in this project: the comparative and contrastive approach, which proceeds from what is familiar (L1) to illustrate what is new (L2) and the central role of the lexicon as vehicle of communication and unifying element of the three components of grammar (phonetics, morphology and syntax). This is the reason why the bulk of each guide consists of four sections presenting the sounds, the basic forms, logical connections and words of the L2, followed by a two-way minimal dictionary full with communicative examples. The level descriptors of the Common European Framework are not language-specific, hence A1 structures and lexicon should be selected according to teaching practice resources available in the countries where the L2 is spoken, such as syllabuses, word frequency lists, etc. Audio recordings of all L2 material presented in the guides and additional videos following the books’ structure can be accessed online. Italų kalba šnekantiems lietuviškai will serve in fact as a prototype, outlining practical and problematic aspects to take into consideration when drafting other guides. After its release, feedback from users and field experts will help evaluate the real development possibilities of the project, including the involvement of institutions at European level.
 
The article aims to present the storytelling method, which could be applied in teaching/learning foreign languages. Storytelling enables learners to analyse actual topics using the gathered information, to solve problems emphasizing personal experiences and values as well as to listen to other stories and share valuable information. On the one hand, communicative skills are developed through storytelling processes at the same time improving students’ pronunciation, increasing vocabulary, brushing up their grammatical and sentence structure skills. Moreover, young learners’ problem-solving skills are also developed, when they try to remember the received information and answer the questions during the limited time. On the other hand, the use of storytelling method enables teachers to inspire young learners to share their experiences, and to improve their linguistic abilities. The participation in these information sharing activities motivate young learners to be open-minded and encourage them to study individually. The article overviews the importance of the storytelling method on the theoretical level as well as introduces the usefulness of storytelling elements in foreign language classes on the empirical level. The research was planned and performed in X Kaunas Gymnasium, in which the second-grade young learners (average age of the participants was 16 years old) created and presented their stories on the topic “My Festive Day”. The results of the research demonstrate that young learners were more engaged in prepared materials and managed to communicate using new linguistic constructions. What is more, while listening to other presenters they learned about various holiday traditions, different personal attitudes and, consequently, improved their listening, sentence structure and other communicative skills. The participants of the research emphasized that it was interesting for them to prepare storytelling tasks – to write, read the material and to activate the gained information. During the implementation of the storytelling method, a negative aspect related to emotions was observed, and also a lack of stress management and learning to learn skills was determined.
 
Bilingualism is a complex process involving a variety of characteristics, among which we can distinguish a particular system of a language, as well as the ability to use it in communication. Apart from the mere fact of acquiring the knowledge of a second language, bilingualism also implies the development of specific linguistic structuring and brain functioning different from those of a monolingual individual. This fact is crucial at the time of comprehension and, consequently, learning of a third language and this is why it has been studied by analysing the understanding ability of bilingual informants to refer to a third language without the prior learning of this language and the comparison of the results with those obtained for monolingual individuals presenting each language. Thus, the hypothesis involved considers individuals presenting bilingualism between two different language families (on the example of Russian-Romanian bilingualism) manifesting better understanding of a language from one of the language families they speak natively (on the example of the Spanish language) in comparison with monolingual people presenting one of the languages considered in bilingual individuals (i.e. Russian and Romanian monolinguals). This difference between bilingual and monolingual people in the access to a third language mainly involves the difference in the way of thinking and analysing the acquired linguistic data, resulting in a more effective capacity for understanding. The specification of brain organization and the analysis of linguistic data are due to the creation of specific psycholinguistic strategies by the bilingual individual.
 
Correlations matrix for language achievement concerning EQ components
The contribution of emotional quotient and its dimensions to the students’ language achievement have been widely acknowledged; however, the association between the two variables has been varied in different contexts. In this vein, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between emotional quotient (EQ) and language achievement (LA) of Iranian EFL students, and the extent to which EQ components can predict their language achievement. To this end, 138 undergraduate Iranian EFL learners from three different Iranian universities in Shiraz, Iran were selected through the census sampling technique to participate in the study. General English questions (adapted from university entrance exam) and the Persian validated version of the Schutte Self-report Emotional Intelligence Test (SSEIT) were employed to collect data on language achievement and emotional quotient, respectively and SPSS software was used to analyze the data. A total of 103 students, aged 18 to 27, returned the questionnaires. Findings revealed a significant correlation between EFL learners’ EQ and their LA, while EQ explained 6.7% of the variability of students’ LA, and none of the subscales of the EQ had a linear relationship with LA. Given the positive correlation between EQ and LA, educational policy-makers and education providers are recommended to focus on these factors that can leverage students’ and teachers’ emotions in the learning environment.
 
Comparison of groups according to size 
Comparison of depth of vocabulary knowledge 
Bilingualism is no longer for the elite and highly educated. It is becoming a necessity for survival in modern society. Therefore, school systems around the world are implementing mandatory foreign language programs. However, the question of the best time to start a child learning a second language is still debated. This study examined a group of early onset sequential bilinguals and a group of late onset sequential bilinguals in an EFL setting for differences in vocabulary development, keeping the length of foreign language education constant. The results of this study suggest that age of onset may not have an impact on vocabulary acquisition. However, this study was done on a small scale. A larger scale study with modifications in the measurement instruments is recommended before definitive conclusions can be made.
 
The importance of stereotypical uses of language is recognized by most didactic studies of the vocabulary (Granger and Paquot, 2008). Collocations are an area of vocabulary which is difficult to master by non-native learners. This type of lexical relation often presents itself as a semi-frozen binary lexical co-occurrence. The meaning of collocations is often transparent in reception, while in production, it requires a special effort on behalf of the learner. In this paper, we have tried to verify this assertion by comparing the corpus of French language and that of learners, and to define the regularities of lexical combinations in the French interlanguage of Lithuanian learners with level B1. Thanks to the corpus at our disposal, we observed that nomino-adjectival collocations at this level are more frequent than verbal collocations. However, in the percentage of total, the number of collocations only represents a contingent part of the corpus. The corpus also reveals that the present combination of words is not always diversified either by its syntax or by its lexical content, which is sometimes atypical of standard French. Learners choose from a fairly limited number of rather free lexical units. The process of interference and hybridization can be seen as an essential contamination of collocations, both lexically and syntactically. The data received makes it possible to note that collocational competence is insufficient. The results of this study also show that the analysis of collocational constructions can reveal the relationships between competence and performance of speakers.
 
Three strands of creativity development activities integrated in foreign language learning
The increasing significance of science and more intensive cooperation with foreign partners have created demands for plurilingual specialists, capable of providing solid research-based solutions, able to read the most advanced professional literature in a foreign language, participate in international conferences with foreign partners, negotiate and cooperate in scientific and subject-oriented activity while freely communicating in several foreign languages. However, in the case of specialized higher education institutions, such as medical or agricultural universities, foreign language learning is often oriented to the learning of occupational terminology; whereas acquisition of plurilingual communicative competence is much more than linguistic competence, it is a multifaceted competence and its acquisition can be enhanced by integrating creativity-developing activities into the program curricula. The aim of the study was to reveal the students’ attitude towards the integration of creativity development when studying foreign languages at a higher education institution. The generalized results of the study suggest that even though students considered linguistic competence (vocabulary and grammar) to be most important in language learning, yet they valued the acquisition of socio-cultural competence as important in communicating cross-culturally. The students’ attitude to the application of the elements of art in foreign language classes was positive, as these elements increased their interest and motivation in learning; integration of drawing and creation activities facilitated communication; the assignments became motivating and useful when communicating on intercultural topics. The students also positively evaluated the teacher’s work, the teacher’s assistance and positive approach to the evaluation of application of the elements of art by the students, which was the key element in the success of such classes. The importance of stress-free environment was singled out as a prerequisite for creativity expression and communication in a foreign language class.
 
The article deals with the phonetic and orthographic adaptation of Latin terms in English clinical terminology in the context of Latin terminological competence formation of foreign medical students with English as the language of instruction. About 8,000 of the most common clinical terms selected from various lexicographic English sources have been studied on the basis of etymological and comparative approaches to demonstrate the grade of inconsistency in the reflection of Latin terms in modern English medical terminology. The quantitative analysis allowed us to determine and classify the main tendencies in the process of phonetic and orthographic development of Latin terms: (1) imitation of classical Latin spelling; (2) ‘simplification’ of classical Latin spelling; (3) syncretism of the first and second tendencies (parallel use of classical Latin and ‘simplified’ variants as synonyms). The analysis has also identified in some cases the phenomenon of ‘hypercorrectness’. The lack of a unified norm is reflected in all the analyzed reference sources, complicating the lexicographic description of medical terms as well as the process of teaching / learning the medical terminology. The proposed solution is to develop and implement some unified criteria for phonetic and orthographic adaptation of Latin terms in English. The possible ways to solve the problem are either to adhere to the etymological principle, returning ad fontes of medical terminology, and to use only non-monophthongized and non-simplified forms or to use monophthongized and phonetically and graphically simplified forms following the norms of modern English. Consistent adherence to one system of rules for the development of Latin terms is a needed requirement for the proper formation of terminological competence in medical students and correct use of terminology in their further professional activity.
 
The publication deals with the problem cultural realia and terms in translation. The empirical part is a case study that investigates challenges in subtitling when rendering the subtitles of the Lithuanian memory film Emilia. Breaking Free (2017) from Lithuanian into German and English. Subtitling, the oldest form of Audiovisual Translation, is both a process and a result when a source text is translated into the target text in a synchronized manner with the original verbal message. Serious translation problems can arise because the subtitles are supposed to convey the verbal or non-verbal message in a compressed form. Cultural realia and terms are cultural elements that structure human life from the time of birth to the extent that they shape our behavior and worldview. Moreover, since the areas referred to by real property descriptions can be very diverse, they are subject to different classifications depending on the character and the object. Accordingly, monocultural, infracultural and transcultural references can be subdivided more precisely into socio-political, geographical, ethnographic and non-verbal realia. When transferring realia, three large groups of translation strategies can be identified: the unchanged adoption of the realia in the target language, the omission and the replacement by an equivalent. Since most translation techniques in the corpus studied appear as strategies of change, the central question is to what extent linguistic and cultural-specific items can be reflected in the subtitling movies about traumatic historical experiences.
 
The role of the translator as a mediator in literary translation has been a salient topic since the late twentieth century; however, more recent research signifies that instead of mediating, the translator sometimes affects the literary work translated, shifting the focus of such studies onto the reader. This article aims at investigating the possible effects the literary translator has on readers by examining the translation of address forms, the linguistic markers of social status into Lithuanian and the use of polite or familiar second-person pronouns in two crime fiction novels, Agatha Christie’s (1962) The Mirror Crack’d from Side to Side and John Grisham’s (1992) The Pelican Brief . The literary translator may grapple with the issue of translating social interactions which derives from cultural differences present in the source and target societies. Subsequently, containing a plethora of realistically depicted social interactions adherent to the societies represented, crime fiction provides Lithuanian literary translators with the issue of deciphering power relations based on the contexts they occur in and choosing accordant polite or familiar second-person pronouns, a distinction not present in English. As this study has shown, the translator sometimes misinterprets power relations or favours the social norms of the target culture, affecting the narrative, creating effects discordant with the writer’s intentions, and in some cases, entailing a contingent barrier between the reader and the original literary work.
 
The pedagogical advantages and disadvantages of NSTs for Sfi learners
In Sweden, the state-sponsored language education, Swedish for immigrants (Sfi), provides language and cultural knowledge for the integration of newly arrived adult migrants in Swedish society. Sfi’s educational quality has sustained severe criticism. Through qualitative investigation of Sfi teacher work, this study aims to find out what pedagogical priorities guide the teachers’ classroom practices with linguistically and culturally diverse students. Furthermore, it aims to compare the contributions to Sfi learning environments of ethnically diverse teachers whose language experiences are different. Research into second language acquisition and native and non-native second language teachers contextualize the research aims. Bakhtin’s (1986) conception of human understanding as the meeting of two consciousnesses and García’s ideas about translanguaging in language education for adult migrants provide theoretical perspectives. Classroom observation alongside teacher focus groups generated data. Content analysis condensed the data into five essential support strategies that foreground students’ existential needs, their home languages as a learning resource, integration, learning challenge and instructional partnership between ethnically diverse teachers. Findings do not support the view that non-native language teachers are better equipped to teach second language students than their native counterparts but illuminate the unequivocal advantage of harnessing the pedagogical strengths of both teacher groups cooperatively .
 
Percentage of participants who use each language in each situation
Self-reported proficiency in Frisian in Fryslân as compared to self-reported proficiency of the participants (Provinsje Fryslân, 2015b)
Adults learning a minoritized language are potential new speakers, that is “adults who acquire a socially and communicatively consequential level of competence and practice in a minority language” (Jaffe, 2015; see also O’Rourke, Pujolar, & Ramallo, 2015). New speakers’ research has become quite common recently, marking a shift from traditional notions of speakerness in minority contexts, built around the Fishmanian discourse of reversing language shift (see Kubota, 2009). The new speaker—actually neo-speaker—is one of the seven categories put forward by Grinevald and Bert (2011), who considered them central to language revitalization. Answering the call for more data on new speakers of minoritized languages in O’Rourke, Pujolar, & Ramallo, 2015, this research aims to start the debate on the new speakers of Frisian (see Belmar, 2018; Belmar, Eikens, Jong, Miedema, & Pinho, 2018; and Belmar, Boven, & Pinho, 2019) by means of a questionnaire filled in by adults learning the language in the evening courses offered by Afûk. This article presents an analysis of their backgrounds, their attitudes towards the language, and their language use.
 
This study focuses on the motivation of adults learning a minority language, based on a tripartite model: integrative and instrumental (Gardner & Lambert, 1959; 1972) and personal (see Benson, 1991) motivation. Adults learning a minority language are potential new speakers, a group that has been described as central to language revitalisation (see Pujolar & O’Rourke, 2018). Since the motivation to learn these languages does not seem to be linked to economic success or wider job opportunities, researchers have taken interest in knowing what drives people to learn a minority language (e.g., O’Rourke & DePalma, 2016). In this study, (potential) new speaker motivations were investigated by means of ten open-ended interviews with adult learners of West Frisian—a minority language spoken in the Netherlands—in two different settings: Afûk Frisian courses (a more traditional learning setting) and Bernlef Frisian courses (a student association that offers informal courses for their members). The results show a predominance of integrative and personal motivation (also found in O’Rourke & DePalma, 2016), but not exclusively (as suggested by Jaffe, 2015) since the language appears to be tightly linked to the province and it is deemed beneficial—to a certain extent—for socioeconomic success in the province.
 
1. Frequencies of the interpretations of the figurative B-terms in advertisement B
presents the different eight language backgrounds and the total
The main purpose of this paper is to analyze how culture is embedded in the way viewers from different language backgrounds conceptualize and interpret the same multimodal metaphors. Therefore, interaction between metaphor and culture is hence a crucial aspect of research in this study. Following Lakoff and Johnson’s (1980) and Forceville’s (1996, 2009) approaches, this paper examines how a comparative study undertaken from a cross-cultural perspective can shed light on how culture is an influential factor that can trigger changes in interpretations and reactions in the viewers. Data for this research were gathered with the help of 240 participants taken from 8 different language backgrounds. The subjects of this study were supplied with a questionnaire which consisted of three multimodal metaphors and 8 questions. In particular, I want to focus on the following research questions: (1) Which figurative B-term do different cultures conceptualize in a multimodal metaphor? (2) How aggressive are these multimodal metaphors considered by the participants of the study? On the basis of the results of this research, it can be concluded that not only the cultural background but also the personal has some influence on the way respondents interpret multimodal metaphors. The reactions identified in the responses of the subjects are influenced by different factors: religion, personal and societal experiences, beliefs, etc.
 
The ability to communicate in several foreign languages, recognize and understand cultural differences and effectively interact in a multicultural environment has become vital in the modern world that faces intense globalization processes. Linguistic and intercultural competences are essential not only for establishing personal relationships with foreigners but also for developing successful business relationships. At the Institute of Foreign Languages at Vytautas Magnus University (hereafter - VMU IFL), Spanish and German languages remain in the top five of the most popular languages among 30 languages available to students. These languages are chosen not only by Lithuanian students but also by foreign students who come to study in Lithuania. Most exchange students who come to study at VMU choose to study the Lithuanian language as well. In addition to the development of language skills in a learning process, the new concept of language teaching / learning, market trends and the great interest of students and the public in languages lead to the development of topics related to culture and intercultural communication and efforts to reveal peculiarities of the new culture in the common European and native country context. Based on the theories of different authors on the connection between culture and language and intercultural differences, the article discusses the possibilities of using commercials (video recordings of advertisements) to get acquainted with the culture in foreign language lectures. A comparative analysis of examples selected from commercials available online and revealing certain cultural aspects of the three countries (Spain, Lithuania and Germany) that allow to understand the target culture better is presented in this article. The aim is to reveal how a teacher, knowing the theories of cultural differences, can use commercials for the development of students’ linguistic and also cultural and intercultural competences.
 
It is hardly possible to find a person who has never been faced with a challenge of learning another language. If asked, some would share their from-miserable-to-jubilant experiences of language learning at school, others would disclose the nail-biting moments of despair when a career chance just slipped from their hands due to the lack of the required language competences, whereas many would question if there is the best age to start learning a new language and if it should necessarily be one’s childhood. Having considered such popular queries as above, the present article has come to a conclusion that the early initial age of learning another language, while undeniably adds to the success of gaining good communicative competences and generates plenty of other benefits, does not deprive a person of a possibility to master a language in a mature age. Learning a language in adulthood, nevertheless, is more sensitive to the motivational and methodological decisions, but the benefits reaped from active plurilingual practices in the elderly age prove to be highly valuable. From a methodological perspective, it is a conceptual article inspired by a conference discussion ¹ and drawn on empirical evidence from previous relevant inquiries, longitudinal studies and international research projects. As such, the article is an attempt to pass the relay baton to further studies into the factors that have an impact on the successful development of plurilingual competences and add to the overall value of plurilingualism.
 
Globalizing forces and choices move families out of their native language (L1) environments to places where their heritage language (L1) is in the minority. This study focuses on academic sojourner families and their school-aged children and asks how they maintain their native language, during limited stays in the USA (1-7 years). How can native language be maintained relative to the social, emotional, linguistic, and personal challenges faced by parents and children during their sojourn in the USA? Is the task of sustaining a child's native language in the newly-entered social and scholastic context of a dominant language undermined by underestimation of the impact of erosionary forces on the heritage language? These are some of the key issues identified in a larger ongoing study, of which a sub-sample of three linguistically well-informed families (parent-child pairs) is presented here. Findings include the significant impact of parental beliefs regarding the resilience of language on the maintenance of the L1 coupled with the emerging sociolinguistic competence and agency of the child in the L2 environment, which in turn can raise separate challenges for the parent, as well as the child, and for the parent-child relationship. Family as potential hub of language proliferation Given the strong pressure many families and students feel to acquire a broadly-used language such as English, or to give precedence to a dominant or majority language, this article argues that one of the key sites for the promotion of bilingualism is the family. But whether that power is realized depends to a large extent on parental beliefs and stances regarding the nature and resilience of language and the quality of the parent-child relationship. These beliefs and familial relationships ultimately guide them in the provision of an environment and conditions that nurture language growth or permit language to erode and ultimately be extinguished.
 
The paper aims to present a critical review of language policy development in Algeria since its independence (1962) to present time. It takes the policy of Arabization, an important turning point in Algerian history that was troubled with serious problems, as an example of language planning in the country. Data was gathered from policy documents, laws, and newspaper articles. It was then coded into themes before it was analysed employing a documentary research method. To provide a methodical discussion, the first part of the paper explores language policy and planning in Algeria. The second part discusses the impact of Arabization on the country’s current state of policy development in light of the debates over the national educational reforms of 2003. The third part highlights the quandary that language planners face during the processes of language planning and policy making. Lastly, the paper concludes with an evaluation of the process of language policy development in the country. The paper argues that in order to foster sustainable multilingualism and achieve effective educational reforms, a keener recognition of Algerian linguistic diversity by the government is imperative.
 
In fifty years, language didactics has evolved towards learner-speaker autonomy and multilingualism. Facing this evolution encouraged by the European institutions, how do the European teachers of FFL at university consider their role of citizens and future FFL teacher trainers? What does the implementation of didactics favouring learners’ empowerment and multilingualism depend on? Considering the situation in Latvia, it is torn between the Soviet past, European institutional directives and ethnocentric values. The paper presents the results of a comprehensive and qualitative research work on speech analysis. The central components of FFL Latvian University teachers’ representations on foreign languages didactics and on their professional practical experiences are presented, considering simultaneously national and supranational official guidance since the 1980s. Finally, conclusions are drawn on elements which may influence the creation of a FFL didactics in Latvia based on learner’s empowerment and plurlingualism. It brings eventually to suggestions for FFL and foreign language teacher education evolution in Latvia and possibly in other countries in Europe. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7220/2335-2027.1.6
 
In a global and multilingual society, indubitable is the importance of a reflection on the Self and the Other as defined by language. This interdisciplinary study aims at investigating, the narrative reinvention of the theoretical principles involved in the definition of the anthropological identity as expounded by Francesco Remotti. Specifically, we analyse a centenary trend in European literature identifying a peculiar form of multilingualism with the non-human and the lack of identity. From Dante’s Inferno to Joyce’s The cat and the Devil , the netherworld, its inhabitants and captives are characterized by the use of several (usually not intelligible) languages. According to this literary cliché , while the clarity and precision of a single language contributes to define a human identity, the plurality of languages is often a sign of a lost identity and of not being human anymore. It is not by chance that the verses of Dante ‘There sighs and wails and piercing cries of woe/ […] Strange languages, and frightful forms of speech,/ words caused by pain, accents of anger, voices/ both loud and faint’ are echoed in Primo Levi’s If This Is a Man . Multilingualism is the central point in Levi’s memories from the time spent in a concentration camp where ‘languages absolutely not understandable [...], the orders shouted in languages [we] were not able to recognize’ and the ‘endless Babel where everyone is shouting’ symbolize the lost human condition. Both the damned souls and the prisoners of the camp are not human anymore because they have lost their language and, with it, their identity. In our study, the comparative and hermeneutic analysis of the narrative and lexical choices adopted to represent multilingualism in European literature reveals a strong connection between human identity and the purity of language intended as a manifestation of human rationality. On the contrary, a number of recurrent diegetic choices and figures of speech seem to define the non-human as a multilingual world characterized by sighs, wails and strange languages, like the Bellsybable of Joyce’s devil.
 
This study examines the relationship between the participation of multilingual students in FAL (French as an additional language) classroom and language learners’ identities associated with the related community of practice. Classroom participation, a key concept of the study, is defined as a verbal form of learners’ investment in language learning, which can both enhance language learning and change the identity of language learners. The research was conducted in an international multilingual school in Croatia among eight 5th grade multilingual and multicultural students learning French as an additional language. For data collection purposes, French language lessons and twelve video recordings with a total length of approx. 480 minutes were observed and taped. A qualitative analysis of the participation of each student was conducted with the regard to the power relations among members of the classroom. The analysis revealed that, from the chosen theoretical perspective where an additional language is seen both as a tool of power and a tool for power, the identity of language learners can be described as a dynamic combination of some of the following identity positions: a language learner in a position of power, a language learner in a higher position of power than others, a language learner in a reduced position of power but eager for a position of power, a language learner in a reduced position of power but not eager for a position of power. The results of this study are consistent with the main assumptions about the identity of language learners made by other socially oriented authors in SLA (Norton-Peirce, 1995; Pavlenko & Blackledge, 2004; Darvin & Norton, 2015), according to which language learners’ identity is multiple, dynamic, discursively shaped and context-dependent.
 
Regional languages in France have historically struggled to find their place in the national linguistic landscape, and French-based Creoles, like those of Guadeloupe and Martinique, are no exception. Despite laws and initiatives like the creation of the Creole CAPES (2002) and the propagation of research like Poth (1997) and Cummins (2009) on the benefits of bilingualism, Creole-language education in French overseas departments, like Guadeloupe, is still stigmatized for a lack of standardization by academic policymakers, despite its attested success in the classroom as a tool for improving students’ metalinguistic capacities in French. Using a corpus of official Creole-language educational guides, pedagogical guides and one elementary textbook featuring exercises focusing on correction of regional French phrases, along with observations of two elementary Creole-language classes in Guadeloupe, this paper aims to analyze and demonstrate that educators often receive mixed messages on how to teach Creole in bilingual classrooms, and that the language is often perceived as a threat by French academic policymakers to the French abilities of students in Guadeloupe—yet that in practice, elementary students are more likely to struggle with Creole than French.
 
The intensification of research on Lithuanian translations of Italian literature and Italian translations of Lithuanian literature over the past twenty years is paralleled by the growth of interest in Italian literature in Lithuania. However, the existing research on diverse linguistic and cultural characteristics of texts translated from Italian into Lithuanian and vice versa has been sporadic, thus leaving much to be done to uncover links between the two languages and identify translation-related issues. The present article looks into one of the issues, namely, the lexical analytical construction of the Italian language and its translation into Lithuanian. Fictional texts by two representative Italian contemporary writers, Alesandro Baricco and Umberto Eco are chosen as a source of data including over three thousand pages of the source language (SL) and the target language (TL) texts. The results are compared with similar studies on translation of French literary texts into Lithuanian. The study on the translation of lexical analytical constructions in Italian literary texts translated into Lithuanian uses the theoretical framework and methodology provided by the Italian School of Semiotic Translation represented by Umberto Eco and Bruno Osimo among others. The study adopts a holistic approach to the analysis of lexical analytical constructions in Lithuanian translations of Italian literature. Comparative quantitative study has revealed three translation strategies: reformulation, translation without changes and remodelling. Reformulation has been identified to be the most frequent translation strategy. Its frequency was five times higher than that of translation without changes. The latter strategy was twice more frequent than the strategy of remodelling, which, accounts for less than ten per cent of all translation cases. Uses of calque or omission as translation strategies were not found. Comparison of quantitative results regarding the distribution of translation strategies adopted in the Lithuanian translations of Italian and French literary texts and a qualitative analysis of examples revealed similar tendencies in translation choices. It is important to note that changes of lexical analytical constructions into noun constructions were one and a half times less frequent in the translations of Italian literature than in the translations of French literature. Italian and French lexical analytical constructions were replaced by noun constructions in cases when in the SL text these constructions designated object and result but not action. Thus, it can be assumed that lexical analytical constructions in French literary texts were relatively more frequent than those in Italian literary texts.
 
The cartographic and historiographic traditions interpreting the Greek toponym Erythra Thalassa indicate this expression could designate several water basins in classical historiography, though it is usually rendered univocally as the Red Sea. This research applies cognitive semantics to the history of geography to retrieve the encyclopaedic meaning of the term erythros in relation to its dictionary meaning “red”. Computationally generated lists of frequency from about 50 ancient Greek and Latin oeuvres denote a predominant toponymic use of the term and a fixed collocation in conjunction with thalassa “sea”. Additional statistical data extrapolated from the Septuagint and the Greek New Testament reveal the tendency in the biblical tradition to use exclusively the inflected form erythra in fully fixed collocations with the term thalassa. The paper finds out that the specific shade of red denoted by erythors has been used since the seventh century BCE in a number of other toponyms and ethnonyms to convey the conceptual meaning of “southern”. To comparatively verify this hypothesis, several Greek toponyms incorporating the term leukos – “white” or “western” – are discussed in relation to their relative position in the oikumene. Based on comparative chronologies and diatopic attestations of the phenomenon, the hypothesis that the Turkic colour cardinal points system and the linguistic means to convey it was introduced to Greece during the period of contact with the Scythe people is proposed.
 
Languages share a content common to all people; however, Languages share a content common to all people; however, they differ with regard to their specific and nation-dependent phonetic means used to express it. These phonetic means grant a particular sound to each language. A phonetic system is usually based on segmental units: phonemes, syllables and syntagms. The main units of a phonetic system are closely interrelated with super-segmental or supra-segmental units, namely intonation and word stress. The present study overviews the newest tendencies in the phonetic system of the Latvian language developed due to articulatory and acoustic influence of other languages, usually English, German and Russian. The conclusions drawn in the study are based on rich teaching experience at Liepaja, Klaipėda and Vytautas Magnus Universities. It can be generalized that for successful communication both written and oral forms of language are used. When trying to integrate into any institute of higher education in Latvia, foreign teachers and students have to pay attention to the specificity of Latvian phonetic means as, for example, the stress on the first syllable. The acquisition of specific features in Latvian phonetics is influenced not only by phonetic properties of one’s native language, but also by various linguistic and extra-linguistic contextual factors. A current tendency that can be observed in Latvia is a growing number of Latvians who have good communicative competence of several languages and are well acquainted with the history and culture of different countries. Their presence in the society increases the possibilities of expanding international contacts and communication and thus intensifying the aforementioned influence on the phonetic structure of the Latvian language. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7220/2335-2027.1.9
 
Due to globalization, migration, tourism and other reasons multiculturalism and multilingualism have become the rule rather than the exception. In this context films, on the one hand, serve as a reflection of multilingual and multicultural reality, on the other hand, multilingualism inevitably occurs by translating films for different audiences since (interlingual) translation involves at least two languages. Films, in which characters belong to different cultures and languages, pose a considerable challenge to translators. Such a case is the American animated film “Ratatouille” (2007), which action takes place in France and most of its characters are French. However, by adapting the film for the main target audience – the children – the character identity is revealed not using complete foreign language dialogues but creatively combining various modes: verbal acoustic (dialogues and lyrics), verbal visual (written texts), nonverbal visual (images) and nonverbal acoustic (nondiegetic music). The same modes are applied to render culture-specific items, especially food and drink names. Since verbal mode varies depending on the target audience, American English source language as well as Lithuanian, Russian and French dubbed versions of the film “Ratatouille” will be compared in order to determine semiotic modes, which convey Frenchness. Additionally, by comparing selected dubbed versions of the film, amusing translations, resulting exactly from the encounter of cultures and languages, will be presented as well. For the research methodological approaches of audiovisual translation, multimodality and comparative method will be applied.
 
Spanish language is among the most popular languages in the world. This language is one of the first most spoken languages according to the number of people who consider it to be their first language and the second most popular language studied as a foreign one. The number of people studying Spanish has been increasing in Lithuania. Since the resestablishment of Vytautas Magnus University (VMU) in 1989, the Spanish language has favoured increasing populiarity: every year more than 10% of the student population who choose to study foreign languages as their optional subjects enrol in Spanish as a foreign language courses. The article presents the situation of the Spanish language at VMU during the last decade (from the foundation of the Centre of Foreign Languages in 2001) in the context of the European Union and Lithuanian language policies. The present situation is compared with the situation of studying Spanish as a foreign language in Europe; the reasons of popularity of Spanish are also analysed. The data of the student survey employed in the research revealed that the main reasons for the choice of Spanish as a language of study are its expansion in the world and benefits related to the ability to speak this language as well as a favourable image of Spain, its culture and language in our country. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7220/2335-2027.1.8
 
The scientific literature is replete with caustic criticism of teacher development programs. Many programs offer little evidence of success, which in turn has prompted educators towards an international appeal calling for fundamental structural change. A momentous catalyst for this change is the ubiquitous emergence of research on the development of teachers' professional identities. This article speaks to these criticisms through the research on teachers’ professional identity development by using an evidenced-based model which structures teacher professional identity development and applying it to the restructuring of existing teacher development programmes. This article presents the
 
The acquisition of lexical competence is a complex process, because for learners, it is not enough to distinguish the form and meaning of a lexical element in order to know how to integrate it correctly into the language context. The skill also involves the understanding of the properties of lexical and grammatical combinatorics. The present analysis of the written production of Lithuanian learners of French as a Second Language (FSL) is based on an annotated corpus and focuses on apposition. The term refers to a noun to which it provides additional information on its quality or nature. Choosing apposition for the study is prompted its particular use for elucidation in French then makes it possible to compare its use by FSL learners of and native speakers. The use of apposition in L1 of the analysed level is not very frequent, which poses another question, namely, how Lithuanian learners convey information without apposition. We task ourselves with noting, the different uses of apposition in FSL learners’ writing and analysing their particularities and correspondences in native speakers’ use. Apposition, as NP (noun phrase) constituent, will be analysed syntactically, taking into account correct, erroneous or uncertain constructs. The learners’ writings serve to orient the didactic reflections towards the general use of apposition in the learners’ corpora and a better represent typical interlanguage constructions.
 
Sommaire Les enseignants des langues étrangères utilisaient très longtemps des méthodes traditionnelles comme celle de grammaire-traduction. Le travail des professeurs et des andragogues est plus complexe aujourd’hui qu’auparavant. Les trois dernières décennies ont vu de nombreux changements : évolution technologique, pluridisciplinarité des sciences, globalisation. L’enseignement actuel des langues étrangères s’appuie sur des sciences aussi diverses que la linguistique, la psychologie, l’informatique, les sciences de communication en se basant sur le Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues3 dont le but est l’identification et la définition des facettes théoriques de l’apprentissage d’une langue. Cet article analyse l’enseignement du français aux douaniers lituaniens en mettant l’accent sur des approches et des techniques actives, en particulier sur l’approche hybride. Il analyse les programmes proposés par le Centre de la formation des douaniers de Vilnius en se concentrant sur une étude plus détaillée du programme de l’apprentissage hybride en français pour lequel le français de spécialité est une priorité. Cette approche appliquée à l’enseignement des langues étrangères, se révèle séduisante pour les adultes car elle facilite l’intégration à la vie professionnelle. Elle participe également à la réalisation de la politique de multilinguisme grâce à la coopération entre les enseignants des langues étrangères et les apprenants. Plus que d’autres, elle favorise également les synergies interdisciplinaires grâce à l’utilisation des nouvelles technologies et des documents authentiques dans des domaines très variés : de la vérification douanière des véhicules aux questions d’éthique des douanes. Cet article présente enfin 5 composantes de l’acquisition lexicale qui accompagnent la formation professionnelle des douaniers en français : linguistique, discursive, référentielle, socioculturelle et stratégique.
 
The earliest stages of pidgin formation show a preference for analytic and morphologically reduced grammatical constructions relative to their lexifier or substrate languages, where the apparent morphological marking, if found, seems to be fossilized. Structural relations, therefore, are mostly expressed externally. Tense/aspect categories are marked through temporal adverbials or inferred from the context. Creole languages, however, are said to develop such categories through grammaticalization. This study examines tense/aspect marking in five Arabic-based pidgins: Juba Arabic, Turku Pidgin, Pidgin Madame, Romanian Pidgin Arabic, and Gulf Pidgin Arabic. Using Siegel’s (2008) scale of morphological simplicity, from lexicality to grammaticality, this study concludes that tense/aspect marking is expressed lexically through temporal adverbials or inferred from the context in the earliest stages of Arabic-based pidgins, which only later—in stabilized pidgins—develops into grammaticalized markers when certain criteria are met.
 
Les consonnes lituaniennes et françaises
The aim of this article is to analyze the differences between Lithuanian and French sounds and to provide a general outlook of the Lithuanian articulatory phonetics mainly intended for French speakers. Such a comparative analysis is relevant because (a) there is no consistent equivalent between written and spoken language, even in Lithuanian, which has a relatively young written language, (b) the international phonetic alphabet does not always accurately reflect differences in pronunciation, (c) the contrastive perspective helps learners to focus on differences that could be unnoticed. Besides the articulatory aspects, the orthographic issues where the spoken form cannot be directly deduced from the written form by a simple relation from grapheme to sound but depends on the graphemic context (mainly related to some assimilation processes) are given a special attention. The questions that remain controversial between Lithuanian phoneticians (such as the retroflex status of the phonetic counterparts of < š> and < ž> ) are also mentioned. The comparative analysis shows that the two systems exhibit significant differences: most sounds are not shared. Nevertheless, differences are often slight, so that it is more an issue of orthoepics. Attention should be paid to the differences in the duration and qualitative characteristics of long and short vowels and the relation of graphemes <a, e, o, i> to sounds. From the point of view of consonants, [ ], [r, r j ], [x, ] are problematic, their pronunciation must be learned separately. The pronunciation of palatalized consonants as simple consonants, and not as clusters with [j] as the second element, is also challenging for French speakers.
 
Translators, linguists and translation researchers often have to deal with subtle and sometimes complex syntactical aspects involved in translation. Properly conveying the structure and rhythm of a sentence or text in another language is a difficult task that requires a good understanding of syntactical aspects of both the source and the target language. The morphology of Lithuanian verbs and nouns, and specially its system of declensions and cases, without any doubt facilitates a relatively flexible word order. Many linguists also agree that word order in the Spanish sentence is also freer than in French, English or other modern languages. It has often been said that Spanish has the most flexible word order of all Romance languages. However, Spanish word order is by no means as free as in Lithuanian. A comparative study of Lithuanian texts and their translation into Spanish allows a better understanding of the syntactical differences between both languages. This article examines a case of syntactical inversion in Lithuanian: the displacement of the direct object and its location at the beginning of the sentence, and the translation of such sentences into Spanish. In Spanish the direct object usually follows the verb, except in the cases when that function is carried out by pronouns. In order to displace a direct object to the beginning of the sentence, Spanish syntactical structures should be used. In this article two stylistically different Lithuanian texts will be compared with their Spanish translation so as to identify the linguistic means used in each case. A comparative analysis of different types of texts is useful to reveal the Spanish syntactical structures chosen by the translators as well as certain tendencies in each specific context.
 
This article aims to study the field of sociocultural aspects teaching in the Spanish as foreign language classes in Lithuania and development of intercultural competencies of the students. In the curriculum of the language teaching, is very important the topic of sociocultural behaviours in the different Hispanic communities. The conducted research aimed to analyse how this topic can be studied during the Spanish classes in Lithuania and what is the receptivity of sociocultural elements among the local students. This paper also talks about the intercultural competences of the students, and the process of assimilation of cultural behaviours, which are different from the native culture. In order to achieve the aim, the data collection was carried on among students through observations and interviews in depth, using a qualitative method. The opinions and interpretations of Spanish and Hispanic traditions, celebrations and customs given by the students, were used for the qualitative analysis. The results of the research showed that students’ perception of the Spanish-speaking world contains prejudiced ideas and this is why it is important to include the sociocultural content in the classes of Spanish as a foreign language.
 
The article provides an overview of the design of identities, predominantly based on the level of the individual. The purpose of this article was to identify the ethnic identity of informants, using the aspect of language choices as an instrument of linguistic identity, as well as to look at the causes of linguistic identity choices, the functions of ethnic identity from the point of view of the informant and the reasons for changing the identity over time or for consciously changing or maintaining it. It is well known that in today’s world of ever-weakening national borders, multiculturalism and multilingualism are a common phenomenon. There have been no arguments for a long time over whether one has to learn several languages, or any doubts whether we should be even a little bit familiar with the culture of people from other nationalities living next to us. At the same time, multiculturalism brings along challenges and sometimes also tensions (Muldma, 2009). Self-determination, or identity, can mean all aspects of oneself, such as appearance, personality, abilities, gender, and ethnic groups. In the case of ethnic identity, it has been observed along with growing, the perceptions of children change over time. Awareness of one’s nationality develops with awareness of others (Smith et al. , 2008, p. 195). People’s attitudes and values are largely developed in childhood, and we need time to get adjusted to everything new, all changes need internal management of the person – and some major changes need the intervention of the society. The method used to conduct the research was written interviews.
 
As the intensity of communication increases, the number of language mistakes/errors increases. Nowadays, the acquisition and use of a foreign language often takes place in parallel, and language mistakes/errors are a natural part of this process but this does not mean that they must be tolerated. The study is based on the results of a sociolinguistic survey obtained in 2018 and 2019. 253 students of four Universities and specialties, as well as different study levels from Liepāja, Ventspils and Rīga participated in the survey anonymously. Most of the respondents indicated that Latvian was their mother tongue; for a small number of participants, it was a second language or a foreign language. The surveyed students also differed in the type and number of foreign languages acquired. The present paper is the second part of a wider study (see the results of the first stage of the research by Laiveniece and Lauze, 2020). The aim of this paper is to characterize students’ linguistic attitude towards language errors in learning and using a foreign language: how to evaluate errors, whether errors are generally permissible, what affects them, and how to eliminate them. In the course of the research, an assumption emerged: the more foreign languages are learned, the more tolerant the linguistic attitude is towards mistakes/errors that are made when speaking a foreign language. However, the analysis of the questionnaire findings did not confirm this. Most of the respondents attributed errors to the language learning process. Whether or not errors were made when speaking a foreign language was determined by the situation and purpose of the communication, as well as the level of language acquisition.
 
The study tries to bridge the gap between research on how the Lithuanian language and its varieties are spoken and maintained by migrants and on how the standard language ideology affects the speakers of regional varieties in Lithuania. The paper investigates Lithuanian Samogitian migrants’ attitudes towards their regional variety, the main factors that might influence their beliefs and whether the standard language ideology is one of these factors. The in-depth analysis of 10 audio-recorded and coded interview responses has shown that in migration, similarly as in Lithuania, people’s attitudes towards Samogitian and the usage of it are governed by the three main factors, namely education, Soviet language policy and the linguistic pressure from society. Even though migrants do not feel intense pressure to speak the “right” language and feel much freer to use the variety of their choice when talking to other migrants, they still believe that it is common sense to use the standard in official gatherings, for public speeches or for official events.
 
The relations between three types of approaches for the regulation of citizenship 
illustrates that the Swedish respondents are placed farther away from the other two countries, Denmark and Norway. The Swedish respondents express more pluralistic values consistent with integration, while the Norwegian and Danish respondents express values which involve more assimilation and exclusion in relation to Sweden. The Swedish respondents also express more heterogeneous values and larger differences are observed within the Swedish group. It should also be mentioned that the Danish respondents showed a marked hesitancy on issues concerning their personal opinions about immigrants' citizenship while this was not the case with Swedish and Norwegian respondents. One of the Danish respondents also questioned the relevance of personal opinions about immigrants' citizenship. One hypothetical interpretation of this hesitancy could be that citizenship is seen as an objective relationship between the state and the citizen and therefore not affected by the third person opinion. This interpretation can, however, be contested since there are plenty of value statements in the Danish material. Another hypothesis is that opinions about immigrants' citizenship are delicate in a political sense in Denmark. This latter interpretation is supported by the fact that one of the Danish teachers checked some official facts with a colleague first before discussing the subject. This interpretation is also supported by earlier international comparisons showing that the difference between official statements and informal statements is bigger in Denmark, as compared to other countries. In a comparison with 10 countries Denmark showed the biggest difference between official and informal statements (Levanon & Lewin-Epstein, 2009, p. 425). Teachers' different value priorities in our study are consistent with the results reported by Bloom (2010). Sweden appears to be more pluralistic than Denmark while Norway is placed between Denmark and Sweden. 
Attitudes towards social, political, economic, legal and moral perspectives (D = Denmark, N = Norway, S = Sweden, bold underlined = more prominent) 
The relations between premises ancestry, territory, stay/time and achievement (D = Denmark, N = Norway, S = Sweden) 
Issues in minority education in relation to citizenship have received more attention lately, because of new requirements for language testing in several countries (Bevelander, Fernandez & Hellström, 2011, p. 101). The acquisition of citizenship is more decisive for immigrant participation in society than the duration of stay in the country (Bevelander, Fernandez & Hellström, 2011). The second language is crucial for active citizenship and integration in this perspective. Most countries in the EU (except Ireland and Sweden) have language requirements for citizenship and the use of language testing becomes increasingly common among the countries that receive migrants. The rapid development highlights the need for new international studies on the relationship between citizenship and conditions for second language learning. The goal of the recent study is to compare premises, perspectives and scales of values of Danish, Norwegian and Swedish language educators, related to the requirements for immigrant citizenship. Previous studies (Björklund & Liubiniené, 2004) indicate that there are major differences in value systems even between the neighbouring countries. To reach the objective of the present study, interviews were conducted with language educators in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The results have revealed two opposing patterns. The values of Swedish informants show a wide-ranging variation, while the Danish and Norwegian data on values are consistently similar. The results raise further questions about the effects caused by differences in values among language educators when comparing the countries and call for a further verification of the data in a more extended study, including Lithuania and other Baltic states.
 
The paper presents the findings of the research carried out among the participants of the project ”Development of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) in Education” (2011-2013) that aimed to upgrade the competences of subject teachers enabling them to implement content and foreign language integrated learning approach in general education and vocational training. The data obtained through a survey indicates that the project participants developed a positive attitude towards the CLIL approach and positively assess the competences acquired during the programme. European Framework for CLIL Teacher Education proves to be a useful tool when designing training courses for specific target groups of qualified content teachers and a fifty hours' programme seems to be adequate to get acquainted with the fundamentals of CLIL. The project participants were most positive about their CLIL methodology competence development during the project and ability to identify appropriate subject content for teaching by using the CLIL approach. The weakest point identified by the participants involves languagerelated issues, such as ability to support language learning in content, balancing the target language used between the learners' and teacher's linguistic ability, and overall insufficiency of linguistic competences. One more issue indicated by the respondents is the absence of standards, guidance and administrative support, as well as quality assurance (content delivery, materials and assessment) in CLIL.
 
Opportunities for students to communicate in English 
A considerable number of immigrants in the United Kingdom confront challenges as they acculturate into a new way of life, where language competence significantly influences their social, economic and cultural integration. Such immigrants are often at an educational and social disadvantage compared to the majority of population due to their different social and cultural backgrounds, prior educational experience and the lack of language competencies. The use of technologies for teaching / learning the host country language has been emphasized in European Strategy 2020 policy. Although learning of English usually takes place very naturally in an English-speaking informal environment, formal educational institutions in the UK and immigrants’ native countries tend to be very helpful as well. Assuming that such learners of English usually need more intensively-paced learning and knowing that professional commitments or other reasons can prevent them from coming to classes, blended learning can help them reach their goals faster and not lose connection with their native country. In order to develop insight into such English learners’ needs as well as to identify teaching forms that could help in meeting these needs, this study used a survey to explore the most important factors influencing the development of the UK immigrants’ English language competence and students’ general practice of using ICT for English learning and their attitudes towards ICT in foreign language learning. Furthermore, the research aimed to answer the question whether a blended strategy of language learning organized by their native countries institutions would be able to positively influence the learning outcomes while maintaining a connection with their native country and culture. The research sample was a group of English learners enrolled in an ESOL course. To explore the needs, experiences and attitudes of the participants, a quantitative research methodology was applied and short semi-structured interviews were conducted. The present research has demonstrated that the advancement of technologies has increased the use of ICT not only for personal purposes but also for work and studies. The students have indicated quite a frequent use of various on-line English study tools and programmes and have demonstrated a generally positive attitude towards blended English learning.
 
Sampling of the Study in ELL and FS Programmes
The Comparison of the Frequency of Themes (ELL and FS Student Interviews)
With an increase in the number of colleges and universities offering courses in English in the education market globally, higher education institutions face serious challenges. In non-native settings where English is favoured as a prestigious choice for the medium of instruction, learners struggle with the huge barrier between demanding course contents and necessary language proficiency levels, which encourages them to use translanguaging and alternative strategies extensively in and out of classrooms. In this light, this study aims to look at an under-researched topic by questioning how university students’ and lecturers’ views on translanguaging practices show parallels and differences in literature and engineering courses from a comparative perspective. The data of the study were collected at English Language and Literature (ELL) and Food Science (FS) programmes of Gaziantep University (GAUN) in Turkey through face-to-face interviews and class observations. The classrooms were visited and observed for 21 lesson hours. 15 students and 6 lecturers from each department volunteered to participate in the study. The recorded and transcribed data were analysed then by using content analysis. The results show that while the lecturers from the FS programme stress that L2 use is vital for students to develop content knowledge and linguistic skills, the lecturers from the ELL programme claim it to be a context-sensitive practice, so some courses might necessitate more frequent use of L1 or translanguaging during the delivery, analysis or comprehension of the specific content or in formal or informal exchanges. The study has thus revealed how lecturers’ and students’ views in different departments change substantially based on the requirements of/expectations from the courses and how translanguaging functions as an effective and essential learning/teaching tool in the content-based courses. Accordingly, the findings should encourage teachers, lecturers and policy-makers in countries such as Turkey to reconsider the nature of bilingual teaching and learning in different areas of tertiary level education.
 
Lithuanian linguists believe that dialects in Lithuania are under threat of extinction. Many scholars who strive for language maintenance around the world suggest that the Internet provides free and unlimited possibilities to promote and maintain endangered or lesser spoken linguistic varieties. One of the dialect speaker groups in Lithuania, Samogitians, explore the aforementioned possibilities as they have recently become very active on social media. They promote the dialect and numerous Samogitian items as well as discuss various issues about their dialect and identity. The article analyzes the elements of the Samogitian identity as it is portrayed on various Samogitian pages on Facebook. The study employs several approaches, including Language maintenance, Cybercultures, and Discourse Analysis. The results reveal that the essential element of the Samogitian identity is their dialect due to which, in spite of the increasing moral and financial support, the speakers of the variety still feel stigmatized. Nevertheless, people who speak Samogitian support each other in using the dialect and promoting it not only on the Internet but in ‘real’ life as well. Since many Samogitians are proud of speaking the dialect and being Samogitian, it is a positive sign for the future maintenance, and social media is one of the most effective means through which it can be achieved.
 
Top-cited authors
Amin Karimnia
  • Islamic Azad University
Zeynel Amac
  • Kilis 7 Aralik Üniversitesi
Muhammet Ruhat Yaşar
  • Kilis 7 Aralik Üniversitesi
Jim Cummins
  • University of Toronto
Fatemeh Mohammad Jafari
  • Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch