# Surgical Endoscopy

Online ISSN: 1432-2218
Print ISSN: 0930-2794
Recent publications
• Natasha G. Caminsky
• Jeongyoon Moon
• Nancy Morin
• [...]
• Marylise Boutros
Background Early ileostomy closure (EIC), ≤\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\le$$\end{document} 2 weeks from creation, is a relatively new practice. Multiple studies have demonstrated that this approach is safe, feasible, and cost-effective. Despite the demonstrated benefits, this is neither routine practice, nor has it been studied, in North America. This study aimed to assess patient and surgeon perspectives about EIC. Methods A mixed-methods, cross-sectional study of patients and surgeons was performed. Rectal cancer survivors from a single institution who underwent restorative proctectomy with diverting loop ileostomy and subsequent closure within the last 5 years were contacted. North American surgeons with high rectal cancer volumes (> 20 cases/year) were included. Surveys (patients) and semi-structured interviews (surgeons) were conducted. Analysis employed descriptive statistics and thematic analysis, respectively. Results Forty-eight patients were surveyed (mean age 65.1 ± 11.8 years; 54.2% male). Stoma closure occurred after a median of 7.7 months (IQR 4.8–10.9) and 50.0% (24) found it “difficult” or “very difficult” to live with their stoma. Patients considered improvement in quality of life and quicker return to normal function the most important advantages of EIC, whereas the idea of two operations in two weeks being too taxing on the body was deemed the biggest disadvantage. Most patients (35, 72.9%) would have opted for EIC. Surgeon interviews (15) revealed 4 overarching themes: (1) there are many benefits to EIC; (2) specific patient characteristics would make EIC an appropriate option; (3) many barriers to implementing EIC exist; and (4) many logistical hurdles need to be addressed for successful implementation. Most surgeons (12, 80.0%) would “definitely want to participate” in a North American randomized-controlled trial (RCT) on EIC for rectal cancer patients. Conclusions Implementing EIC poses many logistical challenges. Both patients and surgeons are interested in further exploring EIC and believe it warrants a North American RCT to motivate a change in practice. Graphical abstract

• Yzet Clara
• Hakim Sami
• Pioche Mathieu
• [...]
• Brazier Franck
Background Endoscopy is the gold standard for the treatment of postoperative gastric leaks (GL). Large fistulas are associated with high rate of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of a combining technique using a covered stent (CS) crossing through pigtails (PDs) for large postsurgical GL leaks. Methods All consecutive patients with large (> 10 mm) postsurgical GL treated endoscopically with a combination of a CS and PDs were included in a single-center retrospective study. The primary endpoint was the rate of GL closure. Results A total of 29 patients were included. Twenty-five patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy. The fistula (median diameter 15 mm) was diagnosed 6 days (IQR 4–9) after surgery. Technical success was observed in all procedures. After a median follow-up of 10.7 months (IQR 3.8–20.7), GL closure was observed in 82.7% with a median time of 63 days (IQR 40–90). Surgical management was finally necessary in four patients after a median of 186 days (IQR 122–250). No complications related to combined endoscopic treatment were observed especially stent migration during the follow-up. Conclusion An endoscopic strategy combining CS crossing through PDs appears to be effective, safe and well tolerated for the treatment of large GL.

• Francisca Belmar
• María Inés Gaete
• Gabriel Escalona
• [...]
• Julián Varas
Introduction A limitation to expanding laparoscopic simulation training programs is the scarcity of expert evaluators. In 2019, a new digital platform for remote and asynchronous laparoscopic simulation training was validated. Through this platform, 369 trainees have been trained in 14 institutions across Latin America, collecting 6729 videos of laparoscopic training exercises. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) has recently emerged in surgical simulation, showing usefulness in training assessment, virtual reality scenarios, and laparoscopic virtual reality simulation. An AI algorithm to assess basic laparoscopic simulation training exercises was developed. This study aimed to analyze the agreement between this AI algorithm and expert evaluators in assessing basic laparoscopic-simulated training exercises. Methods The AI algorithm was trained using 400-bean drop (BD) and 480-peg transfer (PT) videos and tested using 64-BD and 43-PT randomly selected videos, not previously used to train the algorithm. The agreement between AI and expert evaluators from the digital platform (EE) was then analyzed. The exercises being assessed involve using laparoscopic graspers to move objects across an acrylic board without dropping any objects in a determined time (BD < 24 s, PT < 55 s). The AI algorithm can detect object movement, identify if objects have fallen, track grasper clamps location, and measure exercise time. Cohen’s Kappa test was used to evaluate the agreement between AI assessments and those performed by EE, using a pass/fail nomenclature based on the time to complete the exercise. Results After the algorithm was trained, 79.69% and 93.02% agreement were observed in BD and PT, respectively. The Kappa coefficients test observed for BD and PT were 0.59 (moderate agreement) and 0.86 (almost perfect agreement), respectively. Conclusion This first approach of AI use in basic laparoscopic skills simulated training assessment shows promising results, providing a preliminary framework to expand the use of AI to other basic laparoscopic skills exercises.

• Ayobami M. Fatunmbi
• Sanjhai L. Ramdeen
• [...]
• David M. Parker
Background Revision laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery (RLARS) is effective in alleviating the typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). RLARS outcomes in patients with atypical GERD symptoms has not been well established. A composite Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) score greater than 13 indicates extraesophageal manifestation of pathological reflux. In this study, we analyzed the differences in quality-of-life (QOL) and perioperative outcomes between patients with atypical versus typical GERD who underwent RLARS. Methods A retrospective review was conducted of a prospectively maintained database of patients with pathologic reflux who underwent RLARS from February 2003 to October 2019. The cohort was divided into two groups, those with typical versus atypical manifestations of GERD, as defined by their RSI score. Patients with a RSI score of > 13 were assigned to the Atypical group and those ≤ 13 were assigned to the Typical group. Patient QOL outcomes were prospectively followed using the RSI survey. Significance was defined by p-value less than 0.05. Results A total of 133 patients (Typical 61, Atypical 72) were included in the final analysis. The two groups were similar (p > 0.05) in mean age (58.1 ± 13.3 vs. 55.3 ± 15.5 years), body mass index (29.6 ± 5.0 vs. 30.3 ± 5.4), female sex distribution (60.7% vs. 59.7%) and age adjusted Charlson score (1.76 ± 1.58 vs. 1.98 ± 1.94). The Typical group had a higher frequency of type III hiatal hernia (62.3% vs. 29.2%) and Collis gastroplasty (29.5% vs. 5.6%). The groups had similar rates of partial and complete fundoplication with similar median length of stay (Typical: 3.0 ± 3.4 days vs. Atypical: 2.4 ± 1.7 days). After a mean follow-up of 30.2 ± 33.6 months, both groups reported similar rates of improvement in RSI outcome from baseline (58.1% vs 43.3%, p = .149). However, the RSI outcome at the latest follow-up for the Typical group was significantly better than the Atypical group after RLARS (2.8 ± 5.3 vs. 15.9 ± 11.1, respectively). Conclusion Patients who undergo revision paraesophageal hernia repair with objective findings of GERD and subjective complaints of atypical reflux symptoms may show long-term improvement in QOL outcomes. However, these results are contingent on proper patient selection and a thorough work-up for pathological reflux in this population. Further research is needed to determine universal diagnostic criteria to assist in the early detection and surgical treatment of patients with atypical GERD.

• Carmela De Crea
• Francesco Pennestrì
• Nikolaos Voloudakis
• [...]
• Marco Raffaelli
Background Laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) is the gold standard treatment for adrenal lesions. Robot-assisted adrenalectomy (RAA) is a safe approach, associated with higher costs in absence of clear-cut benefits. Several series reported some advantages of RAA over LA in challenging cases, but definitive conclusions are lacking. We evaluated the cost effectiveness and outcomes of robotic (R-LTA) and laparoscopic (L-LTA) approach for lateral transabdominal adrenalectomy in a high-volume center. Methods Among 356 minimally invasive adrenalectomies (January 2012–August 2021), 286 were performed with a lateral transabdominal approach: 191 L-LTA and 95 R-LTA. The R-LTA and L-LTA patients were matched for lesion side and size, hormone secretion, and BMI with propensity score matching (PSM) analysis. Postoperative complications, operative time (OT), postoperative stay (POS), and costs were compared. Results PSM analysis identified 184 patients, 92 in R-LTA and 92 in L-LTA group. The two groups were well matched. The median lesion size was 4 cm in both groups (p = 0.533). Hormonal hypersecretion was detected in 55 and 54 patients of R-LTA and L-LTA group, respectively (p = 1). Median OT was significantly longer in R-LTA group (90.0 vs 65.0 min) (p < 0.001). No conversion was registered. Median POS was similar (4.0 vs 3.0 days in the R-LTA and L-LTA) (p = 0.467). No difference in postoperative complications was found (p = 1). The cost margin analysis showed a positive income for both procedures (3137 vs 3968 € for R-LTA and L-LTA). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, independent risk factors for postoperative complications were hypercortisolism (OR = 3.926, p = 0.049) and OT > 75 min (OR = 8.177, p = 0.048). Conclusions The postoperative outcomes of R-LTA and L-TLA were similar in our experience. Despite the higher cost, RAA appears to be cost effective and economically sustainable in a high-volume center (60 adrenalectomies/year), especially if performed in challenging cases, including patients with large (> 6 cm) and/or functioning tumors. Graphical abstract

• Chi Woo Samuel Chow
• Tak Lit Derek Fung
• Pak Tat Chan
• Kam Hung Kwok
Background Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has gained increasing popularity in the management of complicated colorectal polyps. However, clinical outcomes for ESD have remained highly inconsistent worldwide. This study investigated and analysed factors that significantly affect ESD outcomes. Methods We conducted a single-centred retrospective study on 220 colorectal polyps removed by ESD from 1st January 2016 to 31st December 2020. Data were collected and retrieved from clinical records. Variables studied included patient demographics, ESD technicalities and polyp characteristics. The primary outcome was completeness of resection based on en bloc and R0 resection rates. The secondary outcomes were recurrence, complications and hospital stay. Further analysis was performed for significant outcome determining factors. Results The en bloc resection and R0 resection rates were 97.3% and 65% respectively. Intraprocedural and delayed perforation rates were 3.2% and 0.5% respectively. Intraprocedural and delayed bleeding rates were both 1.8%. Post-polypectomy syndrome rate was 2.7%. The median hospital stay was 4 days. Submucosal fibrosis was a significant determining factor for lower en bloc resection (p = 0.004), lower R0 resection (p = 0.002), intraprocedural perforation (p = 0.001), intraprocedural bleeding (p = 0.025) and post-polypectomy syndrome (p = 0.039). Hybrid snaring was associated with lower en bloc resection (p < 0.001), while longer ESD time was associated with lower R0 resection (p = 0.003) and post-polypectomy syndrome (p = 0.025). Other significant factors for post-polypectomy syndrome included young age (p = 0.021) and large polyp size (p = 0.018). Secondary analysis showed that submucosal fibrosis was significantly associated with non-granular lesions (p < 0.001) and prior biopsy (p = 0.003). Conclusion Submucosal fibrosis, hybrid snaring, ESD time, age and polyp size were significant outcome determining factors for ESD. By identifying these factors, strategies may be formulated to improve ESD outcomes.

• Sydney Selznick
• Jordan Levy
• Ruxandra-Maria Bogdan
• [...]
• Christopher M. Schlachta
Background Owing to important differences in surgical technique, laparoscopic right colectomy with intracorporeal (ICA) compared to extracorporeal (ECA) anastomotic technique may result in improved patient outcomes. We aimed to compare both techniques according to incisional hernias and other pertinent perioperative characteristics, post-operative complications, and oncologic quality markers. Methods All adult patients undergoing laparoscopic right colectomies between 2015 and 2020 at a single institution were included. ICA and ECA techniques were compared based on selected outcomes using univariable and multivariable statistical analyses, as appropriate. Subgroup analyses were restricted to patients with neoplastic indications for surgery and non-urgent operations. Results A total of 517 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 139 (26.9%) underwent ICA and 378 (73.1%) underwent ECA. ICA and ECA patients had similar baseline characteristics. At two years of follow-up, a lower proportion of ICA patients developed a hernia at the extraction incision (1.5% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.02) and ICA was associated with an 80% reduction in extraction incision hernias (aHR 0.20, p = 0.03). These results were stable through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Median operative time was longer in the ICA group (186 min vs. 135 min, p < 0.001), but the gap in operative time narrowed during the study period. Median length of stay was one calendar day shorter in the ICA group (3 days vs. 4 days, p = 0.007) and ICA was associated with a 13% decrease in the length of stay (aRR 0.87, p = 0.02). The incidence of superficial wound infections, anastomotic leaks and re-interventions was lower in ICA patients, but this difference was not statistically significant. 90-day unscheduled visits, readmissions, and mortalities were similar across both groups, as were oncologic outcomes. Conclusion Laparoscopic right colectomies with intracorporeal anastomoses are associated with a reduction in incisional hernias and shorter hospital lengths of stay without compromising on patient safety or oncologic principles. Graphical abstract

Background Assessing performance automatically in a virtual reality trainer or from recorded videos is advantageous but needs validated objective metrics. The purpose of this study is to obtain expert consensus and validate task-specific metrics developed for assessing performance in double-layered end-to-end anastomosis. Materials and methods Subjects were recruited into expert (PGY 4–5, colorectal surgery residents, and attendings) and novice (PGY 1–3) groups. Weighted average scores of experts for each metric item, completion time, and the total scores computed using global and task-specific metrics were computed for assessment. Results A total of 43 expert surgeons rated our task-specific metric items with weighted averages ranging from 3.33 to 4.5 on a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 20 subjects (10 novices and 10 experts) participated in validation study. The novice group completed the task significantly more slowly than the experienced group (37.67 ± 7.09 vs 25.47 ± 7.82 min, p = 0.001). In addition, both the global rating scale (23.47 ± 4.28 vs 28.3 ± 3.85, p = 0.016) and the task-specific metrics showed a significant difference in performance between the two groups (38.77 ± 2.83 vs 42.58 ± 4.56 p = 0.027) following partial least-squares (PLS) regression. Furthermore, PLS regression showed that only two metric items (Stay suture tension and Tool handling) could reliably differentiate the performance between the groups (20.41 ± 2.42 vs 24.28 ± 4.09 vs, p = 0.037). Conclusions Our study shows that our task-specific metrics have significant discriminant validity and can be used to evaluate the technical skills for this procedure.

Background Staple line reinforcement (SLR) is commonly used in bariatric surgeries to reduce leaks and bleeds. With the evolution of staplers, the need for buttressing with the latest surgical stapling technology is in question. The efficacy of GORE® SEAMGUARD® (G-SLR) to improve staple line strength based on an established measure of burst pressure was evaluated. A benchtop test on synthetic tissue evaluated the pressure required for staple line leak across surgical staplers with and without G-SLR. Methods Staple lines on a consistent thickness synthetic bowel were pressurized to the point of failure (burst pressure) among Ethicon®, Intuitive®, and Medtronic® surgical staplers with and without G-SLR. Burst pressure and leak location (through the staple line [TTSL] or through the staple [TTS], on the anvil or cartridge side) were recorded. Visual confirmation of a leak concluded each test. Results The pooled mean burst pressure for G-SLR was greater (p < 0.05) by 0.494 pounds/square inch compared with no reinforcement with no meaningful differences among staplers. Leak failures were primarily TTS (91.7%) and equally distributed between reinforcement groups with more leak failures on the cartridge side with G-SLR and on the anvil side for non-SLR group. Leaks occurred across the length of staple lines with no discernable pattern. Conclusion Employing a buttressing material strengthens the staple line, as measured by burst pressure, and may reduce the risk for staple line failure. This benchtop study of G-SLR with three commonly used surgical staplers demonstrated a significant increase in burst pressures among the studied stapling devices. Graphical abstract

Background Liver fibrosis or cirrhosis frequently makes parenchymal transection more difficult, but the difficulty score of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), including the IWATE criteria, does not include a factor related to liver fibrosis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate M2BPGi as a predictor of the difficulty of parenchymal transection and the incidence of postoperative complications in LLR. Methods Data from 54 patients who underwent laparoscopic partial liver resection (LLR-P) and 24 patients who underwent laparoscopic anatomical liver resection between 2017 and 2019 in our institution were retrospectively analyzed. All cases were classified according to M2BPGi scores, and reserve liver function, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative complications were compared among these groups. Results Sixteen cases (29.6%) were M2BPGi negative (cut-off index < 1.0), 25 cases (46.3%) were 1+ (1.0 ≤ cut-off index < 3.0), and 13 cases (24.1%) were 2+ (cut-off index ≥ 3.0). M2BPGi-positive cases had significantly worse hepatic reserve function (K-ICG: 0.16 vs 0.14 vs 0.08, p < 0.0001). Intraoperative bleeding was significantly greater in M2BPGi-positive cases [50 ml vs 150 ml vs 200 ml, M2BPGi (−) or (1+) vs M2BPGi (2+), p = 0.045]. Postoperative complications (Clavien–Dindo ≥ II) were significantly more frequent in M2BPGi-positive cases [0% vs 4% vs 33%, M2BPGi (−) or (1+) vs M2BPGi (2+), p = 0.001]. Conclusion M2BPGi could predict surgical difficulty and complications in LLR-P. In particular, it might be better not to select M2BPGi (2+) cases as teaching cases because of the massive bleeding during parenchymal transection.

Background The long-term outcomes of patients with T1 colorectal cancer (CRC) who undergo endoscopic and/or surgical treatment are not well understood. Invasive CRC confined to the colonic submucosa (T1 CRC) is challenging in terms of clinical decision-making. We compared the long-term outcomes of T1 CRC by treatment method. Methods We examined 370 patients with pathological T1 CRC treated between 2000 and 2015 at Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital. In total, 93 patients underwent endoscopic resection (ER) only, 82 underwent additional surgery after ER, and 175 underwent surgical resection only. Patients who did not meet the curative criteria were defined as “high-risk.” High-risk patients were classified into three groups according to the treatment modalities: ER only (Group A: 35 patients), additional surgery after ER (Group B: 72 patients), and surgical resection only (Group C: 133 patients). The recurrence-free and overall survival (OS) rates, and factors associated with recurrence and mortality, were analyzed. Factors associated with lymph node metastasis (LNM) were subjected to multivariate analysis. Results Of the 370 patients, 7 experienced recurrence and 7 died. All recurrences occurred in the high-risk group and two deaths were in the low-risk group. In high-risk groups, there was no significant group difference in recurrence-free survival (P = 0.511) or OS (P =0.657). Poor histology (P =0.042) was associated with recurrence, and vascular invasion (P =0.044) with mortality. LNMs were observed in 30 of 277 patients who underwent surgery either initially or secondarily. Lymphatic invasion was significantly associated with the incidence of LNM (P < 0.001). Conclusions ER prior to surgery did not affect the prognosis of high-risk T1 CRC patients, and did not worsen the clinical outcomes of patients who required additional surgery. Lymphatic invasion was the most important predictor of LNM.

Background Personalized medicine requires the integration and analysis of vast amounts of patient data to realize individualized care. With Surgomics, we aim to facilitate personalized therapy recommendations in surgery by integration of intraoperative surgical data and their analysis with machine learning methods to leverage the potential of this data in analogy to Radiomics and Genomics. Methods We defined Surgomics as the entirety of surgomic features that are process characteristics of a surgical procedure automatically derived from multimodal intraoperative data to quantify processes in the operating room. In a multidisciplinary team we discussed potential data sources like endoscopic videos, vital sign monitoring, medical devices and instruments and respective surgomic features. Subsequently, an online questionnaire was sent to experts from surgery and (computer) science at multiple centers for rating the features’ clinical relevance and technical feasibility. Results In total, 52 surgomic features were identified and assigned to eight feature categories. Based on the expert survey (n = 66 participants) the feature category with the highest clinical relevance as rated by surgeons was “surgical skill and quality of performance” for morbidity and mortality (9.0 ± 1.3 on a numerical rating scale from 1 to 10) as well as for long-term (oncological) outcome (8.2 ± 1.8). The feature category with the highest feasibility to be automatically extracted as rated by (computer) scientists was “Instrument” (8.5 ± 1.7). Among the surgomic features ranked as most relevant in their respective category were “intraoperative adverse events”, “action performed with instruments”, “vital sign monitoring”, and “difficulty of surgery”. Conclusion Surgomics is a promising concept for the analysis of intraoperative data. Surgomics may be used together with preoperative features from clinical data and Radiomics to predict postoperative morbidity, mortality and long-term outcome, as well as to provide tailored feedback for surgeons. Graphical abstract

Background Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the standard endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancers (EGCs). However, obscured view and difficulty in submucosal lifting during ESD have been demonstrated. Additionally, ESD is time-consuming and poses a high risk of perforation and bleeding when performed in challenging locations. The pocket-creation method (PCM) is a newly developed strategy for colorectal tumors, while the outcomes of application in the treatment of EGCs are rarely reported. In the present study, we aimed to compare the technical efficacy and safety of PCM-ESD and the conventional ESD (c-ESD) technique for the treatment of EGCs. Methods This was a single-center retrospective study consisting of 162 patients with EGCs who underwent ESD between February 2019 and February 2021. One-to-one propensity score matching (PSM) was performed. In addition, clinicopathological characteristics and treatment outcomes were also compared. Results PCM-ESD was more likely to be used in patients with larger lesions than c-ESD with/without traction. In addition, the resection speed for lesions of the PCM-ESD was faster compared with c-ESD without traction (median dissection speed: 19.6 mm²/min vs. 15 mm²/min; p < 0.001) and c-ESD with traction (median dissection speed after PSM: 19.9 mm²/min vs. 15 mm²/min; p = 0.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, significant factors related to a higher dissection speed were the treatment method of PCM-ESD (p = 0.034), the long diameter of the resected lesion (p = 0.001), and lesion location (p = 0.046). Conclusions Collectively, PCM-ESD appeared to be a safer and more effective treatment for EGCs than c-ESD. In addition, PCM-ESD could significantly improve the speed of tumor resection. Graphical abstract

Background Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is nowadays a standard method for treatment of achalasia; nevertheless, it remains an invasive intervention with corresponding risk of adverse events (AEs). The classification and grading of AEs are still a matter of discussion. The aim of our retrospective study was to assess the occurrence of all “undesirable” events and “true” adverse events in patients undergoing POEM and to compare the outcomes when either Clavien–Dindo classification (CDC) or American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) lexicon classification applied. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively managed database of all patients who had undergone POEM between December 2012 and August 2018. We assessed the pre-, peri-, and early-postoperative (up to patient’s discharge) undesirable events (including those not fulfilling criteria for AEs) and “true” AEs according the definition in either of the classifications. Results A total of 231 patients have successfully undergone 244 POEM procedures (13 × re-POEM). Twenty-nine procedures (11.9%) passed uneventfully, while in 215 procedures (88.1%), a total of 440 undesirable events occurred. The CDC identified 27 AEs (17 minor, 10 major) occurring in 23/244 (9.4%) procedures. The ASGE lexicon identified identical 27 AEs (21 mild or moderate, 6 severe or fatal) resulting in the severity distribution of AEs being the only difference between the two classifications. Only the absence of previous treatment was found to be a risk factor [p = 0.047, OR with 95% CI: 4.55 (1.02; 20.25)] in the combined logistic regression model. Conclusion Undesirable events are common in patients undergoing POEM but the incidence of true AEs is low according to both classifications. Severe adverse events are infrequent irrespective of the classification applied. CDC may be more appropriate than ASGE lexicon for classifying POEM-related AEs given a surgical nature of this procedure. Graphical abstract

Background The assessment of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) skills using operating times has not been well reported. We examined the total and partial operating times for LC procedures performed by surgical trainees to determine the required number of surgeries until the surgical time stabilizes. Methods We reviewed the video records of 514 consecutive LCs using the three-port method, performed by 16 surgical trainees. The total and partial surgical times were calculated and correlated to the surgeons’ experience. Results The median total surgical time for a trainee’s first LC was 112 (range 71–226) minutes. It reduced rapidly after the first 20 LCs and plateaued to its minimum after approximately 60 cases. A statistically significant time decrease was observed between the first 10 (median, range 112, 46–252 min) and the next 50–59 cases (64, 34–198 min), but not between the 50–59 and the subsequent 100–109 cases (71, 33–127 min). The total times taken by trainees who had performed > 50 operations were not significantly different from those taken by instructors during the study period. Surgery for 125 patients with acute cholecystitis took a significantly longer time (median 99 vs. 74 min with non-acute cholecystitis); however, the abovementioned time reduction findings showed similar results regardless of the patient’s acute inflammation status. The partial operating times around the cervical/cystic duct and gallbladder bed reduced uniformly between the first 10 and the following 50–59 cases. Although time variations in total and cervical/cystic duct operating times were not correlated to the surgical experience, time fluctuation of gallbladder bed procedures reduced after 60 cases. Conclusion The time required to perform an LC was inversely correlated with the experience of surgical trainees and halved after the first 60 cases. The surgical experience required for LC time stabilization is approximately 60 cases.

Background Weight regain (WR) post bariatric surgery affects almost 20% of patients. It has been theorized that a complex interplay between physiologic adaptations and epigenetic mechanisms promotes WR in obesity, however, reliable predictors have not been identified. Our study examines the relationship between early postoperative weight loss (WL), nadir weight (NW), and WR following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Methods A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted for LRYGB or LSG patients from 2012 to 2016. Demographics, preoperative BMI, procedure type, and postoperative weight at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months were recorded. WR was defined as > 20% increase from NW. Univariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to determine the association between early postoperative WL with NW and WR at 4 years. Results Thousand twenty-six adults were included (76.8% female, mean age 44.9 ± 11.9 years, preoperative BMI 46.1 ± 8); 74.6% had LRYGB and 25.3% had LSG. Multivariable linear regression models showed that greater WL was associated with lower NW at 6 months (Coef − 2.16; 95% CI − 2.51, − 1.81), 1 year (Coef − 2.33; 95% CI − 2.58, − 2.08), 2 years (Coef − 2.04; 95% CI − 2.25, − 1.83), 3 years (Coef − 1.95; 95% CI − 2.14, − 1.76), and 4 years (Coef − 1.89; 95% CI − 2.10, − 1.68), p ≤ 0.001. WR was independently associated with increased WL between 6 months and 1 year (Coef 1.59; 95% CI 1.05,2.14; p ≤ 0.001) and at 1 year (Coef 1.24; 95% CI 0.84,1.63;p ≤ 0.001) postoperatively. The multivariable logistic regression model showed significantly increased risk of WR at 4 years for patients with greater WL at 6 months (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.08,1.33; p = 0.001) and 1 year (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.06,1.23; p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that higher WL at 6 and 12 months post bariatric surgery may be risk factors for WR at 4 years. Surgeons may need to follow patients with high early weight loss more closely and provide additional treatment options to maximize their long-term success.

Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, deferral of inpatient elective surgical procedures served as a primary mechanism to increase surge inpatient capacity. Given the benefit of bariatric surgery on treating obesity and associated comorbidities, decreased access to bariatric surgery may have long-term public health consequences. Understanding the extent of the disruption of the COVID-19 pandemic to bariatric surgery will help health systems plan for appropriate access. Materials and methods This is an observational cohort study using the PINC AI Healthcare Database from 1/1/2019–6/31/2021. A Poisson regression model with patient characteristics and hospital-fixed effects was used to assess the relative monthly within-hospital reduction in surgical encounters, variations by race and ethnicity, and shift from inpatient to outpatient procedures. A multivariate linear probability model was used to assess the change in 30-day readmissions from 2020 and 2021 compared to 2019. Results Among 309 hospitals, there were 46,539 bariatric procedures conducted in 2019 with a 14.8% reduction in volume to 39,641 procedures in 2020. There were 22,642 bariatric procedures observed from January to June of 2021. The most pronounced decrease in volume occurred in April with an 89.7% relative reduction from 2019. Black and Hispanic patients were more likely to receive bariatric surgery after the height of the pandemic compared to white patients. A clinically significant shift from inpatient to outpatient bariatric surgical procedures was not observed. Relative to 2019, there were no significant differences in bariatric surgical readmission rates. Conclusion During the pandemic there was a sizable decrease in bariatric surgical volume. There did not appear to be disparities in access to bariatric surgery for minority patients. We did not observe a meaningful shift toward outpatient bariatric surgical procedures. Post-pandemic, monitoring is needed to assess if hospitals have been able to meet the demand for bariatric surgical procedures. Graphical abstract

Introduction Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the gold standard operation for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in patients with severe obesity, but there is variability in surgeon opinion regarding whether small type I hiatal hernias (HH) require routine repair concurrently with RYGB. We sought to examine whether leaving small type I HHs unrepaired during RYGB affected GERD outcomes. Methods Pre-operatively our patients all receive endoscopy, and select patients with reflux symptoms receive esophagram based on attending surgeon practice and preference. We routinely repair paraesophageal hernias (PEH) concurrently with RYGB, but refrain from repairing small type I HH if, intra-operatively, the gastric fat pad and cardia are below the diaphragm with no evidence of retraction into the mediastinum. Records from 268 consecutive patients undergoing primary RYGB between January 2016 and February 2021 who completed pre-operative GERD–HRQL assessments were reviewed for presence of type I HH or PEH. Mann–Whitney U tests examined the pre-operative to post-operative change in GERD–HRQL in patients with type I HH left unrepaired at the time of RYGB (HH group) and patients with no hernia (NH group). Results Pre-operatively, GERD–HRQL scores were not statistically different between HH group (median = 7, mean = 8.5, n = 100) and NH group (median = 6.5, mean = 7.2, n = 141) (p > 0.05). Post-operatively, there was no increase in GERD–HRQL scores patients whose hernias were left unrepaired. Neither group had clinically pathologic post-operative GERD–HRQL scores, with median 6 months scores of 1 for HH group (n = 68) versus 1.5 for NH group (n = 90) (p > 0.05), and median 12 months scores of 1.5 for HH group (n = 40) versus 1 for NH group (n = 56) (p > 0.05). Conclusion Repair of small type I HH is not necessary to achieve effective, durable resolution of reflux symptoms with RYGB. Omitting repair reduces operative time, cost, and potential risk without adverse impact on post-operative reflux symptoms. Graphical abstract

Background Surgical pain management is a critical component in the success of bariatric procedures. With the opioid epidemic, there have been increased efforts to decrease opioid use. In 2019, the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program developed the BSTOP protocol, a multimodal perioperative pain management regimen to minimize opioid use. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the BSTOP protocol on patients’ need for opioid medications during their perioperative care. Methods This is a single-institution prospective cohort study on patients who underwent bariatric surgery from 10/2019 to 5/2021. Data was collected on morphine equivalent dose of opioids during different stages of inpatient and outpatient care. BSTOP was implemented on 7/2020. Primary outcomes were total inpatient and outpatient opioid use as well as hospital length of hospital stay (LOS). Gabapentin was removed from the protocol between 10/20/2020 and 12/31/2020 due to side effects; it was re-implemented on 1/1/2021 due to observed spikes in opioid use during its absence. Results 1264 patients who had bariatric surgery between 10/2019 and 5/2021 were included in the study, with 409 patients before (pre-BSTOP) and 855 patients after BSTOP implementation. There was a 36% reduction in total inpatient opiate use and a 57% reduction in total outpatient opiate use. LOS also significantly decreased, from 1.53 to 1.28 days. 179 patients received BSTOP without gabapentin. These patients used more opioids in the post-anesthesia care unit and on the inpatient floors compared to pre-BSTOP and BSTOP with gabapentin patients. With total inpatient and outpatient opioid use, patients on BSTOP without gabapentin used fewer opioids than those pre-BSTOP. However, those on BSTOP without gabapentin used more opioids than those with gabapentin. Conclusion The BSTOP protocol significantly reduced inpatient and outpatient opioid use as well as LOS. Gabapentin is a crucial component of the BSTOP protocol.

Background Burnout has become a prominent topic, yet there are limited data on the manifestation of this phenomenon among surgical fellows. The goal of this study is to elucidate the prevalence of burnout and determine if there are protective or predisposing factors in surgical fellowship training. Methods A confidential electronic survey was distributed to Fellowship Council accredited fellows during the 2020–2021 academic year. Demographic information and training characteristics were queried. The fellows were then asked to complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Short Grit Scale (SGS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SLS), and General Self-Efficacy Scale (SE). Data were analyzed using p values of ≤ 0.05 as statistically significant. Results At the end of the survey period, 92 out of 196 (46.9%) fellowship trainees responded. 69.6% of respondents identified as men, 29.7% as international medical school graduates (IMGs), and 15.3% non-US IMGs. Based on criteria defined by the MBI, there was an 8.4% rate of burnout. Most respondents noted low stress levels (62.3%), good satisfaction with life (58.9%), a moderate amount of grit, and a high level of self-esteem. On comparative analysis, fellows with burnout had significantly higher stress levels, lower levels of satisfaction with life, and less self-esteem. Conclusions Overall, there was a low rate of burnout among fellows. We suggest this may be reflective of a self-selecting effect, as trainees who choose to undergo additional training may be less likely to experience this syndrome. In addition, there may be a protective factor during fellowship that results from inherent mentoring, increased specialization, and autonomy. Further investigation of the predisposing factors to burnout in fellowship trainees is warranted based on the results of this study.

Introduction Quality of care delivery may improve patient outcomes post-bariatric surgery. We examined the quality of post-discharge phone calls (PhDC) to determine the impact on early (< 90 day) non-urgent hospital returns (NUHR) following primary bariatric surgery. Methods A retrospective review was performed on patients who underwent Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in 2019. Patients were compared between presence of care coaching (Jan–June 2019) versus no care coaching (July–Dec 2019). Baseline demographics, comorbidities, psychiatric history, and PhDC were collected. Index PhDCs were coded for completeness using a scoring system and rated by call quality. Patients were stratified into NUHR versus control group (Never returns [NR]). Primary analysis examined the impact of PhDC on NUHR. Sub-analysis examined the impact of call quality. Univariate analysis was performed using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Multivariate analysis (MVA) was used to determine predictors of NUHR. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was statistically significant. Results A total of 359 patients were included. Compared to the NR group (n = 294), NUHRs (n = 65) were more likely to be younger (41.3 + 12.1 versus 45.0 + 10.8 years, p = 0.024), with baseline anxiety (41.5% versus 23.5%, p = 0.003), and undergo RYGB (73.3% versus 57.8%, p = 0.031). There was a significant difference in number of PhDC in the NUHR and NR groups (p = 0.0206). Care-coached patients had significantly higher rates of high-quality phone calls (p < 0.0001) compared to non-care-coached patients. MVA demonstrated younger age (OR = 0.97, CI: 0.95–1.00; p = 0.023), anxiety (OR = 2.09, CI: 1.17–3.73; p = 0.012), RYGB (OR = 1.88, CI: 1.02–3.45; p = 0.042), and > 50% call quality versus no PhDC (OR = 0.45, CI: 0.25–0.83; p = 0.010) were independently associated with NUHRs. Conclusion High-quality PhDCs may play a role in mitigating NUHRs. Care coaching represents a potential intervention to decrease high rates of NUHR in primary bariatric surgery patients.

Background The use of Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) has increased substantially since their introduction in 2010. The lack of readily available reversal agents poses a challenge in perioperative management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of NOACs on the outcomes of emergency colectomies. Methods All adult patients on long-term anticoagulation who underwent emergency colectomies were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2002 to 2018. Long-term anticoagulation was defined using ICD-9/10 codes. Two cohorts were compared: anticoagulated patients in the pre-NOAC era (2002–2010) and anticoagulated patients in the NOAC era (2010–2018). Outcomes of interest were postoperative surgical complications, mortality and need for transfusion. Results Of 13,218 patients on long-term anticoagulation, 3,264 patients were treated in the pre-NOAC era and 9,954 in the NOAC era. Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the proportion of anticoagulated patients undergoing emergency colectomies (R² = 0.91). On univariate analysis, anticoagulated patients in the NOAC era were medically more comorbid and had higher rates of postoperative surgical complications (73.3% vs 60.3%, p < 0.001) and mortality (8.2% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.006), but had lower rates of postoperative bleeding (3.5% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.002) and transfusions (38.1% vs. 45.4%, p < 0.001). On multivariable regression, after accounting for clinically significant covariates, anticoagulation in the NOAC era was associated with decreased rates of postoperative bleeding (OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.57–0.88) and transfusions (OR 0.71 95%CI 0.64–0.77) but remained an independent predictor of increased overall postoperative complications (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.14–1.39). Conclusion Prevalence of long-term anticoagulation in patients undergoing emergency colectomies is increasing. Although associated with lower rates of postoperative bleeding and transfusions, anticoagulation in the NOAC era is associated with higher rates of overall postoperative complications. Evidence-based guidelines for perioperative management of patients on NOACs in the emergency colorectal surgery setting are needed.

Background Major complications (MCs) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) are a known independent predictor of worse oncologic outcomes. There are limited data on the effect of major complications on long-term outcomes after robotic PD (RPD). The aim of this study is to compare the effect of MC on overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after RPD and open PD (OPD). Methods This is a single-center, retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all patients undergoing PD for periampullary cancer including ampullary adenocarcinoma, distal cholangiocarcinoma, and duodenal carcinoma. Univariate analysis was performed on all clinical, pathologic, and treatment factors. MCs were defined as Clavien-Dindo ≥ grade 3. Kaplan–Maier survival analysis was performed with log-rank test for group comparison. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with overall survival (OS) in both the OPD and RPD groups. Results A total of 190 patients with ampullary carcinoma (n = 98), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 55), and duodenal adenocarcinoma (n = 37) were examined over the study period with 61.1% (n = 116) undergoing RPD and 38.9% (n = 74) undergoing OPD. There was no significant difference in patient demographics between the RPD and OPD cohorts. Furthermore, R0 resection rates, tumor size, and lymph node involvement were similar between the RPD and OPD cohorts. OPD had higher rate of MC (40.5% vs 28.3% in RPD, p = 0.011) including clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (25.7% vs 8.6%, p = 0.001) and wound infection (34.5% vs 13.8%, p < 0.001). MCs were associated with a lower OS in the OPD cohort (HR = 2.18, 95%CI 1.0–4.55, p = 0.038). MCs were not associated with OS in the RPD cohort (HR = 1.55, 95%CI 0.87–2.76, p = 0.14). Conclusion MCs are associated with worse patient outcomes after OPD but not after RPD. Robotic approach mitigates and possibly abrogates the negative effects of MCs on patient outcomes after PD for malignancy and is associated with improved adjuvant chemotherapy completion rates. Graphical abstract

Background Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the procedure of choice to remove sludge/stones from the common bile duct (CBD). In a small but clinically important proportion of patients with suspected choledocholithiasis ERCP is negative. This is undesirable because of ERCP associated morbidity. We aimed to map the diagnostic pathway leading up to ERCP and evaluate ERCP outcome. Methods We established a prospective multicenter cohort of patients with suspected CBD stones. We assessed the determinants that were associated with CBD sludge or stone detection upon ERCP. Results We established a cohort of 707 patients with suspected CBD sludge or stones (62% female, median age 59 years). ERCP was negative for CBD sludge or stones in 155 patients (22%). Patients with positive ERCPs frequently had pre-procedural endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) imaging (44% vs. 35%; P = 0.045). The likelihood of ERCP sludge and stones detection was higher when the time interval between EUS or MRCP and ERCP was less than 2 days (odds ratio 2.35; 95% CI 1.25–4.44; P = 0.008; number needed to harm 7.7). Conclusions Even in the current era of society guidelines and use of advanced imaging CBD sludge or stones are absent in one out of five ERCPs performed for suspected CBD stones. The proportion of unnecessary ERCPs is lower in case of pre-procedural EUS or MRCP. A shorter time interval between EUS or MRCP increases the yield of ERCP for suspected CBD stones and should, therefore, preferably be performed within 2 days before ERCP. Graphical abstract

Background Prior literature has demonstrated that bariatric surgery is a safe approach for patients with morbid obesity. However, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and risk of mortality in these patients has not been fully elucidated. Primary objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and risk of mortality using data obtained from a national database, with a special focus on patients with BMI ≥ 70.0 kg/m². Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients with morbid obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m²) undergoing first-time bariatric surgery between 2015 and 2018 was performed using data from the Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program. Primary outcome was intra-operative death or death within 30 days post-operatively. Patients were categorized into quartiles according to BMI. Multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate the association of BMI with risk of mortality. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) are provided as measures of strength of association and precision, respectively. Results A total of 463, 436 patients were included with a 30-day mortality rate of 0.11%. Mean BMI (SD) was 48.2 (7.3) kg/m²; 1.5% of patients had BMI ≥ 70.0 kg/m². On multivariable analysis, highest quartile patients had a significantly higher risk of mortality than lowest quartile patients. For patients with BMI ≥ 70.0 kg/m², the risk of mortality was more pronounced with an eightfold increase compared to the lowest quartile. In patients with BMI ≥ 70.0 kg/m², although sleeve gastrectomy (SG) was the most common procedure, the risk of mortality was significantly higher in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Conclusions BMI is associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality. The effect of BMI is more pronounced in patients with BMI ≥ 70.0 kg/m². In these patients, RYGB is associated with increased risk of mortality compared to SG. Graphical abstract

Introduction Different approaches and mesh positions are used for minimally invasive ventral hernia repair (MIS-VHR). Our aim was to evaluate the trends and short-term outcomes of intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM), preperitoneal, and retromuscular repairs for small ventral hernias. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Abdominal Core Health Quality Collaborative (ACHQC). We included elective MIS-VHR in adults with hernia defect width < = 6 cm from 2012 to 2021. We compared patient/hernia characteristics, trends, and short-term outcomes between IPOM, preperitoneal, and retromuscular repairs. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to balance baseline characteristics. Results A total of 7261 patients were included (IPOM = 4484, preperitoneal = 1829, retromuscular = 948). Preperitoneal repair was associated with lower rates of incisional (preperitoneal = 37%, IPOM = 63%, retromuscular = 73%) and recurrent hernias (preperitoneal = 11%, IPOM = 21%, retromuscular = 22%) compared to IPOM and retromuscular. Median defect width was 3.0, 2.0, and 4.0 cm for IPOM, preperitoneal, and retromuscular, respectively. There has been a progressive increase in the proportion of preperitoneal and retromuscular repairs over time (10% in 2013–53% in 2021 of all MIS-VHR). Robotic approach was more frequently utilized in preperitoneal and retromuscular (both > 85%) compared to IPOM (47%). Transversus abdominis release was performed in 14% of retromuscular repairs. After IPTW, no clinically significant differences were noted in the short-term outcomes between IPOM versus preperitoneal. Retromuscular repairs were associated with higher risk of 30-day reoperation (OR = 3.54, 95%CI [1.67, 7.5] and OR = 5.29, 95%CI [1.23, 22.74]) compared to IPOM and preperitoneal repairs, respectively, and higher risk of 30-day readmission compared to preperitoneal repairs (OR = 2.6, 95%CI [2.6, 6.4]). Conclusion Based on ACHQC data, preperitoneal and retromuscular approaches for MIS-VHR of small hernias have increased over time and are primarily performed robotically. Transversus abdominis release was performed in 14% of retromuscular repairs of these small hernias. Retromuscular repairs were associated with higher 30-day readmission and reoperation rates compared to the other approaches. Graphical abstract

Background Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, new techniques like transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) repair have progressively gained acceptance for the treatment of groin hernia. Laparoscopic TAPP (LTAPP) is recommended for bilateral repairs. Likewise, the introduction of robotic platforms has promised additional surgical benefits for robotic TAPP (RTAPP), which are yet to be confirmed. This study compared multicenter data obtained from patients undergoing bilateral inguinal hernia repair with RTAPP, performed during the preliminary learning curve period, versus conventional LTAPP. Materials and methods All consecutive bilateral inguinal hernia patients from four Italian centers between June 2015 and July 2020 were selected. A propensity score model was used to compare patients treated with LTAPP versus RTAPP, considering sex, age, body mass index, current smoking status, overall comorbidity, hernia classification (primary or recurrent), and associated procedures as covariates. After matching, intraoperative details and postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results In total, 275 LTAPP and 40 RTAPP were performed. After matching, 80 and 40 patients were allocated to the LTAPP and RTAPP cohorts, respectively. No intraoperative complications or conversion to open surgery occurred. However, a longer operative time was recorded in the RTAPP group (79 ± 21 versus 98 ± 29 min; p < 0.001). Postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores (p = 0.13) did not differ and complication rates were similar. There were no clinical recurrences in either group, with mean follow-up periods of 52 ± 14 (LTAPP) and 35 ± 8 (RTAPP) months. A statistical difference in length of hospital stay was found between the groups (1.05 ± 0.22 vs 1.50 ± 0.74 days; p < 0.001). Conclusion In this patient population, outcomes for bilateral inguinal hernia repair appear comparable for RTAPP and LTAPP, except for a shorter recovery after laparoscopic surgery. A longer operative time for robotic surgery could be attributable to the learning curve period of each center.

Background The COVID-19 pandemic created delays in surgical care. The population with obesity has a high risk of death from COVID-19. Prior literature shows the most effective way to combat obesity is by weight loss surgery. At different times throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, elective inpatient surgeries have been halted due to bed availability. Recognizing that major complications following bariatric surgery are extremely low (bleeding 0–4%, anastomotic leaks 0.8%), we felt outpatient bariatric surgery would be safe for low-risk patients. Complications such as DVT, PE, infection, and anastomotic leaks typically present after 7 days postoperatively, well outside the usual length of stay. Bleeding events, severe postoperative nausea, and dehydration typically occur in the first few days postoperatively. We designed a pathway focused on detecting and preventing these early post-op complications to allow safe outpatient bariatric surgery. Methods We used a preoperative evaluation tool to risk stratify bariatric patients. During a 16-month period, 89 patients were identified as low risk for outpatient surgery. We designed a postoperative protocol that included IV hydration and PO intake goals to meet a safe discharge. We sent patients home with a pulse oximeter and had them self-monitor their pulse and oxygen saturation. We called all patients at 10 pm for a postoperative assessment and report of their vitals. Patients returned to clinic the following day and were seen by a provider, received IV hydration, and labs were drawn. RESULTS: 80 of 89 patients (89.8%) were successfully discharged on POD 0. 3 patients were readmitted within 30 days. We had zero deaths in our study cohort and no morbidity that would have been prevented with postoperative admission. Conclusion We demonstrate that by identifying low-risk patients for outpatient bariatric surgery and by implementing remote monitoring of vitals early outpatient follow-up, we were able to safely perform outpatient bariatric surgery. Graphical abstract

Background Minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy, either laparoscopic or robotic, is a high-risk procedure with demanding learning curve. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate short-term clinical and oncologic outcomes of 3D-laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (3dLPD) with stented pancreaticogastrostomy (sPG) and Roux-en-Y gastroenterostomy (ryGES). Methods Between March 2016 and July 2021, 347 consecutive patients underwent 3dLPD for confirmed or suspected pancreatic or periampullary tumors. Pancreatic duct diameter measured 3 mm or less in 221 (64%) and pancreatic texture was soft in 191 (55%) patients. Simultaneous resection of the superior mesenteric or portal vein was performed in 52 (15%) patients. Results Postoperative complications were observed in 189 (54%) patients, with severe complications (Clavien–Dindo grade > 2) in 68 (20%) including 4 (1.2%) deaths. Clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (cPOPF) occurred in 88 (25%), hemorrhage in 25 (7%), and bile leakage in 10 (3%) patients. Clinical pancreatic fistula was strongly associated with soft pancreatic texture and small pancreatic duct diameter (p < 0.001) and managed by endoscopic trans-gastric drainage in 34 (38.6%) patients, reoperation in 12 (13.6%), and ICU admission in 11 (12.5%). The remaining 31 (35%) patients with cPOPF were managed without invasive intervention. Median length of hospital stay after surgery was 13 (range 5–112; IQR 8–18) days. In pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) the R0-resection rate was 66/186 (36%), R1-indirect 95/186 (51%), and R1-direct 25 (13%). Median number of locoregional lymph nodes retrieved in PDAC was 21 (IQR 15–28). R0-resection rate for malignancy other than PDAC was 78/86 (91%) with a median of 16 (IQR 12–22) locoregional lymph nodes retrieved. Conclusion 3dLPD with sPG and ryGES is associated with 1.2% mortality and 25% cPOPF. About two-third of patients with cPOPF were managed with some type of invasive intervention, whereas the intraoperatively placed drains sufficed in one-third of patients. Clinical trial registry Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02671357.

Background Portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) secondary to primary liver carcinoma (PLC) is commonly associated with poor prognosis and poses great challenge. This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in treatment of PVTT. Methods Consecutive patients who were performed endovascular RFA because of PVTT in single-institution in recent 8 years were retrospectively reviewed, compared with patients who underwent only sequential transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) during the contemporary period. Patency of portal vein, complications, and overall survival (OS) were investigated. Results One hundred and 20 patients who underwent endovascular RFA and 96 patients who underwent only sequential TACE were included. No severe complications happened in both groups. Except the higher rates of severe fever and moderate pain in the study group, no difference was found in the incidence of side effects and complications. The effective rate in the study group was (78.3%, 94/120) significantly higher than the comparison group (35.4%, 34/96). The median survival time and 1–3 years cumulative survival rates in the study group were 15.7 months and 42.5%, 21.7%, 2.5%, respectively, and 11.3 months, 21.9%, 9.4%, 0 correspondingly in the comparison group, without significant difference. Type of PVTT and Child–Pugh classification of liver function were independent risk factors, and OS was significantly improved by endovascular RFA and subsequent therapy. Conclusion Endovascular RFA is technically safe and feasible for unresectable PLC and PVTT to improve the prognosis and quality of life.

Background Performing a single-port laparoscopic pancreatectomy is technically challenging. Single-port laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (SPLPD) is rarely reported in English literature. Methods Eighty-seven cases of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD) were performed by a single surgical team in the Department of Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University between February 2020 and December 2020. Among these, 13 cases of LPD (group 1) were performed using a single-port device. Basing on the same inclusion and exclusion criteria, 68 cases of LPD performed using traditional 5-trocar were included as a control group (group 2). The patient’s demographic characteristics, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results Five men and eight women were included in the SPLPD group. The median age of these patients was 57 years. The patients who underwent SPLPD required a longer operative time (332.7 ± 38.1 min vs. 305.8 ± 64.7 min; p = 0.03) than those in the LPD group. The estimated blood loss, conversion rate, blood transfusion rate, time to oral intake, postoperative hospital stays, and perioperative complications were comparable between the two groups. The short-term oncological outcomes, such as R0 rate and lymph node harvested, were comparable between the two groups. The 90-day mortality of all patients was zero. Conclusions SPLPD is a safe and feasible procedure for well-selected patients in an experienced minimally invasive pancreatic surgery team. SPLPD may provide several potential advantages, such as the requirement of fewer trocars, fewer abdominal complications, and reduced participation of assistants than conventional LPD.

Background Financial relationships with industry may bias educational content delivered by physicians. SAGES strives to mitigate potential bias, relying on physician self-reporting. Retrospective review of relationships is possible using the Open Payments Database (OPD), a public record of industry-reported payments to US physicians. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the SAGES disclosure process by comparing faculty disclosures to SAGES, faculty disclosures within presentations, and OPD records among speakers at the 2018–2020 SAGES meetings. Methods We reviewed all presentations from the SAGES 2018–2020 Annual Meetings. For each invited presentation, all slide-disclosed relationships were recorded. For US physicians, we queried the OPD and recorded relationships ≥ $500 USD in the calendar year prior to presentation. We compared the slide-disclosed relationships with OPD-reported relationships and with those provided to SAGES during the faculty disclosure process. We surveyed a sample of the 2020 annual meeting speakers to analyze potential reasons for discordance. Results From 2018 to 2020, there were 1,355 invited presentations, of which 1,234 (91%) were available for review. Disclosure slides were present in 1,098 (89%), increasing from 86% in 2018 to 93% in 2020. The proportion of speakers with OPD-reported relationships ≥$500 increased from 54% in 2018 to 66% in 2020. The total value of OPD relationships decreased from $5.9 million (2018) to$3.3 million (2020) with a concomitant decrease in the proportion with high discordance from 9% in 2018 to 5% in 2020. Among the 2020 speakers with high discordance, the most common explanations for discordance were being unaware of payment or payment outside the 12-month timeframe (55%). Conclusions Discordance between financial disclosures reported to SAGES and OPD highlight the need for improvements in the faculty disclosure process. SAGES will continue to streamline this process by incorporating faculty review of their OPD disclosures to ensure all educational programs remain free of commercial bias. Graphical Abstract

Background Social cohesion and neighborhood support have been linked to improved health in a variety of fields, but is not well-studied among the elderly population. This is particularly evident in surgical populations. Therefore, this study sought to assess the potential role of community distress in predicting early hernia recurrence among older adults. Methods The Abdominal Core Health Quality Collaborative (ACHQC) was used to identify patients aged 65 or older undergoing elective ventral hernia repair with zip code data available. Patients were linked to the Distressed Communities Index (DCI), which is a national database that assigns a score of 0–100 to each zip code based on 7 measures of neighborhood prosperity. Quintiles were used to compare groups: prosperous (0–20), comfortable (21–40), mid-tier (41–60), at-risk (61–80), and distressed (81–100). Distressed (0–20), at-risk (21–40), mid-tier (41–60), comfortable (61–80), and prosperous (81–100). Time to recurrence for neighborhood distress quintiles was examined using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results In total, 9819 patients were included in the study, including 3056 (31.1%) prosperous, 2307 (23.5%) comfortable, 1795 (18.2%) mid-tier, 1390 (14.2%) at-risk, and 1271 (12.9%) distressed. Distressed communities had lower mean age and greater proportion of racial minorities (p < 0.001). Open repairs were significantly more common among the distressed group (66.7%), as were all comorbidities (p < 0.001). Recurrence-free survival was shorter for distressed communities compared to prosperous after adjusting for baseline characteristics (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.07–1.67, p = 0.01). Mean time to recurrence was lowest for patients living in distressed communities, indicating the worst recurrence rates, while mean time to recurrence was greatest for those in prosperous zip codes (p < 0.001). Conclusion Older VHR patients presenting from distressed zip codes, as identified by the Distressed Communities Index, experience hernia recurrence significantly sooner as compared to patients from prosperous zip codes. This study may provide evidence of the role of neighborhood and environmental factors in caring for older patients following VHR. Graphical abstract

Background The field of bariatric surgery has seen peaks and troughs in the types of metabolic procedures performed. Our primary aim was to evaluate bariatric case volumes among fellows enrolled in bariatric Fellowship Council (FC)-accredited programs. Our secondary aim was to assess trends in revisional case volumes. Methods We reviewed de-identified FC case logs for all bariatric surgery-accredited programs from 2010 through 2019. The number of primary sleeve gastrectomy, gastric band, gastric bypass, biliopancreatic diversion, and major revisional bariatric surgical procedures (defined as a revision with creation of a new anastomosis) were graphed for each academic year. Fellows were stratified into quartiles based on the number of revisional operations per year and graphed over ten years. Volumes of primary gastric bypass, major revisions, and total anastomotic cases were compared over time using ANOVA with p < 0.05 considered significant. Results Case volumes for 822 fellows were evaluated. Sleeve gastrectomy had a significant surge in 2010 and plateaued in 2016. The fellows’ number of primary gastric bypasses had a non-significant decrease from 84 to 75 cases/fellow from 2010 to 2019. This decrease was offset by a significant increase in major revisional surgery from 8 to 19 cases/fellow. As a result, the number of anastomotic cases did not change significantly over the study time period. Interestingly, as revisional volume has grown, the gap between quartiles of fellowship programs has widened with the 95th percentile growing at a much faster rate than lower quartiles. Conclusion The volume of bariatric procedures performed in the last decade among FC fellows follows similar trends to national data. Major revisional cases have doubled with the most robust growth isolated to a small number of programs. As revisional surgery continues to increase, applicants interested in a comprehensive bariatric practice should seek out training programs that offer strong revisional experience.

Background This study was designed to investigate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic hepatic caudate lobectomy (LHCL) for treating liver tumor by comparing with the open hepatic caudate lobectomy (OHCL). Methods In the LHCL group, we included 24 patients with liver tumor received LHCL in Qilu Hospital of the Shandong University from January 2014 to January 2019. Meanwhile, 24 matched liver tumor patients underwent OHCL in our hospital served as control. Then we compared the patient characteristics, intraoperative parameters, and postoperative outcomes between LHCL group and OHCL group. Results There were no significant differences in gender, age, degree of cirrhosis, tumor size, preoperative liver function, Child–Pugh grading, proportion of liver cirrhosis, and tumor size between LHCL group and OHCL group (P > 0.05). No death was reported in both groups. The length of incision in LHCL group was significantly lower than that in OHCL group (4.22 ± 1.14 cm vs. 22.46 ± 4.40 cm, P < 0.001). The intraoperative blood loss in LHCL group was significantly lower than that of OHCL group (116.82 ± 71.61 ml vs. 371.74 ± 579.35 ml, P = 0.047). The total operation time, Pringle maneuver occlusion time, and blocking rate in LHCL group showed no statistical difference compared with those of the OHCL group (P > 0.05). The VAS scores at postoperative 24 and 48 h showed no statistical differences between LHCL group and OHCL group (P > 0.05). Compared with the OHCL group, significant decrease was noticed in the proportion of patients with severe pain 48 h after surgery (0 vs. 4.25 ± 0.46, P < 0.001) and dezocine consumption (90.45 ± 45.77 mg vs. 131.6 ± 81.30 mg, P = 0.0448) in the LHCL group. Conclusion LHCL is effective and feasible for treating liver tumor, which is featured by reducing intraoperative blood loss and serious pain. Graphical abstract

Objective This study aimed to examine socioeconomic disparities in the utilization of primary robotic hernia repair (RHR), utilizing statewide population-level data. It was funded by the SAGES Robotic Surgery Research Grant. Methods and procedures The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) administrative database was used to identify adult patients who underwent primary open, laparoscopic, and robotic hernia repair (inguinal, femoral, umbilical, ventral) from 2010 through 2016. Utilization trends were compared between the surgical approaches, assessing for difference in age, sex, race, insurance status, and socioeconomic status (as defined by median income for zip code). Multivariable regression models were used with statistical significance set at 0.05. Results A total of 280,064 patients underwent primary hernia repair: n = 216,892 (77.4%) open, n = 61,037 (21.8%) laparoscopic, and n = 2,135 (0.8%) robotic. After adjusting for confounding variables, senior age (OR 1.01, p = 0.002), male sex (OR 1.35, p < 0.001), and non-Hispanic race (OR 1.3–1.54, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with the use of robotic compared to open or laparoscopic surgery. Additionally, patients with commercial insurance were more likely to undergo RHR compared to those with Medicare (OR 1.32) or Medicaid (OR 1.54) (p < 0.0001). Income was significantly correlated with RHR such that every \$10,000 increase in income would increase the odds of having RHR by 6% (OR 1.06, p < 0.0001). Academic facilities were also associated with a significantly higher likelihood of utilizing RHR (OR 1.88, p < 0.0001). Conclusion There are significant socioeconomic disparities in the utilization of robotic compared to laparoscopic or open hernia repair. While the robotic approach is overall increasing in popularity, adoption of new technology should not be limited to specific socioeconomic cohorts of the population. Recognizing these disparities is a necessary first step in providing equal and consistent care.

Background Though gastrojejunostomy (GJ) has been a standard palliative procedure for gastric outlet obstruction (GOO), endoscopic stenting (ES) has shown to provide benefits due to its non-invasive approach. The aim of this review is to perform a comprehensive evaluation of ES versus GJ for the palliation of malignant GOO. Methods MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL databases were searched and comparative studies of adult GOO patients undergoing ES or GJ were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcomes were survival time and mortality. Secondary outcomes included technical success, clinical success, reinterventions, days until oral food tolerance, postoperative adjuvant palliative chemotherapy, postoperative morbidities, length of stay (LOS), and costs. Pairwise meta-analyses using inverse-variance random effects were performed. Results After identifying 2222 citations, 39 full-text articles fit the inclusion criteria. In total, 3128 ES patients (41.4% female, age: 68.0 years) and 2116 GJ patients (40.4% female, age: 66.8 years) were included. ES patients experienced a shorter survival time (mean difference -24.77 days, 95% Cl − 45.11 to − 4.43, p = 0.02) and were less likely to undergo adjuvant palliative chemotherapy (risk ratio 0.81, 95% Cl 0.70 to 0.93, p = 0.004). The ES group had a shorter LOS, shorter time to oral intake of liquids and solids, and less surgical site infections (risk ratio 0.30, 95% Cl 0.12 to 0.75, p = 0.01). The patients in the ES group were at greater risk of requiring reintervention (risk ratio 2.60, 95% Cl 1.87 to 3.63, p < 0.001). Conclusion ES results in less postoperative morbidity and shorter LOS when compared to GJ, however, this may be at the cost of decreased initiation of adjuvant palliative chemotherapy and overall survival, as well as increased risk of reintervention. Both techniques are likely appropriate in select clinical scenarios. Graphical abstract

Background The utilization of laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repair in China remains unclear. We aim to investigate the rates of laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repairs and its associated factors at a large hernia center. Methods Data were obtained from the front sheet of medical records of Beijing Chaoyang hospital. Adult inguinal hernia inpatients who underwent hernia repairs between 2013 and 2020 were included. We calculated the overall rates of laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repairs and compared the rate of laparoscopic repairs between different sex, age groups, types, and sides of inguinal hernias. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the rate of laparoscopic repairs. Results 14,481 inpatients with inguinal hernia were included. 91.78% were male, 75.43% were more than 50 years, 75.20% were unilateral inguinal hernia, and 64.57% were indirect inguinal hernia. Overall, 49.47% underwent laparoscopic repairs and 50.53% underwent open repairs. Women had lower rate of laparoscopic repair than men, especially in those with unilateral hernias. Bilateral and direct inguinal hernia had higher rates of laparoscopic repair than unilateral and indirect inguinal hernia. Multivariable logistic regression showed that inpatients who were women, > 70 years, pantaloon inguinal hernia, with obstruction, and more comorbidities were less likely to have laparoscopic repairs. Conclusion Around 50% of inguinal hernia patients at a large hernia center underwent laparoscopic repairs, which was more commonly performed in male, young, bilateral inguinal hernia, and inpatients without comorbidities. More efforts were needed to increase the safe and effective laparoscopic utilization among female patients with inguinal hernias.

Background Endoscopic access to the targeted site is a major challenge for the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y (R-Y) reconstruction after total or subtotal gastrectomy. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility, and safety of mechanistic loop resolution strategies using a short-type single-balloon enteroscopy (short SBE) system. Methods Between February 2020 and March 2022, consecutive patients with a previous R-Y gastrectomy requiring ERCP were prospectively enrolled. Different mechanistic loop resolution strategies for two-dimensional loops, three-dimensionally rotated loops, and loops making a cane or S-shape were applied during the SBE approach. Results Forty-three short SBE-ERCP procedures were performed on 37 patients, with an approach success rate of 100.0% (43/43). The mean time to reach the jejunojejunal anastomosis and target site were 8.0 (6.0–11.0) minutes and 26.0 (16.0–36.0) minutes, respectively. The major challenges for the approach were the cane or S-shaped loop in the jejunojejunal anastomosis or Treitz ligament. The retroflex positioning of a SBE in front of the papilla was achieved in 86.0% (37/43), and the cannulation success rate in patients with an intact papilla was 90.9% (30/33). The initial, overall therapeutic successes, median total procedure time, and adverse event rate were 87.8%, 92.7%, 77.0 (IQR 56–100.5) minutes, and 11.6%, respectively. Conclusions Short SBE-ERCP using standardized mechanistic loop resolution strategies is effective and reproducible in patients with R-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT04847167).

Background While surgical resection has a demonstrated utility for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), it is unclear whether minimally invasive surgery (MIS) or an open approach should be used. This review sought to assess the efficacy and safety of MIS versus open hepatectomy for isolated, resectable CRLM when performed separately from (Key Question (KQ) 1) or simultaneously with (KQ2) the resection of the primary tumor. Methods PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Cochrane CENTRAL, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched to identify both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized comparative studies published during January 2000—September 2020. Two independent reviewers screened literature for eligibility, extracted data from included studies, and assessed internal validity using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 Tool and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed using risk ratios (RR) and mean differences (MD). Results From 2304 publications, 35 studies were included for meta-analysis. For staged resections, three RCTs and 20 observational studies were included. Data from RCTs indicated MIS having similar disease-free survival (DFS) at 1-year (RR 1.03, 95%CI 0.70–1.50), overall survival (OS) at 5-years (RR 1.04, 95%CI 0.84–1.28), fewer complications of Clavien-Dindo Grade III (RR 0.62, 95%CI 0.38–1.00), and shorter hospital length of stay (LOS) (MD -6.6 days, 95%CI -10.2, -3.0). For simultaneous resections, 12 observational studies were included. There was no evidence of a difference between MIS and the open group for DFS-1-year, OS-5-year, complications, R0 resections, blood transfusions, along with lower blood loss (MD -177.35 mL, 95%CI -273.17, -81.53) and shorter LOS (MD -3.0 days, 95%CI -3.82, -2.17). Conclusions Current evidence regarding the optimal approach for CRLM resection demonstrates similar oncologic outcomes between MIS and open techniques, however MIS hepatectomy had a shorter LOS, lower blood loss and complication rate, for both staged and simultaneous resections.

Background The robotic platform is increasingly being utilized in pancreatic surgery, yet its overall merits and putative advantages remain to be adjudicated. We hypothesize that the benefits of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery are maximized in pancreatic benign and premalignant disease, in the setting of friable pancreatic tissue and small pancreatic duct.Methods Retrospective analysis of our prospectively maintained pancreatic database of all consecutive patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for benign or premalignant conditions between 2010 and 2020. Peri-operative outcomes and long-term complications were compared between robotic pancreaticoduodenectomy (RPD) and open pancreaticoduodenectomy (OPD).ResultsOne hundred and eighty eight (n = 188) patients met our inclusion criteria, of which 68 were OPD and 120 RPD. Malignant histologies were excluded. There were only minor differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Post-operative merits of the RPD included lower clinically relevant post-operative pancreatic fistula 10 (8.3%) vs 24 (35.3%), p < 0.001, fewer surgical site infections; 9 (7.5%) vs 11 (16.2%), p = 0.024, shorter operative time, greater lymph node yield; 29 (IQR 21, 38) vs 21 (IQR 13, 34), p = 0.001, and lower 90 days mortality; 1 (0.8%) vs 4 (5.9%), p = 0.039. Rates of long-term complications were similar, exception made for a higher occurrence of small bowel obstruction (SBO) 2 (1.7%) vs 4 (5.9%), p = 0.031 and need for surgical intervention for SBO 0 (0.0%) vs 2 (2.9%), p = 0.019 in the OPD group.Conclusion Our study suggests that RPD benefits include lower 90-day mortality, shorter LOS, and lower rates of selected complications compared to open pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Background Surgical outcomes of patients with thyroid carcinoma who underwent transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA) versus transoral robotic thyroidectomy (TORT) were compared. Methods Patients who underwent TOETVA or TORT between July 2016 and February 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. TOETVA and TORT groups were propensity score-matched (1:1) based on age, sex, body mass index, surgical extent, tumor size, and presence of thyroiditis. Results A total of 185 patients underwent transoral thyroidectomy (142 TOETVA and 43 TORT). Final diagnoses consisted of 135 papillary and seven follicular thyroid carcinomas in the TOETVA group and 43 papillary thyroid carcinomas in the TORT group (p = 0.138). Mean operative time was shorter for the TOETVA group than the TORT group (106.3 vs. 158.9 min, p < 0.001), whereas mean hospital stay was longer for the TOETVA group than the TORT group (2.2 vs. 1.9 days, p = 0.031). After 1:1 propensity score matching, each group included 43 patients. Mean operative time was shorter in the TOETVA group than the TORT group (106.2 vs. 158.9 min, p < 0.001), whereas mean hospital stay was longer in the TOETVA group (2.3 vs. 1.9 days, p = 0.031). There was no significant difference in vocal cord palsy incidences between the groups (one transient, one permanent in the TOETVA group vs. none in the TORT group, p = 0.359). The learning curve was 71 cases for TOETVA and 25 cases for TORT. Conclusion TOETVA had shorter mean operative time, and TORT had shorter learning curve and shorter mean hospital stay. Surgeons should be familiar with the advantages and disadvantages of each procedure.

Background As enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) have continued to evolve, the length of hospitalization (LOS) following elective minimally invasive colorectal surgery has continued to decline. Further refinements in multimodal perioperative pain management strategies have resulted in reduced opioid consumption. The interest in ambulatory colectomy has dramatically accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Severe restrictions in hospital capacity and fear of COVID transmission forced surgical teams to rethink strategies to further reduce length of inpatient stay. Methods Members of the SAGES Colorectal Surgery Committee began reviewing the emergence of SDD protocols and early publications for SDD in 2019. The authors met at regular intervals during 2020–2022 period reviewing SDD protocols, safe patient selection criteria, surrogates for postoperative monitoring, and early outcomes. Results Early experience with SDD protocols for elective, minimally invasive colorectal surgery suggests that SDD is feasible and safe in well-selected patients and procedures. SDD protocols are associated with reduced opioid use and prescribing. Patient perception and experience with SDD is favourable. For early adopters, SDD has been the natural evolution of well-developed ERPs. Like all ERPs, SDD begins in the office setting, identifying the correct patient and procedure, aligning goals and objectives, and the perioperative education of the patient and their supporting significant others. A thorough discussion with the patient regarding expected activity levels, oral intake, and pain control post operatively lays the foundation for a successful application of SDD programs. These observations may not apply to all patient populations, institutions, practice types, or within the scope of an existing ERP. However, if the underlying principles of SDD can be incorporated into an existing institutional ERP, it may further reduce the incidence of post operative ileus, prolonged LOS, and improve the effectiveness of oral analgesia for postoperative pain management and reduced opioid use and prescribing. Conclusions The SAGES Colorectal Surgery Committee has performed a comprehensive review of the early experience with SDD. This manuscript summarizes SDD early results and considerations for safe and stepwise implementation of SDD with a specific focus on ERP evolution, patient selection, remote monitoring, and other relevant considerations based on hospital settings and surgical practices.

Background Safety data on perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) after lung transplantation (LT) are lacking. We compared the 30-day readmission rate and short-term morbidity after LARS between LT recipients and matched nontransplant (NT) controls. Methods Adult patients who underwent LARS between January 1, 2015, and October 31, 2021, were included. The participants were divided into two groups: LT recipients and NT controls. First, we compared 30-day readmission rates after LARS between the LT and NT cohorts. Next, we compared 30-day morbidity after LARS between the LT cohort and a 1-to-2 propensity score-matched NT cohort. Results A total of 1328 patients (55 LT recipients and 1273 NT controls) were included. The post-LARS 30-day readmission rate was higher in LT recipients than in the overall NT controls (14.5% vs. 2.8%, p < 0.001). Compared to matched NT controls, LT recipients had a lower prevalence of paraesophageal hernia, a smaller median hernia size, and higher peristaltic vigor. Also compared to the matched NT controls, the LT recipients had a lower median operative time but a longer median length of hospital stay. The proportion of patients with a post-LARS event within 30 postoperative days was comparable between the LT and matched NT cohorts (21.8% vs 14.5%, p = 0.24). Conclusions Despite a higher perceived risk of comorbidity burden, LT recipients and matched NT controls had similar rates of post-LARS 30-day morbidity at our large-volume center with expertise in transplant and foregut surgery. LARS after LT is safe. Graphical abstract

Background: Further data are necessary to evaluate the risk of complications associated with the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) postoperatively. This study aimed to determine the correlation between the use of NSAIDs in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) and postoperative complications after laparoscopic gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: This retrospective, single-center study was conducted. The study population comprised 2150 patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer treatment. They were divided into two groups: non-NSAIDs (n = 1215) and NSAIDs (n = 935) according to their use of the drugs. Clinicopathologic characteristics, operative details, postoperative complications within 30 days, risk factors for complications, and survival were analyzed. Results: Of the 2150 patients, 935 (43.49%) used NSAIDs. The overall complication rate showed no significant difference between the NSAIDs and non-NSAIDs groups (22.7% vs. 20.7%, p = 0.280), while the rates of anastomotic leakage and duodenal leakage were higher in the NSAID group (2.4% vs. 0.7%, p = 0.002 and 1.8% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.007, respectively). The rates of intra-abdominal bleeding and intra-abdominal abscess were significantly higher in the NSAID group (2.1% vs. 0.7%, p = 0.005 and 1.5% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.008, respectively). However, postoperative ileus occurred more frequently in the non-NSAID group (3.0% vs. 1.4%, p = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, NSAID use was an independent risk factor for early postoperative complications (1.303 [1.042-1.629], p = 0.020). Meanwhile, the NSAID group showed no differences in overall survival at each pathological stage. Conclusion: Postoperative NSAID use by IV-PCA is associated with anastomotic leakage, duodenal stump leakage, intra-abdominal bleeding, and intra-abdominal abscess in patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Caution is advised when NSAIDs are used peri-operatively.

Introduction Despite being one of the most commonly performed operations in the US, there is a paucity of data on practice patterns and resultant long-term outcomes of groin hernia repair. In this context, we performed a contemporary assessment of operative approach with 5 year follow-up to inform care for the 800000 persons undergoing groin hernia repair annually. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients undergoing elective groin hernia repair in a 20% representative Medicare sample from 2010–17. Surgical approach [minimally invasive (MIS) vs open] was defined using appropriate CPT codes. The primary outcome was operative recurrence at up to 5 years following surgery. We estimated the overall risk of operative recurrence using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Results Among 118119 patients, the majority (76.4%) underwent an open repair. Compared to patients who underwent MIS repair, patients in the open surgery cohort were older (mean age 72.7 vs 71.0, p < 0.001), more often female (14.4 vs 10.9%, p < 0.001), less often white (86.9 vs 87.7%, p < 0.001), and had a higher prevalence of nearly all measured comorbidities Patients in the open cohort had a lower incidence of operative recurrence at 1-year (1.0 vs 1.5%, p < 0.001), 3-years, (2.5 vs 3.5%, p < 0.001), and 5-years (3.7 vs 4.7%, p < 0.001). In the Cox proportional hazards model, we found that patients who underwent an open groin hernia repair were significantly less likely to experience operative recurrence (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79–0.93). Conclusions In this study, we found that open groin hernia repair was associated with a lower risk of operative recurrence over time. While this may be related to patient comorbidity and age at the index operation, future work should focus on the impact of surgeon volume on outcomes in the modern era. Graphical abstract

Background Over the last 20 years, the prevalence of severe obesity (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m²) has almost doubled. This condition increases the challenge of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) by creating problems with instrument reach, adequate exposure, and visualization. The aim was to compare perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic versus robotic adrenalectomy (RA) in severely obese patients. Methods This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study. Prospectively collected clinical parameters of patients who underwent LA versus RA between 2000 and 2021 at a single center were compared using Mann–Whitney U, ANOVA, Chi-square, and multivariate regression analysis. Continuous data are expressed as median (interquartile range). Results For lateral transabdominal (LT) adrenalectomies, skin-to-skin operative time (OT) [164.5 (71.0) vs 198.8 (117.0) minutes, p = 0.006] and estimated blood loss [26.2 (15.0) vs 72.6 (50.0) ml, p = 0.010] were less in RA versus LA group, respectively. Positive margin rate, hospital stay and 90-day morbidity were similar between the groups (p = NS). For posterior retroperitoneal (PR) approach, operative time and perioperative outcomes were similar between LA and RA groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated robotic versus laparoscopic technique (p = 0.006) to be an independent predictor of a shorter OT. Conclusion There was a benefit of robotic over the laparoscopic LT adrenalectomy regarding OT and estimated blood loss. Although limited by the small sample size, there was no difference regarding perioperative outcomes between RA and LA performed through a PR approach.

Background Although lateral pelvic lymph node dissection (LLND) might be an effective approach for patients with rectal cancer with lateral lymph node metastasis, it is technically challenging because of the anatomical complexity and location of the deep pelvis. An assistance by transanal approach might be useful for a successful LLND. Methods From September 2016 to May 2021, 39 patients with low rectal cancer underwent transanal total mesorectal excision with LLND. Among them, 18 patients underwent LLND using a conventional laparoscopic approach alone, while the remaining 21 underwent LLND using both conventional and transanal approaches. Their clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared. Results The operation time for LLND on each side was significantly shorter in the transanal group (105 min vs. 54 min, P < 0.001). The intraoperative blood loss was also significantly less in the transanal group (40 g vs. 0 g, P = 0.031). The rate of overall postoperative complications ≥ grade II according to the Clavien–Dindo classification was significantly less in the transanal group (66.7% vs. 28.6%, odds ratio: 5.000, 95% confidence intervals: 1.313–19.047, P = 0.040). The number of harvested lateral lymph nodes in both groups was similar (8.5 vs. 8, P = 0.544). Conclusion The transanal approach for LLND reduced operative time, blood loss, and morbidity compared with the conventional approach alone in a cohort of patients with rectal cancer.

Introduction In laparoscopic surgery, looking in the target areas is an indicator of proficiency. However, gaze behaviors revealing feedforward control (i.e., looking ahead) and their importance have been under-investigated in surgery. This study aims to establish the sensitivity and relative importance of different scene-dependent gaze and motion metrics for estimating trainee proficiency levels in surgical skills. Methods Medical students performed the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery peg transfer task while recording their gaze on the monitor and tool activities inside the trainer box. Using computer vision and fixation algorithms, five scene-dependent gaze metrics and one tool speed metric were computed for 499 practice trials. Cluster analysis on the six metrics was used to group the trials into different clusters/proficiency levels, and ANOVAs were conducted to test differences between proficiency levels. A Random Forest model was trained to study metric importance at predicting proficiency levels. Results Three clusters were identified, corresponding to three proficiency levels. The correspondence between the clusters and proficiency levels was confirmed by differences between completion times (F2,488 = 38.94, p < .001). Further, ANOVAs revealed significant differences between the three levels for all six metrics. The Random Forest model predicted proficiency level with 99% out-of-bag accuracy and revealed that scene-dependent gaze metrics reflecting feedforward behaviors were more important for prediction than the ones reflecting feedback behaviors. Conclusion Scene-dependent gaze metrics revealed skill levels of trainees more precisely than between experts and novices as suggested in the literature. Further, feedforward gaze metrics appeared to be more important than feedback ones at predicting proficiency. Graphical abstract

Top-cited authors
• Università degli Studi di Torino
• IHU de Strasbourg
• Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG)
• McGill University