Studies on Ethno-Medicine

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This study has been conducted in order to evaluate the self-confidence levels of children at the,age of 14-16, who do exercises in different branches or not, in accordance with several variables. The sample group of the study comprises the children who are doing exercises actively in the branches of swimming, football, basketball and tennis, while the control group consists of the children in the same age group. In order to determine the self-confidence levels of the children, Self-Concept Scale has been used in the study. As a result of this Study, it can be said that sports increases the self-confidence in the children at the age group of 1446, the people who do exercise have higher levels of self-confidence than the people who do not do exercises, the athlete-included in team sports have higher self-confidence than the individual athletes, and the highest self-confidence levels belong to basketball players, who are followed by athletes in football and swimming branches.
 
A study was carried out on the traditional knowledge and usage of medicinal plants among the Semai at a village in the state Perak, Malaysia. Information was obtained from talking with adults guided by a predetermined set of questions, and also by observing and participating in their activities during each visit using the method of ethno-botanical enquiry. A total of 37 species was recorded of which most of the species are native. Most species are herbs, followed by trees, climbers and shrubs. Plant parts most commonly used are leaves, roots, flowers, sap, stems. More species are used as external medicine than internal medicine. Many species of plants are used in rituals for healing and protection followed by herbal medicines for restoring and protecting post partum mothers.
 
The domestication of international human rights law, especially the constitutional status given to socio-economic rights in the Constitution 1996, seeks to eliminate decades of historical legacy of inequalities where issues of poverty, health, social security continue to be a challenge to the ordinary citizenry. However, the impact of human rights, which are highly regarded as a progressive tool in infusing the ‘rights lens’ in addressing the various challenges faced by the general populace has been left ‘swinging in the pendulum’ particularly in South Africa due to the advent of the novel COVID-19. This has deepened the social and structural inequalities that have a detrimental effect on the healthcare system and social security, particularly for women and children. Using desk review, the argument is linked to principles of accountability and is limited to the importance of human rights as a central response to the pandemic.
 
This study examined the media for effective education towards attitudinal change during COVID-19 outbreak in Lagos, Nigeria. This study was anchored on agenda setting and social marketing theories to understand the potential role of the media for health communication interventions. The survey research method was used, while the online questionnaire served as the data instrument. The results showed that almost half of the study sample indicated that they had read sufficient number of newspaper reports on COVID-19 in Nigeria, while more than 30 percent of the respondents had occasionally read newspaper reports on COVID-19 in Nigeria. It was recommended that television and social media platforms should be used to tailor messages that can demonstrate the nature and dangers of viral disease such as COVID-19 so as to influence positive priority behaviours.
 
The global pandemic COVID-19 has turned into a serious transmissible disease from human to human within a short period. India being a developing nation with second largest populated country of the world that houses about 17.7 percent of the world population, is expected to suffer from the adverse impacts of COVID-19 much higher than the developed nations with low population size and density. The present study indicates that only 0.012 percent of India’s population was infected by May 30, 2020, which was quite lower than the expected one. The percentage of lethality rate was also low in India in comparison to the developed nations. It was anticipated in the beginning that the COVID-19 will be weakened with rising temperature in the summer or in the warm climate. In India, the COVID-19 spread was noticed all over the country from warm (southern) to cold regions (northern), and no relationship was observed between the warm climate and the low occurrence of COVID-19. The study discusses various strategies as taken up by the Government of India to reduce the risks and the adverse impacts of the pandemic.
 
The traditional system of medication, including Ayurveda, has been accepted widely for treatment of diseases in India, and hence it is being utilised by the people for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic as well. In this backdrop, the traditional system of medicine in India was studied and examined for managing the COVID-19 pandemic. People in India mainly rely upon Ocimum tenuiflorum, Tinospora sinensis, Zinziber officinale, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Curcuma domestica, Phyllanthus emblica, Syzygium aromaticum, Piper nigrum, Citrus medica, and Trachyspermum ammi to manage COVID-19 either by using them alone or as a decoction of more than one species. Apart from herbal formulations, yoga, steam inhalation, lifestyle changes and disinfection of the environment are the cause of concern in managing COVID-19. There is no scientific evidence and claim that the traditional system of medication can cure the COVID-19 disease, however, it may help to improve the immunity and disinfect the home environment, which may finally help to fight against the pandemic.
 
Due to the rapid spread of the COVID-19 disease, the world communities were faced extreme stress to deal with the pandemic. The World Health Organisation (WHO) was decided to declare COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 pandemic was brought extreme challenges on health workers including nurses and ward attendants’ work in the healthcare service. The objective of this study was to explored the impact on health workers of India. This study was conducted among nurses and ward attendants and they were known for their service through the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was included 20 respondents where 10 of them were nurses and the other 10 were ward attendants at the hospital. The interview method was used to collect the data, and the interviews were conducted between November 2020 and February 2021. The interviews were conducted over the phone. Data was analysed with the help of Graneheim’s qualitative content analytical approaches. This study found that health workers were faced anxiety, fear of death, social isolation, loss of hope about future, separation anxiety from family members, etc. They were faced with uncertainty of their own life and even family members due to higher death rate among health workers and also patients.
 
Suicide is an important public health difficulty and the third leading cause of death among young population. This study examines some of the demographic risk factors of suicidal behaviors in Savojbolagh city. In a retrospective, descriptive, and cross-sectional study, suicidal behaviors from March 2007 to March 2009 in Savojbolagh city were investigated. A unified questionnaire was designed in mental health research centre for data gathering. A total of 892 suicidal behavior reports were collected from the health facilities. Suicide attempts were more frequent in females, young people, the married, high school graduates, and housewives. The most common motive for suicide attempt was interpersonal quarrels and secondly, economical problems. Completed (fatal) suicide was higher in males, older people, and unemployed subjects. Demographic risk factors in any region or country are dependent upon the local factors such as socioeconomic status and cultural beliefs which need to be considered in suicide prevention planning.
 
This paper sought to explore the sanitary and hygiene related challenges associated with RDP houses in South Africa through a 2011-2013 case study of RDP houses at Golf Course, Eastern Cape Province. The study used both qualitative and quantitative approaches and therefore took adopted the case study and mini-survey designs. The findings from this study revealed that there were challenges associated with sanitary and hygiene in these RDP houses due to factors such as inadequate spacing and the size of the houses, lack of access to clean water in almost all the houses, poor quality of toilet materials, bad positioning and malfunctioning of the toilets, and poor cracking walls that allowed the wind and cold air to easily permeate. These challenges compelled the researchers to recommend for serious renovation of the houses, work to reposition the toilets, and work on speedy provision of clean water to all the houses among other things.
 
Electricity supply in health centres is very imperative; a cut in electricity could lead to the degeneration of a patient’s health or result in the death of a patient or may compromise surgical procedures. The essence therefore of this study is to examine the effect of load shedding on community health centres in South Africa. A desktop method was used in gathering information, while it was analysed using a combination of content analysis, narrative analysis and themes analysis. It emphasizes that load shedding has caused a lot of damages ranging from the loss of 150 lives in hospital, to poor sanitation, and to interrupted water supply. In conclusion, the prevailing circumstance of load shedding have crippled the health sector and has resulted in pandemonium in the public health sector leading to social, economic and infrastructural quagmires and negative growth to South Africa.
 
The research objective of this study was to analyse the influence of early menopause factors on Indonesian women with demographic and socio-economic indicators, such as age, wealth index, education, employment status, rural-urban settlements, including those associated with media exposure and smoking. The data used in this study were from the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey in Indonesia in 2017. The relationship between the variables and the significant influence of socio-economic and demographic variables on early menopause was analysed using bivariate and multivariate analysis. The results showed that Indonesian women who experienced premature menopause were 12.35 percent. Early menopause tends to be shared more by Indonesian women in urban areas than in rural areas. Women with higher education, and women with the richest wealth quintile were more likely to experience premature menopause. Meanwhile, women who are housewives, and women who smoke are more likely to experience premature menopause. The problem of premature menopause should receive serious attention because it has negative health consequences.
 
This study’s aim is to develop a three-dimensional scale for awareness, attitude, stigma of substance addiction and addicts. The awareness dimension is composed of knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation sub-dimensions. Validity and reliability of the study were conducted to understand that the scale items of intended to measure and also validity and meaningfulness of collected data by applying the scale to 317 people. The three-dimensional scale for awareness, attitude and stigma of addiction is valid and reliable. The scale is provided to get simultaneous results on three interrelated dimensions such as awareness, attitude and stigmatization, and is facilitated to deal with the subject with a more holistic approach.
 
To review the impact on the health of women of legally induced abortion, this paper draws on the published abortion statistics of Great Britain and the Scandinavian countries to examine the consistency of the demographic pattern of legally induced abortion with the known epidemiology of medical conditions that are abortion related. The age distribution of women having abortions is modelled. The social gradient of abortion is considered. Trends in Parous and Nulliparous abortions are reviewed. Health issues among women post abortion such as mental health and especially depressive illnesses, premature and low-weight births, and breast cancer are discussed so as to identify how the incidence of these conditions might be affected by abortion and indicate the prospects and priorities for future research.
 
International comparisons are made for selected European countries of hospital treatments of auto-immune disease with trends in live births and induced abortions. The hypotheses to be examined are the influence of higher fertility rates and higher abortion rates as risk factors increasing the incidence of these diseases among women using data from seven European countries in respect of which some hospital data is available. It is found that the ratios of female to male incidence for these diseases are lower in countries with low abortion and high fertility rates.
 
The traditional healers play a key role in healing the health problems of communities by using the parts of plants and animal products in Nigeria. The natives are in favour of traditional medicine in curing their health problems related to mental illness and drug addiction. Mental and drug abuse-related illnesses in some cultures are believed to be as a result of spiritual and family misfortune and only traditional healers have a solution. The study investigates the role of traditional healers in curing illnesses of local communities and drug addicts. An interview schedule was employed to collect data from mentally sick patients and focus group discussion was conducted with traditional healers to elicit the information. The present study revealed that the traditional health healers were well accepted by the communities. Hence, it is recommended that the integration of traditional healers in the conventional health care system in Nigeria is useful to make society healthier.
 
This study aims at investigating the definitions, types and causes of child neglect and abuse, as well as their impacts on children, preventive efforts, and offers suggestions. Child neglect is the inhibition of a child’s physical, psychological, moral or social development due to negligence on the part of the parents, caregivers or other adults to provide the basic essentials. Child abuse, in its broadest sense, is the child being intentionally exposed to circumstances, which result in the inhibition of his/her physical, sexual, economic or psychological development by parents, caregivers or other adults. Children who are exposed to neglect or abuse suffers from health problems, such as, psychological problems, developmental delay, depression, low self-esteem, aggressive behavior, poor academic and work performance, learning disorders, difficulties in peer relationships or criminal tendencies. In order to mitigate its impact, the causes of child neglect and abuse should be identified and preventive measures should be taken both governmentally and as a community.
 
The present study investigated the history, occurrence, geographical distribution and invasiveness of the exotic Acacia species in Zimbabwe using herbarium and literature records. At least 17 Acacia species originating from Australia were introduced to Zimbabwe, with nine species (52.9% of total) documented as casuals, naturalized or invasive. Acacia mearnsii and A. melanoxylon were recognized as invasive, A. dealbata, A. decurrens, A. elata and A. podalyriifolia as naturalized, and A. baileyana, A. longifolia and A. salicina as casuals. All nine exotic Acacia species were introduced as ornamentals, A. dealbata, A. decurrens and A. mearnsii were also introduced for tanbark, and A. longofolia, A. mearnsii and A. melanoxylon were also introduced for timber. The majority (88.9%) of exotic Acacia species were introduced in the eastern part of Zimbabwe, a region characterized by tropical to semi-temperate climate, which is similar to the areas of origin of Acacia species.
 
Distribution of students' time management scores by variables
Distribution of students' performance ratings by variables
Distribution of time management scores by performance ratings
The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between medical students’ time management skills and their academic achievement. Within the scope of the research, when medical students’ time management behaviors were evaluated by gender, female students were found to get a higher score than male students. In the view of students’ time management skills by place of residence variable; it was revealed that the scores of the students living in state residence halls were higher than those of others. Finally, a positive correlation was detected between medical students’ time management scores and performance ratings implying that there is a significant relationship between students’ time management skills and their academic achievement. Based on the results of the research conducted on medical students, the students can be said to score moderately on time management. In addition, female students were demonstrated to be more successful than male students on time management.
 
The state of education in mountain communities is of global concern consequent on early learners in an alpine learning ecology being at serious risk of not learning to read as measured by international benchmarks, which is a hindrance to the achievement of quality education, and reduced inequality goals of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This paper presents the voices of early learners in a mountain learning ecology in Nigeria on the impacts of migration on their schooling and health care. The sample of the study consists of twenty-eight school-aged children and three teachers purposely selected in an alpine learning ecology in Nigeria. The study adopted a mixed method approach because it possesses both quantitative and qualitative dimensions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data, while the general trend from responses to key informant interviews were identified and examined. Results showed that migration of parents have an influence on the educational performance and health care of their children in mountain learning ecologies. The study argues for the inclusion of education and health care of school children in global mountain research initiatives.
 
Emotions and life experiences from the spiritual journeys 
Everything concerning the spirit or soul has been the domain of the church or religious organisations. The awakening on spirituality can be traced back to the latter decades of the 20(th) century. Now it is picking up momentum and it cannot be denied anymore. Literature has indicated the importance of including spirituality as a means of assisting people to cope during trying times. The primary aim of this paper is to explore the views of healthcare professionals on the subject of spirituality. In this research, a qualitative research approach, which aims at understanding social interaction and experiences from the perspective of insiders, was used. The research adopted the exploratory design which focused on gaining insight into the views of the participants within and under the researched field.
 
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and acceptability of male circumcision among young men in four of nine provinces in South Africa. As part of a cross-sectional population-based household survey, 1619 men aged 18-24 completed confidential interviews. The results indicate an overall prevalence of self-reported male circumcision of 39.1% (15.3% traditional and 23.8% medical male circumcision). In the multivariate analysis, being HIV negative and having extensive social network resources were associated with male circumcision status, and knowledge of the protective effect of male circumcision against HIV, partner risk-reduction self-efficacy, extensive social network resources and having had an early sexual debut were associated with the acceptability of male circumcision. Male circumcision is common, and the acceptability is high. Factors associated with the acceptability of male circumcision can be used to scale-up the demand for medical male circumcision services.
 
The purpose of this study was to assess the willingness to do HIV test and find factors for non-acceptance of routine HIV testing among patients attending Athlone hospital in Botswana. This was a cross-sectional study in which 300 conveniently selected participants completed self-administered questionnaire. Results indicated that the average score for willingness to test was 9.25 (range 1 to 12) and the non-acceptance of the routine HIV test was found to be 24.91 (range of score 1 to 33). Majority (72%) responded positively that patients were testing freely. Almost two-third (64.7%) of the respondents agreed that stigma and discrimination contributed towards refusal to test for HIV. Almost three quarters (73%) feared for positive result and 40.3% agreed that attitude of health care workers was a barrier for RHT. The study found great support and acceptance of routine HIV testing. However there were still concerns of stigma, discrimination and attitudes of health care workers which were discouraging.
 
Medicinal plants are used by eighty percent of the people from the developing countries to fulfill their primary health needs, occupying a key position on plant research and medicine. Taking into account that besides their pharmaceutical importance, these plants contribute greatly to the ecosystems’ stability, a continuous documentation and preservation of the traditional knowledge is a priority. 5 medical plants from Central Aceh, Indonesia have the potential for controlling malaria disease among the Gayo people. This study confirmed that Andrographis paniculata, Carica papaya, Momordica charantia, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, and Tinospora crispa have been proven as medicinal plants for controlling malaria disease among the Gayo people, Central Aceh, Indonesia. These plants have been used for decades and have not been documented. The aim of this study was to organize a database of these medicinal plants including their applications and associated procedures by the Gayo people, of Central Aceh, in Indonesia.
 
Curcuma zedoaria is a medicinal plant belonging to Zingiberaceae family. The objective “of the study is to analyze the phytoconstituents of the ethyl acetate extract of rhizomes of C. zedoaria and to evaluate for anti-urolithiatic activity by in vitro single gel diffusion technique and by in vivo ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis model. Terpenoids were found to be predominant in both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The struvite crystals were grown in a gel medium. The extract of different concentrations was added to the gel formed and decrease in the crystal size was measured for 5 days using a travelling microscope. The in vivo anti-urolithiatic activity was assessed in wistar rat models. Histopathological analysis of kidney of treated rats showed a normal architecture similar to control. Results of both in vitro and in vivo studies” conclude potent antiurolithiatic activity of C. zedoaria which can be attributed to the presence of terpenoids.
 
The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of Acorus calamus rhizome on serum biochemical parameters in experimental animals. Tumor was induced in mice intraperitoneally using Dalton’s ascites lymphoma cells. Methanol extract of Acorus calamus (MEAC) was administered to the mice at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. The effect of the extract on serum enzyme levels was evaluated by analyzing the serum hematology and clinical biochemistry of experimental animals. Inoculation of Dalton’s ascites lymphoma cells caused significant decrease in the serum levels of alkaline phosphatise (ALP), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in the treated mice when compared with the control group. Urea, uric acid, creatinine and triglyceride levels were controlled significantly. The results clearly indicated that the rhizome extract has the ability to retain the altered biochemical parameters as normal in induced mice supporting its potent anticancer and hepatoprotective effects.
 
The main inhabitants of the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa are the Xhosa people. Myths and beliefs are part of every culture. This paper focuses on the myths about the acquisition of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis amongst the Xhosa university students in the field of health promotion. The research was a cross-sectional survey. A convenience sample was used. The sample was a group of students in one class, an intact group. Data were collected through a questionnaire from the first year Health Promotion Education (HPE) class in the Faculty of Health Sciences at a public university in South Africa. This university is geographically located in the tribal land of the Xhosa people. Although the population consisted of 70 first year HPE students, only 66 students voluntarily took part in the study: 19 males and 47 females. The data were manually analysed and percentages were computed. The results indicated that there were several myths and beliefs about the acquisition of Cysticercosis and Taeniasis amongst the Xhosa people. These myths were highly entrenched in the belief system and the students brought these myths and beliefs to the university. Such myths and beliefs were found to hinder the acquisition of scientific knowledge about the ways in which Cysticercosis and Taeniasis are contracted. Inclusion of scientifically correct ideas in school curricula and training health educators with scientifically correct conceptions and their active role in eradicating myths in villages ought to be considered as a matter of priority.
 
Mean difference in sibling relationship between mentally challenged children and their mentally normal siblings across mentally challenged children's birth position
Mean difference in sibling relationship between mentally challenged children and their mentally normal male siblings across mentally challenged children's gender
The present paper examines the difference in the quality of sibling relationship between mentally challenged children and their normal siblings across birth order and gender. Responses of a total of 343 respondents involving one (any) mentally normal elder sibling (n1 =122) and one (any) mentally normal younger sibling (n2=71) and (any) parent of the mentally challenged children (n3=150) were analyzed for assessing quality of sibling relationship across birth order. Whereas, responses of a total of 210 respondents involving one (any) mentally normal male sibling (n1=70) and one (any) mentally normal female sibling (n2=70) and (any) parent of the mentally challenged children (n3=70) were analyzed for assessing quality of sibling relationship across gender. Sibling Relationship Scale was administered to assess the quality of sibling relationship between mentally challenged children and their mentally normal siblings. In the present study, analysis across birth order reflected no significant difference on any component of sibling relationship between mentally challenged children and their mentally normal elder or younger sibling. On the contrary, analysis across gender depicted significantly higher overall warmth/ closeness, nurturance and dominance between mentally challenged and mentally normal same-sex siblings than mentally challenged and mentally normal opposite sex siblings. However, no significant gender difference was seen on the components of conflict and rivalry of sibling relationship between mentally challenged children and their mentally normal siblings.
 
In the present study, the researchers selected four plants from District Lakki Marwat and Bannu. The purpose of the study was evaluate the methanol extracts of these medicinal plants, namely, Tamarix aphylla, Euphorbia helioscopia, Coriandrum sativum and Peganum harmala for antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities. Plants dried in shade, were ground and obtained their methanol extracts. The extracts were evaluated for biological assays using the standard protocol for in vitro study. For the study of cytotoxic properties of plants methanol extracts were used against brine shrimps and their antimicrobial activities were also measured. Antioxidant activities against different free radicals were also checked. Brine shrimps showed seventy percent mortality rate to Tamarix aphylla extract having concentration of 500 μg/ml. The scavenging activity for free radicals was also significant at 500μg/ml. The present study revealed that these activities may be owing to the presence of bioactive constituents, isolation and purification of which is necessary.
 
Sudden deaths can be simply explained as the rapid loss of heart functions of the individuals and recently an increase in sports-related sudden deaths is observed in forensic practice in Turkey. Reported here are six cases of sports-related sudden deaths to emphasize the pathological mechanisms with optimal screening strategies where a detailed postmortem examination were carried out for all. Except for one case, all cases occurred while playing soccer where coronary artery disease was established as the cause of death in four cases and as arrthymogenic right ventricular dysplasia in the other case. Toxicological analyses revealed 60 ng/ml benzodiazepine concentrations in one case. Sports activities should be undertaken cautiously, particularly in the presence of risk factors. Beside professionals, screening of the recreational athletes is also important. By this way, early diagnosis of most cardiovascular abnormalities can be provided.
 
This study was planned in order to investigate the protective effect of prolonged quercetin supplement on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities in boxers. It included 20 voluntary male boxers. The athletes were separated into two groups as the control group (n = 10) and Quercetin group (n = 10). The athletes were supplemented with 500 mg quercetin for 30 days before their exercise programs. Blood samples were drawn from the athletes before and after exercising. MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH analysis were performed. According to the findings, there were an increase in the MDA levels of the control group (P<0.01) and a significant decrease in the MDA levels of quercetin group (P<0.001) when they were compared after being given quercetin. The levels of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and GSH significantly increased in quercetin group (P<0.001). As a conclusion; it can be said that quercetin supplement has protective effect against oxidative stress by decreasing the amount of MDA, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation and increasing the activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and GSH.
 
Preschool education is an important aspect of education for all children, with a focus on improving the quality of health care and epidemic prevention for preschoolers. 252 Vietnamese preschool school respondents (21 personnel, 105 teachers and six medical workers) participated. The participants completed a self-administered survey and examined elements for the management of epidemic prevention for children in public preschools. A survey was conducted at seven public preschools in Binh Chanh District, Ho Chi Minh City. The findings indicate that regular training and organization are essential for preventing epidemics in youngsters. It is important to note that school authorities and people outside the school, who are always mindful of the importance of infectious disease prevention for children, note this policy change’s benefit for children in preschool. Because it attracts their attention and motivates young parents to make sure their children avoid disease and remain healthy while participating in school activities and extracurricular activities, like play, work, and study.
 
As the general population is getting older the need for the health care of this group also increases. Elderly health care needs increase due to loss of physical and cognitive abilities which may limit or prevent their usual independent daily life activities. The research was done descriptively to determine the relation between the levels of the cognitive functions and the daily living activities for the aged in a nursing home. This study was conducted with 54 elderly residents of the Private Nursing Home in Mugla, Turkey. A questionnaire was formulated after examining the studies and literature about the elderly. It consisted of socio-demographic characteristics, a Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) to determine the existence of cognitive disorders and also a short-term faculty-loss questionnaire. As a result of the study, the cognitive disorder and faculty loss were determined in 57.5 percent and 72.2 percent of the aged people respectively.
 
The aim of this study is to identify the factors responsible for the safety and violence problems faced by doctors and healthcare workers at private and state institutions. This study, which is a practical research, was conducted with the subjects selected from Istanbul; Diyarbakir, Urfa, Ankara, Izmir, Bursa, Trabzon, Samsun, Tekirdao and Van within the borders of Turkey. A total of 1792 healthcare workers participated in this study. The study lasted for almost 11 months. All of the participants were chosen randomly. Following the reliability analysis, the Cronbach alpha coefficient was found to be 0.821. In this study, the hypothesis tests were applied, and reliability analysis, frequency tables, descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test and one-way variance analysis were used as part of the analysis. It has been detected in the study that the participating healthcare workers have concerns over occupational safety and legal rights and that the current laws do not protect them, and that they experience traumatic problems due to the violence perpetrated by the patients and patient relatives who do not respect their profession and professional responsibilities accordingly.
 
This paper reports the outcomes of the study on the effectiveness of harmonizing spleen-stomach needling method on body weight management in Malaysia. The study on 30 subjects was conducted with eight treatment sessions given over a period of one month, using the needling method with the focus on 10 acupoints that promote the normal function of the digestion and the circulation of qi and blood. The results showed 67 percent of the subjects successfully reduced their body weight, with the average reduction of 0.48 kg per subject. The study found the needling method was more effective for the subjects with their age under 25 years old, compared to the subjects with the age group of 25 – 50 years old. The needling method was proven effective in reducing body weight of the subjects in average. While proven effective on 30 subjects, study on more subjects might be required to reveal the real potential of the needling method on body weight management.
 
The purpose of this study is to investigate effects of heavy exercise such as a boxing match on serum cytokine composition of elite boxers. Blood samples were collected from boxers before and after a 3-round of boxing match. Cytokines were assessed by high sensitive ELISA. Acute traumatic exercise increased serum levels of IL-6, TNFa, and IL-10 whereas no significant change was observed for serum levels of IFN-g, IL-4, and IL-17A. To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, this is the first report to investigate Th1/Th2/Th17 balance in heavily trained boxers. These findings suggested that strenuous exercise did not affect IL-17 secretion during exercise. In conclusion, alterations in serum cytokine composition of elite boxers could be important to have a properly working immune system against to infectious agents.
 
Top-cited authors
Pozi Milow
  • University of Malaya
Rajni Dhingra
  • University of Jammu
Ilker Ugulu
  • Usak Üniversitesi
Niyati Mishra
  • Devi Ahilya University, Indore