In this paper, the focus is upon the rationale for and the nature of the framework for assessing scientific literacy in the
OECD/PISA project. Although pilot trials of test materials were conducted in May 1999, at this point it is only possible to
report the procedures for analysis and selection of items and not their outcome. The paper begins with a brief overview of
the intentions of the programme as a whole, since these set the parameters for the assessment in each of the domains selected
for the surveys: reading literacy, mathematical literacy and scientific literacy. This first section attempts to answer questions
such as: why another international survey? how does PISA differ from TIMSS? which countries are participating? The second
section discusses the interpretation of scientific literacy put forward by the Science Functional Expert Group (SFEG) which
was set up to advise on what to assess and how it might be assessed. This interpretation has been agreed by the committee,
comprising representatives of the participating countries, which steers the project on matters of policy and ensures adherence
to policy decisions as the programme proceeds. The third section describes the different aspects of scientific literacy that
are being used to develop assessment units. Finally, the nature of the units is mentioned briefly and examples are given.
Presents a bibliography of general sources of information on the history of science education in Great Britain. Describes by topic some of the research published in recent years by historians of science and education. Topics include examinations, the laboratory, textbooks, teaching methods, medicine and pharmacy, women's education, and others. ( (Author/GS)
Traces the evolution of national curriculum policy in Great Britain focusing on England and Wales. Provides three versions of the national curriculum for science and a framework for assessment and testing. Contains 83 references. (DDR)
Discusses how learning occurs and the role of the learning environment as a source of information. Argues that the culture of the learner has a central role in the learning of science using the traditional world view of African students as an example. Contains 124 references. (DDR)
Discusses the links between science education and economic development from a comparative perspective and examines current global trends in science education expansion. Reviews empirical research assessing the effects of science education on economic development from a comparative or cross-national perspective. (Contains 72 references.) (ASK)
Draws on literature from the fields of science education, anthropology, and other areas. Proposes a viewpoint that science and science education are cultural enterprises which form a part of the wider cultural matrix of society and that educational considerations concerning science must be made in light of this wider perspective. (DS)
Examines in detail the objectives, design principles, and accomplishments of projects which have used the computer for tutoring and simulation and explains the educational use of programming languages. Outlines some of the difficulties and achievements in incorporating these developments within academic institutions. (GS)
Provides a review of health issues that could be incorporated into secondary science curricula. Includes sections on the nature of the concepts of health and health education, descriptive health education research, theoretical perspectives on health education, and models and curricula for health education. (ML)
Reviews issues involved in demands for greater public participation in science and technology policy. Analyzes sources of conflict and various "publics" involved, describing diverse fears about science/technology leading to participatory demands. The central and pervasive issue (the source of many conflicts) is the question of who controls crucial policy decisions. (Author/JN)
The three major educational sectors in which learning occurs are often taken to be the formal education sector (schools, colleges, universities and so on), the workplace, and the free-choice learning sector (Falk, 2002). This review is concerned with science on television, understood as a significant component of the free-choice learning sector. It looks at the ways that science and scientists are depicted on television, and at what is known about the ways that science is learned from watching television. At some points the analysis will extend more broadly, examining television in conjunction with other science communication agents, including the print media, the internet, dialogue with others, and the classroom. Here, the author argues that television functions as a storyteller and as a provider of a significant and highly accessible public space for the presentation and exchange of ideas. The author's arguments are framed first, by the view that television is best at telling stories through pictures. Second, since learning is a form of enculturation, the author suggests that attention must be paid to the key factors that shape culture. Third, television and other mass media, in their role as public fora, play a crucial role in public discourse on new science and local, community-based science issues with which citizens must engage. Therefore, it is also necessary to look at the ways in which citizen thinking is represented and modelled on television. (Contains 1 table.)
Science education is not exempt from the general criticism that research has had little effect on classroom practice. Argues that teachers do not reject research about practice, they ignore it. Contains 46 references. (DDR)
Reviews studies gathering data about what happens inside science classrooms, studies providing information about the nature of interaction in science lessons, studies which have examined factors influencing the nature of interaction, and studies which have looked at the impact of different patterns of interaction on science outcomes. (Author/SL)
Reviews studies on the psychosocial learning environment of science classrooms focusing on: (1) assessment of classroom learning environments; (2) predictive validity of environmental perceptions in science classrooms; (3) past criterion validity studies; and (4) directions for future research. (DS)
The purpose of this paper is to organize and critique the theoretical work done so far on the "relation between the cognitive and the emotional in science learning" and suggest possible directions for research that takes into consideration this relation. In light of the enduring negative effect of much school science on students' emotional reactions, it is important to evaluate critically and re-consider the philosophical ground of existing conceptual frameworks with respect to their assumptions about the relation between the cognitive and the emotional. Three perspectives are discussed and compared in terms of: how they theorize the relationship between emotion and cognition in science learning, and what implications they suggest for science pedagogy. The first perspective is embedded within a cognitivist framework and draws on conceptual change theory (CCT), a theory that still has a significant influence on research in science learning. The second perspective is informed by another influential theory in science education research: constructivism and in particular, the idea of social and cultural construction of learning. Finally, the third perspective draws on recent poststructural insights with an emphasis on the constitutive role played by language, the body and discursive practices in the construction and experience of learning.
Reviews studies of cognitive preference tests, outlines the nature of cognitive preferences, and presents an analysis of cognitive preference data. Presents a six-point summary of this analysis and lists four statements that need supportive evidence before further studies using these tests can have any value. (GS)
Reviews the purposes, underlying assumptions, and curriculum development model for the United Kingdom's "Children's Learning in Science Project." Explains the general features and phases of the constructivist approach to learning that the program advocates. Identifies theoretical developments on children's ideas, the constructivist view of learning, and learning as conceptual change. (ML)
The priorities for science must change to confront the social and environmental problems brought on by the policies in science and technology during the past century. Contends that educators must have a clearer, broader understanding of the nature of science, its history, and its current structure in order to effect necessary changes in science curricula. (Contains 35 references.) (WRM)
Examines the relationships and interactions between the image of science, the philosophy of science, and the philosophy of science education. Investigates the fragmentation in science and the effects of this fragmentation upon providing educationists with a theoretical support in science education. (GS)
This article is a review of applications of phenomenology, as a philosophy of knowledge and qualitative research approach, to the field of science education (SE). The purpose is to give an overview of work that has been done as well as to assess it and discuss its possibilities of future development. We ask: what attempts for connecting phenomenology and SE do we find in the research literature, and what possible effects could such connections have for teaching and learning? In approaching this field we distinguish between three sources of phenomenological SE: (1) Goethe's phenomenology of nature; (2) philosophical phenomenology; and (3) anthropological phenomenology. Existing research based on phenomenological approaches is categorised as phenomenology of SE, phenomenology in SE, and phenomenology and SE integrated. Research examples from each category are critically evaluated and discussed. Finally we discuss the question of the relevance of phenomenology to science teaching. Our review indicates that phenomenology has considerable potential as a method for investigating science learning as a holistic process. It also seems that phenomenology and SE meet most fruitfully when phenomenology is done in the classroom, that is, when it is turned into actual efforts for promoting learning.
In this paper I consider a role for risk understanding in school science education. Grounds for this role are described in terms of current sociological analyses of the contemporary world as a 'risk society' and recent public understanding of science studies where science and risk are concerns commonly linked within the wider community. These concerns connect with support amongst many science educators for the goal of science education for citizenship. From this perspective scientific literacy for decision making on contemporary socioscientific issues is central. I argue that in such decision making, risk understanding has an important role to play. I examine some of the challenges its inclusion in school science presents to science teachers, review previous writing about risk in the science education literature and consider how knowledge about risk might be addressed in school science. I also outline the varying conceptions of risk and suggest some future research directions that would support the inclusion of risk in classroom discussions of socioscientific issues. Yes Yes
Argues that both students and teachers form certain perceptions of their teaching and learning situations. Presents a relational model of student learning and teaching context and examines the model in terms of tertiary science education. (CCM)
Describes the nature of environmental education research in the 1990s, and comments critically on the focus and quality of inquiry in this field with a view toward improvements in the new millennium. Organizes the literature around the themes of quantitative reports, qualitative research, descriptive reports, focused inquiries, metamethodological discussions, and research-based theoretical discussions. (Contains 530 references.) (WRM)
This literature review provides an overview of recent studies on the introduction of nanosciences and nanotechnologies in secondary education. Four salient research topics have emerged: questions and reflections preceding curriculum development on nanosciences and nanotechnologies lessons; research on students' conceptualisations of nano-related concepts; the use of haptic tools to teach nanosciences and nanotechnologies; and professional development for secondary schools teachers. In a final critical discussion, the lack of studies in the literature considering nanosciences and nanotechnologies as a socioscientific issue in secondary education is emphasised. In addition, implications for future research as well as suggestions for nanosciences and nanotechnologies curriculum development are considered.