High-speed transceivers are receiving great interest due to the demand for huge data traffic and information storage capacities in the Big Data era. Recently, 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100GbE) has become an IEEE standardized data communication protocol. The 100G quad small form-factor pluggable (QSFP) transceiver is one of the key technological enablers in the high-speed optical networks. In this paper, we study the reliability current dependence for the four-lambda QSFP (4x25G) EML devices that are employed in the 100G QSFP transceivers. In order to meet the energy-efficient and environmental requirements, we develop a swift reliability test methodology that can provide fast, accurate reliability assessment to ensure robust long-term field performance. We discuss the acceleration factor and extrapolation for the energy-efficient reliability test.
This current research effort will consider boiler conditions in 2015. The analysis was based on data gathered from a voluntary survey completed by plant owners and operators. The survey responses included the following: (1) boiler fuel sources, (2) efficiency performance, (3) environmental performance, (4) operations and maintenance activities, and (5) boiler availability. The analysis also included future concerns with respect to daily boiler operations from the responding plant operators and management.
Quantifying the proportion of normal-and high-emitting vehicles and their emissions is vital for creating an air quality improvement strategy for emission reduction policies. This paper includes the California LEV III and United States Environmental Protection Agency Tier 3 vehicle regulations in this projection of high emitter quantification for 2018 and 2030. Results show high emitting vehicles account for up to 6% of vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled. Yet, they will contribute to over 75% of exhaust and 66% of evaporative emissions. As these high emitting vehicles are gradually retired from service and are removed from the roads, the overall effect on air quality from vehicle emissions will be reduced.
Designing a system requires evaluating multiple architecture design alternatives against multiple evaluation criteria. This is called a tradeoff study. This paper presents common mental mistakes that people make when doing tradeoff studies. The authors examined tradeoff studies created by system analysts and excerpted examples of these mistakes. There are suggestions to help systems engineers avoid making these mental mistakes while doing tradeoff studies.
The sand body distribution is relatively limited in this block, the lens-shaped sandbodies are more developed, the change of intergranular sandbody is fast and the internal architecture of the sand body is complex, which results in the difficulties of the arrangement of horizontal wells in the study area and the tapping of remaining oil in high water reservoirs. In this paper, taking an example of S2L410 sandbodies in Wen 79 Southern Block, rich drilling data, core data, logging data and geological research results accumulated over many years in Wennan Oilfield were applied to discuss the anatomical method of the reservoir architecture unit in the underwater distributary channel in the shallow delta front, the hierarchy of the internal architecture of the reservoir and the anatomy of the single sand body. On the basis of this, the sequence of the underwater distributary channel in the composite channel is determined by the cross section and the source profile. Under the guidance of the sedimentology principle, the formation process of the underwater distributary channel is restored and the evolution process of underwater distributary channel is recovered.
This paper uses CiteSpace information visualization software to visualize the acceleration sensor research literature based on more than 1100 literatures in the field of acceleration sensor research and application from 2010 to 2018. From the point of view of bibliometrics, the paper analyzes the visualization map of hot spot distribution, such as the country, discipline, research institution and funded status, the co-citation literature and the research frontier. Moreover, this paper compares and analyzes literature information on research and application fields of acceleration sensors at home and abroad in recent years. Information is used to evaluate the research progress and development trend of acceleration sensors, in order to provide literature reference for the relevant personnel engaged in the research of acceleration sensors.
Studies in Engineering and Technology (SET) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether SET publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 4, Number 1Alexander Medvedev, Transport and Telecommunication Institute (TTI), LatviaHala Abd El Megeed, National Institute for Standards, EgyptHossam Zaqoot, Ministry of Environmental Affairs, GazaKai-Long Hsiao, Taiwan Shoufu University, TaiwanLoc Nguyen, Sunflower Soft Company, VietnamMarco A Ruano, Economics Department Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, SpainMohammad Reza Barati, Flinders University, AustraliaPau Redon, Fundación Hospital General de Valencia, SpainSaminda Dharmarathna, University of Connecticut, USAShahab Bahrami, University of British Columbia, CanadaTangming Yuan, University of York, UKWael Salah, Multimedia University, MalaysiaYao Liu, University Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia Andrew WalterEditorial AssistantStudies in Engineering and Technology-------------------------------------------Redfame Publishing9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97008, USATel: 1-503-828-0536 ext. 504Fax: 1-503-828-0537E-mail: email@example.comURL: http://set.redfame.com
Studies in Engineering and Technology (SET) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether SET publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 6, Number 1 Hassan Shaaban, Atomic energy Authority, EgyptKrzysztof Wolk, Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology, PolandArnaud Duchosal, University of Montpellier, FranceHossam Zaqoot, Ministry of Environmental Affairs, GazaAlexander Pisarevskiy, Bauman Moscow State Tecnnical University, RussiaGirish Upreti, University of Tennessee, USAMartin Jaeger, Australian College of Kuwait, KuwaitHala Abd El Megeed, National Institute for Standards, EgyptMarco A Ruano, Economics Department Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, SpainSimona Rainis, International Research Center for Mountain, ItalyMahdieh Zabihimayvan, Wright State University, USAYi Zheng, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), USALoc Nguyen, Sunflower Soft Company, VietnamMohammad Reza Barati, Flinders University, Australia Andrew WalterEditorial AssistantStudies in Engineering and Technology-------------------------------------------Redfame Publishing9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97008, USATel: 1-503-828-0536 ext. 504Fax: 1-503-828-0537E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgURL: http://set.redfame.com
Studies in Engineering and Technology (SET) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether SET publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 4, Number 1António Calha, Polytechnic Institute of Portalegre, PortugalCarmen Pérez-Sabater, Universitat Poltècnica de València, SpainCélio Gonçalo Marques, Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, PortugalDeborah Christine Robinson, University of Derby, UKElena Jerves, University of Cuenca, EcuadorEnisa Mede, Bahcesehir University, TurkeyEsra DERELİ-Eskişehir Osmangazi University, TurkeyEsra DERELİ-Eskişehir Osmangazi University, TurkeyIntakhab Khan, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi ArabiaJohn Cowan, Edinburgh Napier University, UKLisa Marie Portugal, Grand Canyon University, USALorna T. Enerva, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, PhilippinesM. Emin Türkoğlu, Afyon Kocatepe University, TurkeyMarcie Zaharee, The MITRE Corporation, USAMeral Seker, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, TurkeyMustafa Çakır, Marmara Üniversity, TurkeyNerina Fernanda Sarthou, Univ. Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, ArgentinaNicole Celestine, The University of Western Australia, AustraliaNiveen M. Zayed, MENA College of Management, JordanPirkko Siklander, University of Lapland, FinlandRichard Penny, University of Washington Bothell, USARui Manuel Carreteiro, National Institute of Psychology and Neurosciences, PortugalSamad Mirza Suzani, Islamic Azad University, IranYalçın Dilekli, Aksaray University, Turkey Andrew WalterEditorial AssistantStudies in Engineering and Technology-------------------------------------------Redfame Publishing9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97008, USATel: 1-503-828-0536 ext. 504Fax: 1-503-828-0537E-mail: email@example.comURL: http://set.redfame.com
Studies in Engineering and Technology (SET) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether SET publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 8, Number 1Girish Upreti, Methodist University, USAHala Abd El Megeed, National Institute for Standards, EgyptHassan Shaaban, Egyption Atomic Authority (EAEA), EgyptHosny Abbas Abouzeid, Higher Technological Institute, EgyptHossam Zaqoot, Ministry of Environmental Affairs, GazaHsienyu Lee, National Taiwan University, USAJose Hernandez, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, ChileMarco A Ruano, Economics Department Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, SpainMohammad Reza Barati, Flinders University, AustraliaSimona Rainis, Regional Agency for Rural Development of Autonomous Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy Andrew WalterEditorial AssistantStudies in Engineering and Technology-------------------------------------------Redfame Publishing9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97008, USATel: 1-503-828-0536 ext. 504Fax: 1-503-828-0537E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgURL: http://set.redfame.com
Studies in Engineering and Technology (SET) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether SET publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue. Reviewers for Volume 3, Number 1 Ahmet Can Altunişik Alexander Russell Arnaud Duchosal Girish Upreti Hassan Shaaban Hossam Zaqoot Isaac Atuahene KaiLong Hsiao Lei Kang Loc Nguyen Marco A Ruano S. Haddout Saminda Dharmarathna Wael Salah Wolday Abrha Yao Liu Yi Zheng Andrew Walter Editorial Assistant On behalf of, The Editorial Board of Studies in Engineering and Technology Redfame Publishing 9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416 Beaverton, OR 97008, USA URL: http://set.redfame.com
Studies in Engineering and Technology (SET) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether SET publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 5, Number 1 Girish Upreti, University of Tennessee, USAHala Abd El Megeed, National Institute for Standards, EgyptHossam Zaqoot, Ministry of Environmental Affairs, GazaLoc Nguyen, Sunflower Soft Company, VietnamMarco A Ruano, Economics Department Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, SpainMohammad Reza Barati, Flinders University, AustraliMohsen Sheikholeslami, Babol University of Technology, IranTangming Yuan, University of York, UKWael Salah, Multimedia University, Malaysia Andrew WalterEditorial AssistantStudies in Engineering and Technology-------------------------------------------Redfame Publishing9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97008, USATel: 1-503-828-0536 ext. 504Fax: 1-503-828-0537E-mail: email@example.comURL: http://set.redfame.com
Studies in Engineering and Technology (SET) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2014. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether SET publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Redfame Publishing appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period.Ahmet Can ALTUNIŞIKAlexander RussellGiovanni AngrisaniGirish UpretiHala Abd El MegeedHalil KARAHANHassan ShaabanLei KangMarco A RuanoPaul SteskensShahab BahramiWael SalahXiuyu GaoYi Zheng
Studies in Engineering and Technology (SET) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether SET publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 7, Number 1Alexander Medvedev, Transport and Telecommunication Institute (TTI), LatviaAlexander Pisarevskiy, Bauman Moscow State Tecnnical University, RussiaArnaud Duchosal, University of Montpellier, FranceGirish Upreti, Methodist University, USAHala Abd El Megeed, National Institute for Standards, EgyptHassan Shaaban, Egyption Atomic Authority (EAEA), EgyptHossam Zaqoot, Ministry of Environmental Affairs, GazaHossein Moayedi, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, MalaysiaJose Hernandez, Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, ChileMahdieh Zabihimayvan, Wright State University, USAMarco A Ruano, Economics Department Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, SpainMohammad Reza Barati, Flinders University, AustraliaPau Redon, Fundación Hospital General de Valencia, SpainSimona Rainis, RARDARFVG, ItalyTangming Yuan, University of York, UKTony di Feo, Natural Resources Canadanior Engineer, CanadaWael Salah, Palestine Technical University - Kadoorie, PalestineYao Liu, University Malaysia Pahang, MalaysiaYi Zheng, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), USA Andrew WalterEditorial AssistantStudies in Engineering and Technology-------------------------------------------Redfame Publishing9450 SW Gemini Dr. #99416Beaverton, OR 97008, USATel: 1-503-828-0536 ext. 504Fax: 1-503-828-0537E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgURL: http://set.redfame.com
Studies in Engineering and Technology (SET) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from October 15, 2013, to December 31, 2013. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether SET publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Redfame Publishing appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period. Alexander Russell Halil Karahan Hossam Zaqoot Isaac Atuahene Roohollah Kalatehjari Sonia María Gómez Puente Martin Jaeger Quamrul H. Mazumder Shahab Bahrami
Studies in Engineering and Technology (SET) would like to thank the following reviewers for reviewing manuscripts from August 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Many authors, regardless of whether SET publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Redfame Publishing appreciates the following reviewers’ rigorous and conscientious efforts for this journal. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review during this period.
The health of a rotating electric machine can be evaluated by monitoring electrical and mechanical parameters. As more information is available, it easier can become the diagnosis of the machine operational condition. We built a laboratory test bench to study rotor unbalance issues according to ISO standards. Using the electric stator current harmonic analysis, this paper presents a comparison study among Support-Vector Machines, Decision Tree classifies, and One-vs-One strategy to identify rotor unbalance kind and severity problem – a nonlinear multiclass task. Moreover, we propose a methodology to update the classifier for dealing better with changes produced by environmental variations and natural machinery usage. The adaptative update means to update the training data set with an amount of recent data, saving the entire original historical data. It is relevant for engineering maintenance. Our results show that the current signature analysis is appropriate to identify the type and severity of the rotor unbalance problem. Moreover, we show that machine learning techniques can be effective for an industrial application.
This paper proposes an adaptive variable structure control (VSC) for a class of mismatched uncertain systems with unknown disturbances. First, a necessary and sufficient condition in terms of linear matrix inequalities is proposed to guarantee the system in sliding mode is asymptotically stable. Second, an adaptive output feedback variable structure controller is designed to force the system states reach the sliding surface and stay on it thereafter. Finally, the advantages and effectiveness of the proposed approaches are demonstrated via a numerical example.
This study investigated transient effects on the air quality of parked cars and moving cars with and without operating air conditioning. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and formaldehyde concentrations were measured for comparative analysis. The results showed that simply changing the air conditioning system from internal circulation to external circulation to introduce air from outside reduces carbon dioxide concentrations by more than 50%, volatile organic compound concentrations by more than 77%, and the heat index from 0.1℃/min to less than 0.05 ℃/min. In order to conserve energy and improve car indoor air quality, this study can serve as a reference on healthy car environments.
Laser-welded joints of stainless steel AISI304 are investigated experimentally to determine the transformation of austenite to martensite during the welding process. This transformation, which occurs in the welded region due to heating and residual stresses, can influence the fatigue and fracture properties of the affected material. Therefore, the scope of the present study is to determine the quantity of introduced martensite in the welded region and hereby clarify the influence of laser welding on the fatigue and fracture properties of welded AISI304 joints. The quantification of martensite concentration is carried out by use of four different methods, namely Lichtenegger and Bloech (LB1) etching, Ferritescope, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Vickers hardness. It is found that a concentration of 1-1.6 % martensite is introduced in the laser-welded area; a quantity that has insignificant influence on the fatigue properties of the joints.
Quick response time in emergency situation is critical to protect human lives. In the fast-growing cities, fire departments can fall behind the standard response time due to cities’ expansion. This research focuses on ways to improve the response time of a city’s emergency situation. A Non-linear Programming model is used to determine the locations of fire stations, so that they can cover the maximum number of residents, in terms of the geographical area and population. The model is applied to the city of Kingsville, Texas to check the practicability. The results of the research indicate that optimized locations make population coverage increment up to 15% and geographic coverage increment up to 21% with two fire stations. With three fire stations including a newly added fire station, the population coverage goes up to 48% increment and the geographic coverage increased up to 71%, which covers 88% of total city population.
In this paper, a mathematical model was established to predict the deoxidation alloying and to optimize the type and quantity of input alloys. Firstly, the GCA method was used to obtain the main factors affecting the alloy yield of carbon and manganese based on the historical data. Secondly, the alloy yield was predicted by the stepwise MRA, the BP neural network and the regression SVM models, respectively. The conclusion is that the regression SVM model has the highest prediction accuracy and the maximum deviation between the test set prediction result and the real value was only 0.0682 and 0.0554. Thirdly, in order to reduce the manufacturer's production cost, the genetic algorithm was used to calculate the production cost mathematical programming model. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed on the prediction model and the cost optimization model. The unit price of 20% of the alloy raw materials was increased by 20%, and the total cost change rate was 0.7155%, the lowest was -0.4297%, which proved that the mathematical model established presented strong robustness and could be certain reference value for the current production of iron and steel enterprises.
Non-destructive characterization of surface microstructure of an engineering component is an important parameter to assess its fitness to function in the given service conditions. The paper describes various case studies performed in authors' laboratory involving use of portable X-ray diffraction based residual stress analysis system to examine and understand the micro-structural state of the investigated surface. A significant decrease in full width at half maximum (FWHM) of gamma(311) diffraction peak from about 4.2° in the cold worked state to about 2.5° in the annealed/surface melted state was recorded for austenitic stainless steel. In case of 0.4% carbon steel there is sharp increase in FWHM of alpha(211) diffraction peak from about 2° in the as received condition to about 5-6° in the laser hardened condition. Crystallographic texture developed during electro-plating of chromium on stainless steel, could be detected from the strong intensity of alpha (211) peak of chromium at about 19° to the surface normal with respect to all other X-ray inclination angles (ѱ) during residual stress measurement. The results show that FWHM and intensity variation of the diffraction peak are two sensitive parameters for characterization of surface microstructure. Change in FWHM has been used to detect machining-induced cold deformation and evolution of re-crystallized grains in austenitic stainless steel and formation of hard martensite in laser transformation hardened ferritic steel. Variation in the intensity of diffracted peak with respect to X-ray inclination angle provided valuable information regarding crystallographic texture in hard chrome plated deposits.
This paper showcases the use of model oriented techniques for real time fault discovery and extraction on train track unit. An analytical system model is constructed and simulated in Mathlab to showcase the fair and unfair status of the system. The discovery and extraction phases are centered on a hybrid adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference feature extraction and segregated module. Output module interprites zero (0) as a good status of the traintrack unit and one (1) as an unpleasant status. Final results showcase the robustness and ability to discover and extract multitude of unpleasant scenarios that hinder the smooth operations of train track units due to its high selectivity and sensitivity quality.
In this paper, based on ATM transaction status analysis and anomaly detection problem, by analyzing the transaction statistics of a bank ATM application system, the characteristic parameters of ATM transaction status are extracted and analyzed, then a set of targets are designed. An abnormal monitoring scheme that can promptly and accurately alarm the four abnormal situations in which the trading volume is steep, the transaction failure rate is increased, the transaction processing is slow, and the transaction response time is too long. Firstly, the transaction data is divided to distinguish between working days, non-working days, trading volume troughs, and normal trading periods, to avoid data interference between different time periods and to take into account the data discontinuity. The characteristics of the anomaly data were identified by K-Means Clustering Analysis. Then the data is analyzed by B-P Neural Network method, the change rule of ATM transaction status with time is obtained. According to this rule, the ATM transaction status is judged, and the abnormal situation is alarmed in time. Finally, this paper increases the amount and type of data collected, then increases the influencing factors such as ATM popularity, holidays, transaction types into the model, uses the existing transaction data before and after the Spring Festival to verify, in order to obtain a more realistic monitoring and early warning program. The transaction status anomaly monitoring scheme designed in this paper not only can correctly judge but also timely alarm the financial aid equipment failure scenarios, so that the security of the financial self-service equipment trading system is guaranteed.
In this article, Very Crucial subject discussed in Semi-Passive RFID TAGs system stability. Semi-Passive TAGs with double loop antennas arranged as a shifted gate system stability optimization under delayed electromagnetic interferences. The double loop antenna is employed due to the fact that this antenna consists of two parallel loops; i.e., primary and secondary loops. We define V i1(t) and V i2(t) as the voltages in time on double loop antennas. V i1(t) is the voltage in time on the primary loop and V i2(t) is the voltage in time on the secondary loop. The index (i) stand for the first gate (i=1) and second gate (i=2). Due to electromagnetic interferences there are different in time delays respect to gate antenna's first and second loop voltages and voltages derivatives. The delayed voltages are V i1(t-τ 1) and V i2(t-τ 2) respectively (τ 1≠ τ 2) and delayed voltages derivatives are dV i1(t-Δ 1)/dt, dV i2(t-Δ 2)/dt respectively.
The exploitation of rich in sugars lingo-cellulosic residue of carob pods for bio-ethanol and bio-electricity generation has been investigated. The process could take place in two (2) or three (3) stages including: a) bio-ethanol production originated from carob pods, b) direct exploitation of bio-ethanol to fuel cells for electricity generation, and/or c) steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production and exploitation of the produced hydrogen in fuel cells for electricity generation. Surveying the scientific literature it has been found that the production of bio-ethanol from carob pods and electricity fed to the ethanol fuel cells for hydrogen production do not present any technological difficulties. The economic viability of bio-ethanol production from carob pods has not yet been proved and thus commercial plants do not yet exist. The use, however, of direct fed ethanol fuel cells and steam reforming of ethanol for hydrogen production are promising processes which require, however, further research and development (R&D) before reaching demonstration and possibly a commercial scale. Therefore the realization of power generation from carob pods requires initially the investigation and indication of the appropriate solution of various technological problems. This should be done in a way that the whole integrated process would be cost effective. In addition since the carob tree grows in marginal and partly desertified areas mainly around the Mediterranean region, the use of carob’s fruit for power generation via upgrading of its waste by biochemical and electrochemical processes will partly replace fossil fuels generated electricity and will promote sustainability.
Particles distributions along a conical fluidized bed were predicted by an alternative arrangement of the minimum fluidization velocity equation. The proposed approach introduces two new equations which present the particle diameter in the bed as function of: height in the bed (Z), angle of inclination of the fluidized bed wall (θ), input flow rate (Qo), and gas distributor diameter (Do, 2ro). A novel arc-shaped design of the gas distributor was suggested, which provides enhanced distribution of the gas and enables greater control on the direction of the gas inlet. The model showed that the inclination of the fluidized bed wall should not exceed a critical angle, which can be determined with the set of equations specially developed for this purpose, to prevent inhomogeneous fluidization across the bed and accumulation of particles along the walls.
By applying the Box Wilson Method, theoretical data were obtained for constant column diameter at the base (0.05 m), and varying bed height, Z, (range: 0.5 to 1.5 m), velocity of gas inlet, U, (range 0.25 to 1 m s⁻¹), and balance factor, a, (range: 0.5 to 1, a new factor), respectively. The angle of inclination of the wall was first predicted based on the above parameters, and subsequently, the particle size distribution along the column was determined. Theoretically the novel arc-shaped distributor design has shown the potential of generating homogeneous fluidization regimes along the bed.
This paper presents an educational praxis of classroom assessment in curriculum and learning outcomes of “Introduction to Education”, and constructs assessment tool and analyzes them based on the mathematical modeling, the former with Q Matrix and ISM (Interpretive Structural Modeling), the latter mainly with Nagai’s GSP (Grey S-P) Chart, RaschGSP Curve, GSM (Grey Structural Modeling) and MSM (Matrix Based Structure Modeling). It aims: (1) To use and implement numerical value as the code for processing data, (2) To analyze and diagnose based on raw numerical values, (3) To illustrate and explain in visual diagraph analysis. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that applying mathematical logic in educational research, and such tools are not in favor of the quantitative approach, rather claimed unique feature of math logic, in benefit to: (1) Interface qualitative contextual analysis and quantitative numerical characters as the whole, (2) Convert teaching-learning praxis into binary numerical data, (3) Address alternative interdisciplinary educational research.
Unsafe working conditions in underground mines have led to a number of accidents, loss of life, damage to property, interruption of production, etc. Safety is essential in mining industry, which in recent years mainly focuses on injury prevention in the workplace through a variety of procedures and employee training. The primary goal of this paper is to present a methodology with systematic analysis to determine the most risky places for fire occurrence in underground mines and using a computer simulation to determine the movement of smoke and fire gases trough underground mining facilities from which depends the safe evacuation of all employees.
Energy and resource efficiency are becoming more and more important objectives in industrial companies, so that it has also become relevant to material handling as part of the lean strategy in supply chain management. The design of sustainable, energy efficient material handling systems and processes depends on methods and tools that analyse and evaluate the composition of the technologies and processes of the system. Therefore analysis on detailed data on energy consumption, energy supply and process organisation is required to improve overall system efficiency. This study proposes a novel approach to energy data generation based on Standardised Energy Consuming Activities (SECA). Simulating process energy consumption and consumption behaviour based on process function investigations increases knowledge about the sequence and characteristics of energy consumption and its process allocation. Executing the research project Usable Battery Energy of the material handling equipment was identified to be gradable by 25% to 43% in order to increase equipment availability and thus system efficiency. In the performed case study a system range extension of 19% to 33% was reached by the implementation of a fast engaging charging system using process related idle times.
Generally applicable data is required for the design of a scalable simulation to enable the identification of requirements to the design of non-automated material handling system components. The proposed framework forms the basis necessary for the derivation and evaluation of technical and organisational improvement of system efficiency with respect to energy, ecological and economic objectives.
Based on features of high speed of network transmission and easy operations, this thesis covers two aspects to realize network-based management on repairing tool kits of civil aviation engineering maintenance. Firstly, develop a network inquiry system, which can help employees and administrators inquire tool borrowing information. Secondly, a module is designed that has functions to transmit text messages to tool kits borrowers prompting them to return tools at times when the returning date approaches.
Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a mathematical programming method for measuring the relative efficiency of Decision Making Units (DMUs) by evaluating their outputs and inputs. In the history of DEA, the cross-efficiency of jth DMU is widely used as an efficiency measure of a given DMUo among researchers. The approach always utilizes weights related to inputs and outputs in the assessment. Unfortunately, the weights are not always uniquely determined in the cross-efficiency measurement because DEA always suffers from an occurrence of multiple solutions, so indicating an occurrence of multiple weights. To overcome such a difficulty, this paper proposes a new approach for determining a common weight vector of DEA based on bargaining game.
In this paper, we introduce a probabilistic model for learning interpolative decomposition (ID), which is commonly used for feature selection, low-rank approximation, and identifying hidden patterns in data, where the matrix factors are latent variables associated with each data dimension. Prior densities with support on the specified subspace are used to address the constraint for the magnitude of the factored component of the observed matrix. Bayesian inference procedure based on Gibbs sampling is employed. We evaluate the model on a variety of real-world datasets including CCLE EC50, CCLE IC50, CTRP EC50, and MovieLens 100K datasets with different sizes, and dimensions, and show that the proposed Bayesian ID GBT and GBTN models lead to smaller reconstructive errors compared to existing randomized approaches.
In the environment of large forest, the factors causing fire are nonlinear and uncertain. If the data collected by the sensor is simply analyzed and compared, the false alarm rate will be higher. How to combine the data of several sensors for effective fire warning is a difficult point. In order to improve the accuracy of prediction, aiming at the shortcomings of traditional forest fire prevention early warning system, we propose a forest fire prevention early warning method based on fuzzy Bayesian network. Firstly, we combine the fuzzy control system and the Bayesian network in series, and pre-process the collected sensor data. The pre-processed data is sent to the previously trained Bayesian network for processing. Then the calculated open fire probability, smoldering fire probability, and no fire probability are used as input data of fuzzy control system, and fuzzy inference is performed. Finally, we de-fuzzify the results of fuzzy reasoning and get the probability of fire. Simulation results show that our method can effectively combine the data collected by multiple sensors, quickly and accurately determine fire occurrence probability, improve the accuracy of forest fire prevention warning, and reduce the false positive rate.
Study of aircraft aerodynamic characteristics with operation of its powerplant engines is a vital task. In this article we represent mathematical modeling of the aircraft flow with operation of its propeller. The considered mathematical model of the propeller is based on the vortex and momentum theory. Solution of the model problem of the flow behind the propeller allows obtaining of the fields of perturbed velocities in the vicinity of the aircraft and its aerodynamic characteristics. The proposed approach is aimed at simplification of the mathematical model and reduction of calculation time.
The micro grid system requires battery for energy storage and power management. In which, the bi-directional DC to DC converter is the key component for maintaining the DC bus voltage and controlling the charge and discharge of the battery with or without grid support. Parallel control of multiple DC to DC converters is a critical technique to enlarge the power capacity. This paper presents two capacity limitation control methods that multiple DC to DC converters can be paralleled with distributed battery banks. The first method is the capacity limitation control with cascaded load current sense needing no control interconnection. The second method is the capacity limitation control with master-slave and cascaded current command limitation. Two methods are presented to solve the limitation of droop control method and active current sharing method respectively, and can be extended without converter number limitation theoretically. Three prototype 240W bidirectional half-bridge DC to DC converters are built and paralleled in this paper. The proposed method is confirmed with some measured results.
The possibility of heating two large hospitals in Crete, Greece utilizing locally produced solid biomass has been investigated. Olive kernel wood is produced in Crete as a byproduct of the olive processing industry and it is an excellent renewable fuel. It is currently used for heat generation replacing heating and fuel oil. Use of solid biomass for heat generation is a mature and reliable technology resulting in the mitigation of the greenhouse effect. Cost analysis estimations regarding the replacement of heating oil with olive kernel wood for heating two large hospitals in Crete have shown that the investment is very attractive. The required capital investment for the installation of new biomass boilers in the hospitals has been estimated at 1.7-2.1 mil. €. Replacement of the heating oil with olive kernel wood would result in annual savings of 1963 – 2328 € per bed. Annual CO2 emissions savings due to the use of renewable fuel have been calculated at 8.8-10.4 kg CO2 per bed. Realization of such energy investments in hospitals could be obtained with public-private partnerships and the financial support of energy service companies.
This work describes the experimental procedure of purification and preparation of BiI3 crystals by Repeated Vertical Bridgman technique, aiming a future application of this semiconductor crystal as a room temperature radiation detector. The BiI3 powder used as raw material was purified three times and, at each purification, the crystal was evaluated by systematic measurements of the reduction of the impurities, crystalline structure, stoichiometry and surface morphology. The reduction of the trace metal impurities in the BiI3, at each purification, was analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), in order to evaluate the efficiency of the purification technique established in this work. It was demonstrated that the Repeated Bridgman technique is effective to reduce the concentration of many impurities in BiI3, such as Ag, As, Br, Cr, K, Mo, Na and Sb. The crystalline structure of the BiI3 crystal purified twice and three times was similar to BiI3 pattern. However, for BiI3 powder and purified once, an intensity contribution of the BiOI was observed in the diffractograms. Improvement in the stoichiometric ratio was observed at each purification step, as well as the crystal surface morphology.
European buildings account for large amounts of energy consumption and CO2 emissions and current EU policies target in decreasing their energy consumption and subsequent CO2 emissions. Realization of a small, grid-connected, residential building with zero CO2 emissions due to energy use in Crete, Greece shows that this can be easily achieved. Required heat and electricity in the building were generated with the use of locally available renewable energies including solar energy and solid biomass. Annual energy consumption and on-site energy generation were balanced over a year as well as the annual electricity exchange between the building and the grid. Technologies used for heat and power generation included solar-thermal, solar-PV and solid-biomass burning which are reliable, mature and cost-effective. Annual energy consumption in the 65 m2 building was 180 KWh/m2 and its annual CO2 emissions were 84.67 kgCO2/m2. The total capital cost of the required renewable energy systems was estimated at approximately 10.77% of its total construction cost, and the required capital investments in renewable energy systems, in order to achieve the goal of a residential building with zero CO2 emissions due to energy use, were 1.65 € per kgCO2, saved annually. The results of this study prove that the creation of zero CO2 emissions buildings is technically feasible, economically attractive and environmentally friendly. Therefore they could be used to create future policies promoting the creation of this type of building additionally to the existing policies promoting near-zero energy buildings.
The corrosion inhibitive potential of Plumeria Alba, Blighia Sapida and Secamone Afezeli plants extracts on heat-treated and non-heat-treated mild steel samples immersed in different concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl) were investigated using weight loss technique. The mild steel samples were cut and prepared for the corrosion test in the acid media mixed with the plant extracts obtained by natural drying, grinding and chemical extraction using hexane. The plants were collected from the botanical garden of University of Lagos, Nigeria. Samples of the mild steel were weighed before immersion and at regular interval of 7 days for a period of 56 days after immersion. The experiment was repeated using 0.1 M and 0.2 M of an inorganic inhibitor. Results obtained showed that the extract of Blighia Sapida exhibited the highest inhibitive power, while annealed samples have the least corrosion rate in the Hcl solution.
Design of Experiments (DoE) is widely used in design, manufacturing and quality management. The resulting data is usually analysed with multiple linear regression to generate polynomial equations that describe the relationship between process inputs and outputs. These equations enable us to understand how input values affect the predicted value of one or more outputs and find good set points for the inputs. However, to develop robust manufacturing processes, we also need to understand how variation in these inputs appears as variation in the output. This understanding allows us to define set points and control tolerances for the inputs that will keep the outputs within their required specification windows. Tolerance analysis provides a powerful way of finding input settings and ranges that minimise output variation to produce a process that is robust. In many practical applications, tolerance analysis exploits Monte Carlo simulation of the polynomial model generated from DoE’s. This paper briefly describes tolerance analysis and then shows how Monte Carlo simulation experiments using space-filling designs can be used to find the input settings that result in a robust process. Using this approach, engineers can quickly and easily identify the key inputs responsible for transferring undesired variation to their process outputs and identify the set points and ranges that make their process as robust as possible. If the process is not sufficiently robust, they can rationally investigate different strategies to improve it. A case study approach is used to aid explanation and understanding.
In accordance with the Principle of "scientific planning, moderate advancement, rational layout, and classification implementation", the genetic algorithm based on real coding will be improved in this paper for the "Hard to Charge" problem of electric vehicles and urban bus replacement project. Aiming at minimum construction, operation and maintenance, network loss, queuing and other costs, a model is established and an innovative layout of electric bus charging facilities based on Matrix Flexible Charging Reactors is proposed to make full use of resources and improve the "Hard to Charge" situation. Taking Zhuhai as an example, by predicting the number of electric buses in Zhuhai in the planning year, the different locations and capacities of the bus charging stations with smaller average annual comprehensive cost in the regions are realized. And the comprehensive cost of the charging station with Matrix Flexible Charging Reactors as the construction subject is compared with the charging piles’. The analysis shows that this optimization proposal can better meet the future charging demand of urban electric buses, and proves that the charging station with Matrix Flexible Charging Reactors as the main subject of construction is more cost-effective. It provides new ideas for charging facilities planning in other cities, which is conducive to creating a healthier and more orderly environment for electric vehicle charging facilities industry.
The popularity and importance of solar power generation in the United States and China continues to increase. This research effort investigated the present status of solar power generation in both countries. The solar installation incentives provided by the two governments were analyzed. Comparisons between the countries would also focus on: (1) solar electricity generation capacity, (2) solar energy policy comparisons, (3) economic effects of solar energy development, and (4) future solar energy challenges. Conclusions would then be discussed on the comparison topics.
This study contains a statistical analysis exploring the interrelationships between technology, production and various socio-economic variables in the context of China’s regional macroeconomy. We focus on empirically examining how technology at the macro level is interrelated to production, output, and various macro-level socio-economic indicators. Our statistical analysis shows that a higher level of technology is always associated with socio-economically desirable outcomes on the various chosen macro-level indicators. However, the causality may run bi-directionally. Our empirical results also show that even after the partial effects of all the other macro-level variables are netted out, that is, even when the indirect effects of technology are not considered, the remaining direct effect of technology is still shown to play a very crucial role in determining labor productivity in the production process at the macro level.
The undrained shear strength is a paramount parameter in determining the consistency and the ultimate bearing capacity of a clay layer. This resistance can be determined by in-situ tests, such as the field vane test or by laboratory tests, including the portable vane test, the triaxial, the simple compression test, and the consistency penetrometer test (i.e. the Swedish cone). However, the field vane test and the Swedish cone are the most commonly test used by geotechnical experts. In this paper, relationships between the field undrained shear strength of sensitive clay and some laboratory soil properties were developed. The soil properties consisted of the percentage of fine particles (less than 2 µm), the moisture content and the Atterberg limits. Furthermore, a correlation was proposed associating between the undrained shear strength of sensitive clay as obtained by the field vane test and the laboratory cone penetration test (Swedish cone). In addition, some applications of the proposed correlation on some geotechnical problems were included, such as the determination of the consistency and the bearing capacity of a clay layer. Comparison of the results of the developed correlations with the experimental results of the present investigation and the results reported in the literature show acceptable agreement.
Creation of zero CO2 emission enterprises due to energy use in Crete, Greece has been examined with reference to an orange juice producing plant (Viochym). Energy intensity at Viochym has been estimated at 1.66 KWh per € of annual sales. Oil used for heat generation has been replaced with solid biomass produced locally in Crete and resulting in zero CO2 emissions due to the use of heat. Offsetting CO2 emissions due to grid electricity use has been proposed with two options. The first includes the installation of a solar photovoltaic system with nominal power of 417 KWp, according to net metering regulations, generating annually 625 MWh equal to annual grid electricity consumption in the plant. Its capital cost has been estimated at 0.5 mil € which corresponds to 1.07 € per kg of CO2 saved annually.The second option includes the creation of a tree plantation in an area of 107 hectare resulting in carbon sequestration equal to carbon emissions in the plant due to electricity use. Both options for offsetting CO2 emissions in Viochym have various advantages and drawbacks and they are considered realistic and feasible, resulting in the elimination of its carbon emissions due to energy use. Improvement of the energy intensity of various processes in Viochym could result in lower CO2 emissions and smaller sizing of the required renewable energy systems for eliminating them.
The recovery of coals values from Middling and Rejects carries out by using Froth flotation and Mozley Mineral Separation. The middling and rejects are the waste products from gravity beneficiation process, it has been noted that most of washery plants are selling this product at low cost because they have less values.The independent variables selected for Mozley Mineral Separator and their ranges were indicated in the parentheses as follow, water flow rates (400, 600, 800ml/s), amplitude (1.25, 1.5, 1.75inch) and collection time (30, 40, 60 s) while the independent variables for froth flotation were; Pulp density (10, 12.5, 15 %), collector dosage (39.3, 44.4, 49.5 g/t) and frother dosage (61.8, 65.3, 68.8 g/t). The number of experimental runs and regression equation determined by using Design Expert softwareThe d80 for middling and rejects samples were 10.5mm and 12.89mm respectively. The ash contents for the middling sample treated by froth flotation decrease from 37% to 15.85% at the reagent concentration of 49.5g/t collector, 65.3g/t frother and pulp density of 10%. The froth flotation results of middling sample shown to have a great reduction of ash contents. The overall optimum middling recovery and yield for washery grade I and II attain at reagent concentration and pulp density of 47.703g/t, 68.568g/t and 13.2% for collector, frother and pulp density respectively. The feed of reject coal was 71% and the ash contents reduced to 28.87% with the recovery of 0.85%. The analysis through Mozley mineral separator did not show significant changes in the reduction of ash from both middling and rejects. The ash contents achieved were above the scope of the studies for recovering of coal values. The experiments for middling and reject by froth flotation and Mozley mineral separator may be carried out by varying other parameters as well as the type of methods.
Graphene has been applied and demonstrates its excellent functions in various functional coatings by virtue of its excellent thermal, mechanical and electrical properties. This paper mainly introduces the application status and effect of graphene in conductive coating, anticorrosive coating, flame retardant coating, thermal conductive coating and high-strength coating. Finally, the application prospect of graphene in the field of coating is prospected.
In recent years, Neural Network (NN) has gained popularity in proffering solution to complex nonlinear problems. Monitoring of variations in Petroleum Products Pipeline (PPP) attributes (flow rate, pressure, temperature, viscosity, density, inlet and outlet volume) which changes with time is complex due to existence of non linear interaction amongst the attributes. The existing works on PPP monitoring are limited by lack of capabilities for pattern recognition and learning from previous data. In this paper, NN models with pattern recognition and learning capabilities are compared with a view of selecting the best model for monitoring PPP. Data was collected from Pipelines and Products Marketing Company (PPMC), Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The data was used for NN training, validation and testing with different NN models such as Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Radial Basis Function (RBF), Generalized Feed Forward (GFF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Time Delay Network (TDN) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). Neuro Solutions 6.0 was used as the front-end-engine for NN training, validation and testing while My Structured Query Language (MySQL) database served as the back-end-engine. Performance of NN models was measured using Mean Squared Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Correlation Coefficient (r), Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and Minimum Descriptive Length (MDL). MLP with one hidden layer and three processing elements performed better than other NN models in terms of MSE, MAE, AIC, MDL and r values between the computed and the desired output.