Studia Psychologica

Online ISSN: 0039-3320
Publications
Article
Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) pursuit phase velocity oscillations were studied in seven undergraduates during repeated 4 min presentation of optokinetic stimuli. The following variable parameters of the stimuli motion were used with each subject: horizontal direction, angular velocity (AV), and frequency-to-velocity ratio. AV of the OKN pursuit phases was found to decrease markedly within the first 30 sec of stimuli presentation with its successive increase and variously marked oscillations. Gradual decrease of the AV of OKN pursuit phases was observed at the end of the whole examination as compared to its beginning already within 4 min presentation of the moving stimuli. The results are discussed from the point of view of the arousal, and the activation components of visual attention.
 
Article
Administered the Eysenck Personality Inventory, the rod-and-frame test (RFT), and a self-rating measure of circadian rhythms (for the eventual selection of 7 morning and 9 evening Ss) to 23 male workers. Oral body temperature was also obtained over the course of the day. Results show significant differences in body temperature and performances between the morning and evening Ss. Performance on the RFT improved steadily until about 7 PM when it began a night hour decline. Evening Ss showed a fluctuating pattern in performance with a nonsignificant deterioration during night hours. An inverse pattern was noted between morning and evening Ss in oral temperature. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the "reflexics" of intelligence, a mental process enabling subjective representation of cognitive activity in the experiencing of an individual. In addition to pragmatics based on the use of declarative and procedural knowledge, reflexics is the source of significant interindividual differences in intelligent behavior. Discussion is centered on how reflexics is formed on the basis of information coded in 4 problem areas: (1) personality-cognitive regulators of performance (failure), including extraversion, cognitive styles, affective reactions, social sensitivity, and schemata; (2) self-regulating mechanisms, including cognitive effectiveness; (3) implicit theories of an individual; and (4) metaintelligence and wisdom. Methodological pitfalls of measurements and ecological validity of research findings are pointed out. (Slovak abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In a study involving 37 nations, four data bases were combined to include national difference measures of subjective well-being, the personality variables of extraversion and neuroticism, positive and negative affect, and Eurostat and United Nations statistics concerning incidence rates of accidents, deaths due to suicides and other self-inflicted injuries, and deaths incurred by car accidents. Negative affect was unrelated to any of the "outcome" variables. Subjective well-being on the other hand was significantly negatively correlated with incidence of accidents as well as deaths incurred through driving accidents. Positive affect, itself significantly positively correlated with subjective well-being, showed a significant negative correlation with "car-driving deaths." Moreover, trait neuroticism was associated with a high prevalence of accidents and car-deaths. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
52 children (mean age 9.1 yrs) with either the right- or left-hemisphere form of cerebral palsy were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) to determine the relationship between Ss' scores and the lateral location of brain damage. Results show that the location of brain damage had no major effect on Ss' total IQ score or on their scores on Verbal and Performance scales. Ss with right-hemisphere damage had a greater discrepancy between their scores on Verbal and Performance scales than did Ss with left-hemisphere damage. Ss with right-hemisphere damage had their lowest scores on the Picture Arrangement, Object Assembly, and Digit Span subscales; Ss with left-hemisphere damage had their lowest scores on Picture Arrangement, Coding, and Digit Span subscales. Possible reasons for the independence of WISC scores from location of hemispheric damage in children with cerebral palsy are explored. (Slovak & Russian abstracts) (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the impact of self-regulation on the actual genesis of human adaptation systems by exploring the limits of applicability of autogenic training (AT) at different adaptation phases in difficult continuous performance during 72 hrs of sleep deprivation. EEG, heart rate, and electrodermal activity were measured for 18 adults (aged 18–42 yrs) previously trained in relaxation techniques. Nine Ss received AT. Results show a stimulating effect of AT on performance stability. Indicators of visual acuity were stabilized, reaction times (RTs) to auditory signals were reduced and stabilized, and AT had a beneficial effect on memorization quality and cognitive image structure. (Czech & Russian abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined whether support from family and peer members has differential effects on social-emotional problems in adolescence. 331 girls and 228 boys (mean age 16.9 yrs) in the 10th grade in Austria completed a German version of the Youth Self-Report and Profile, a short form of the Beck Depression Inventory, and a social support scale. For girls, the highest measures of psychopathology (including depression and thought disorders) were found in those Ss with low family support and high peer support. There was a similar pattern in boys, although those with low family support and low peer support showed the highest number of somatic complaints. For both sexes, high peer support was associated with greater externalizing behavior, including aggression and delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
238 16–17 yr old completed the List of Mental Functions and Characteristics. Self-control, verbal readiness, responsibility, perception, and perception were identified as some characteristics ascribed to the prototype of an intelligent individual. Factor analysis identified the following 5 factors as more general indicators of implicit theories of intelligence: personality, cognition, learning, cognitive performance, intuition and abstraction. Differences between the structures of the prototypes of practical, social, abstract, and personal intelligence and wisdom were also studied. The functions self-control, concrete thinking and responsibility attained a universal position. Perception and imagination were connected with unequivocally defined forms of intelligence. Ss did not prefer cognitive functions only, they also expected significant manifestation of personality modulated characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Tested the suggestibility for preferences for 15 TAT pictures of 128 male and female students from Punjab University. Ss were divided, using the Eysenck Personality Inventory, into 4 groups of 32 each: extraverts, introverts, neurotics, and stables. Individual preferences were recorded on a semantic differential scale. In a 2nd session 10 days later each S was told, before making his/her selection, that the picture best liked in the 1st session had been disliked by other Indian university students, while the picture most disliked in the 1st session had been preferred by the other groups. The S then made a 2nd preference choice. Results confirmed the effectiveness of suggestion in influencing esthetic choices. Personality differences failed, however, to show any significant trend. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined personality variables, that affect an alcoholic's tolerance level for situational variables and the dynamics of his/her behavior under load. In a comparison of alcoholics and nonalcoholics it was found that alcoholics were more frequently involved in situations in which they were unable to establish an adequate system of adaptive behavior. There was a significant correlation between alcoholics' subjective predispositions for resistance to load and their reactions to frustration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined whether there is a relationship between EEG results and extraversion and neuroticism. EEG examinations were conducted with 41 neurotic inpatients, 27 suicidal inpatients, and 17 healthy controls. All Ss completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Ss fell into 4 groups according to the personality inventory scores: high extraversion (HE) and high neuroticism (HN), low extraversion (LE) and HN, HE and low neuroticism (LN), and LE and LN. No significant indicators of alpha activity and extraversion or neuroticism dimensions were found with the EEG. Also, there were no significant EEG differences among groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the relationship between creativity and anxiety in children, using 136 elementary students (mean age 12 yrs 9 mo). Ss were administered the Adjective Check List, an adaptation of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and measures of creative thinking, intelligence, and personality characteristics. Data show that intelligence correlated significantly with all variables of fear and neuroticism. Results confirm a negative correlation between high levels of creativity and low levels of fear. Creativity programs in schools may influence students' personality development. (Russian & Slovak abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Observed preferences for handedness, armfolding, and handclasping in 486 Japanese and 400 German elementary school children and 998 Japanese and 690 German university students. Handedness was evaluated using a questionnaire; Ss were asked to demonstrate and designate a preference for 1 of 2 ways of armfolding or handclasping. Results show that in both groups of elementary students, significant correlations were observed between armfolding and handedness and between handclasping and handedness. In all university groups except German females ( n = 455), a significant relationship was found between handedness and armfolding. Findings in this and previous studies by the 1st author (1982, 1983) suggest that the manner of armfolding is stable as a genetic correlate of handedness and hemispheric specialization. (Czech & Russian abstracts) (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses artificial intelligence as a theoretical discipline studying "cognitive competence" in its abstract form, stressing those of its attributes that can be expressed in the language of abstract computations. The history of the concept of artificial intelligence is outlined, including the relationship of a potential computational theory of intelligence to the disciplines of psychology, pedagogy, linguistics, and philosophy. (Czech & Russian abstracts) (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In Phase 1, 95 patients with long-term migraine histories, 71 patients suffering from psychosomatic disorders other than migraine headaches, and 69 healthy controls (all Ss were aged 20–50 yrs) were administered a psychometric assessment battery that included the MMPI and the Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI). It was found that 83 and 64% of Ss could be correctly classified by means of their MMPI and FPI profiles, respectively. Discriminant analysis distinguished between patients and controls and between migraine Ss and psychosomatic Ss. Headache Ss scored higher on neuroticism than psychosomatic Ss, who received higher neuroticism scores than controls. In Phase 2, 24 migraine and 12 control Ss underwent stress experiments; dependent measures consisted of digital and frontotemporal skin temperature, forearm and frontalis EMG, and EKG. Findings suggest that migraine sufferers and healthy individuals differ from each other not only in their personality profiles but also in their physiological response pattern to stress. (Czechoslovakian & Russian abstracts) (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reoperationalized the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) from the standpoint of Q methodology in order to comparatively assess the aspirations of Slovak and UK youth. 60 Slovak and 60 UK college students were administered a set of modified Rokeach Values, the results of which were analyzed by Q pattern factor analysis. Results indicate that 3 accounts of instrumentality were broadly shared across the 2 cultures, suggestive of the diversity of social narratives among the Ss in both sites as to what is viewed as a desirable or undesirable value strategy. The 3 cross-national configurations differ in that the 1st stresses a "caring" kind of tribalism, the 2nd a "bohemian" collectivism, and the 3rd a "postmodern" perspective. A more self-concerned instrumentality that appeared to owe more to anarchistic values than to traditional notions of conditions for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the effects of temperament on the source of global self-assessment and with the relationship between partial elements of self-assessment and temperament and interpersonal personality characteristics as a follow-up to previous research (M. Blatný and L. Osecká; 1994, 1995, 1996). The sample consisted of 188 university students and 428 high school students. To test the level of personality Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and The Interpersonal Diagnosis Test were used. Rosenberg's Self-Assessment scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965) was used to study self-assessment. Unlike the previous research which used correlation and variance analyses, the authors tried to clarify the relationship between self-assessment and temperament and interpersonal personality characteristics using path analysis. The model of the relationship between self-assessment and personality characteristics is different for both genders. In the case of males, interpersonal characteristics are represented to a greater degree. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated paradigmatic associations as a rough measure of associative structuring in children of grades 1-9 and in adults. Results confirmed the increase of paradigmatic associations with age. This increase, however, was influenced to a high degree by the grammatical class of the stimuli words, exhibiting the highest number of paradigmatic associations to nouns, a much lower number to verbs and adjectives. Comparisons with other languages revealed differences in the trends and numbers of paradigmatic associations. Raw syntagmatic associations were considered as another possible measure of associative structuring, especially in the case verbs. (Czechoslovakian & Russian summaries) (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Evaluated saccadic eye movements (SEMs) of 5 right-handed undergraduates while attending (1) the cued part of the visual field and (2) the visual target that appeared contralaterally to the attentionally focused visual hemifield. Results indicate that the programming and generation of the SEMs and the encoding of new visual information depended on the direction of the SEMs, the functional asymmetry of the brain hemispheres, and the regularity of appearance of visual stimuli. Findings support the view that the left visual hemifield plays a dominant role in primary encoding and processing of new visual information. Also, they point to the existence of a certain time window lasting approximately 400 msec and starting about 100 msec before the onset of SEMs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Administered an attitude scale toward computers to 200 Czech electrotechnical and philosophy students to test the hypotheses that (1) Ss' level of anxiety toward computers would be negatively correlated with positive attitude toward computers, (2) levels of empathy, adventurousness, and impulsivity would correlate with favorable attitudes toward computers, and (3) philosophy students with favorable attitudes toward computers would show high social desirability traits. Data indicate that technical Ss showed significantly more positive attitudes toward computer use than did philosophy Ss. Results confirm hypotheses 2 and 3. (Slovak & Russian abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined brain-stem auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) in 27 patients with panic disorder and 10 healthy controls. Results showed a significant prolongation of the interpeak interval of the III–IV component of the brain-stem AEP in the patient group at monoaural stimulation on the right side. A significant decrease was recorded in the amplitudes of Waves III and V of the AEP in the patients bilaterally. Confirmation of previous findings is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Results of a study with 8 female Ss (ages 22–30 yrs) support the hypothesis that the size of resistance asymmetry measured at a given point on both hands is not a constant magnitude and that its polarity changes in relation to the activation level of the regulatory mechanisms under the influence of autogenic training. Asymmetry is a function of the regulatory process in the interaction with the environment, a process taking place against a background of the current state of the organism. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses ways of studying coping strategies and outlines approaches to such studies. Coping strategies can be identified by the use of questionnaires or by the classification of coping strategies used by Ss in various situations. Research has shown that coping strategies fall into 3 categories: those focused on the problem, those focused on emotions, and those focused on escaping. A more recent approach to studying coping is the behavioral-situational approach. Several recommendations for conducting research on coping are presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined (1) the degree of irrational beliefs (IRBs) that is independent of correctness/erroneousness in formal-logical reasoning and (2) the character of the relationship between IRBs and the creation of the common type of reasoning (common sense), expecting that they represent 2 mutually related cognitive characteristics. 154 high school students were administered a scale of IRBs, a logical reasoning test (syllogisms), and a sentence completion subtest of the Intelligence Structure Test. IRBs were formed regardless of a S's cognitive-intellectual abilities to deduce logically correct conclusions from the point of view of formal rules of logic. It is concluded that in spite of the fact that IRBs have the character of inadequate attributions or other thinking distortions, it does not seem psychologically satisfactory to define IRBs in terms of errors in logical thinking. (Slovak abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Two groups of 23 Ss each (median age 20.3 yrs) participated in 2 studies of bioelectrical skin reactivity (BSR). The 1st group was initially given galvanic stimuli (electric shock according to experimental procedures) to the right and the 2nd group initially to the left upper extremity. This order was reversed in the 2nd part of the session. The 2 experiments differed in that in the 1st the electrodes for applying galvanic stimuli were attached to the 2 forearms, and in the 2nd only to the forearm that was being stimulated. Results in the measures of BSR amplitude and frequency are concordant and point to BSR's being affected in the sense of its increase according to which of the arms was stimulated first. Similar results were obtained in the 2nd experiment with an even higher statistical significance. BSR measures proved to be independent of personality dimensions as defined by H. J. Eysenck. However, a significant negative correlation was found with A factor (Eysenck Personality Inventory) and a significant positive one with Q/2 factor. The correlation between Ss' scores on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and BSR measures failed to be of statistical significance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Classified 21 Ss (average age 18 yr.) into groups of extraverts and introverts, by means of Eysenck's Personality Inventory. The experiment sought to ascertain how these personality traits become manifest in bioelectrical skin reactivity during an investigation of promptness and performance in Stroop's test. The relation was followed between introversion, extraversion, and neuroticism, and the strength and dynamism of the basic nervous phenomena. Results show that personality traits modified performance and showed themselves to be relatively independent of the properties of the nervous system. Data underline the persisting disputability of the methodical aspects and the criteria employed in evaluating personality traits and properties of the nervous system. (Czech & Russian summaries) (18 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied 18-yr-old Ss, 11 extreme introverts and 10 extreme extroverts classified by means of the Eysenck Personality Inventory in 2 experiments which were separated by a 7-mo pause. Each experiment included different variables. The records of bioelectrical skin reactivity (BSR) were compared and a qualitative analysis was made for each S from both experiments. A consistent pattern of BSR was found in 3 extroverts and 1 introvert. With the exception of these 4 Ss, either relatively equal or quite different BSR patterns were found among extroverted and introverted Ss. The hypothesis of a higher reactivity of introverts and a lower 1 of extroverts was not confirmed. The question of a weak CNS in introverts and a strong 1 in extroverts is discussed. It is also stressed that the methodical aspects of the criteria involved in evaluating personality traits and properties of the CNS have not been clarified. (Czech & Russian summaries) (31 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Conducted a bivariate evaluation of the original R. M. Yerkes and J. D. Dodson (1908) data set with the classical series criterion of habit formation and the error criterion defined by G. Bäumler (1992) to test for linear and curvilinear trends in easy and difficult task conditions. The results support the hypothesis of a linear relation of the rapidity of habit formation onto strength of aversive stimulation for wrong discrimination. The original Yerkes-Dodson finding of a linear relation between learning and shock intensity in the easy discrimination task (DT) was also valid for the difficult DT. There was no curvilinearity in the DT form considering both the learning criterion, the series criterion, and the error criterion of Bäumler. The 2 criteria appear to measure different aspects of habit formation and discrimination learning. (Slovak abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Applies the ideas of K. R. Popper and J. C. Eccles (1977) to psychic phenomena. Popper and Eccles suggested that meaning contents that are the deliberate or spontaneous outcome of the functioning of spiritual or mental states become independent of their origins, forming a separate "World 3" in which discoveries can be made, despite the fact that meanings cannot be derived from individual structures of the brain. Based on theory of functional organs organized by object-oriented activities (the Vygotsky school) and empirical data about territorial behavior of populations, arguments are derived for a supraindividual material organization whose functioning does produce meaning. It is suggested that this approach can also be applied to the study of the human higher functioning of consciousness. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the need to deal with the concept of quality of life (QOL) in science and explores the history of the development of QOL in relation to the field of psychology. Based on a systems approach, the author presents a multilevel and multidimensional model of QOL. The main components of the model on the basal level are somatic state, psychological functioning, family, economic-social situation, needs-values, and environment. From the basal level, higher level components are derived. On the mezzolevel, these components are health-illness, society, status, earth-catastrophes, culture, and well-being. The metalevel components are natural death, mankind, ruling with goodness, noosphere, prosocial behavior, and self-development. (Slovak abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Psychometric integrity of the Czech version of the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory was investigated using responses from 2,165 Ss aged 18–60 yrs (1,132 males, 1033 females). The findings generally correspond to that published by C.R. et al (1993, 1994), especially the character dimensions, but the 4-dimensional temperament model was not supported in the present sample. Persistence appeared to be a part of harm avoidance, closely associated with reflection, reserve and regimentation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Conducted a study with an experimental (EX) and control group (CG) of 10 matched pairs of preschool children (aged 5.4–6.4 yrs) in a residential nursery school. The goals were to determine (a) whether it was possible to eliminate the disadvantage in creativity development by simple training techniques and (b) which creativity factors are most sensitive to fostering efforts (i.e., which ones could be easily improved). Creative thinking was measured by a preschool adaptation of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. EX Ss took part in training sessions 3 times/wk for 3 mo, CG Ss attended traditional nursery school programs. EX Ss scored significantly better on creativity posttest scores compared to CG Ss, specifically on fluency, flexibility, and originality. (Russian & Slovak abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the influence of testosterone on 2-dimensional spatial cognition in prepubertal children by comparing two groups of children: 81 gifted boys and girls from experimental classes of elementary school (mean age 6 yrs) and a control group of 70 normal boys and girls from elementary school (mean age 7.5 yrs). Testosterone concentrations were measured in saliva, since obtaining saliva is a noninvasive, nonstressful procedure, best for investigating young children. Results showed significantly lower testosterone levels in gifted children compared to the control group. Gifted children reach better performance in spatial-reasoning tests and in this group of children testosterone levels negatively correlated with cognitive performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Assessed the content validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and compared its continual score with those of the Sense of Coherence scale components of the Life Orientation Questionnaire (A. Antonovsky, 1993) and the Questionnaire of Heuristic Competence KFST (D. Dörner, et al, 1983). The relationships between the measurement dimensions and self-assessment of the ability to cope with problem situations in everyday life were assessed. The measures were applied to a sample of 203 college students. It was concluded that certain connections between the MBTI dimensions and self-assessment of coping existed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the human simulation of random sequences of events to elucidate the nature of the compulsion toward order. P. Bakan (1960) argued that Ss were unable to produce random series because they have an erroneous idea of what chance/randomness is (cognitive hypothesis). R. L. Weiss (1964) argued that simulation of random binary series is not an attempt to realize a defective idea but an active intentional effort to overcome or inhibit interfering response dispositions. Ss producing regularly patterned sequences might find themselves controlled merely by a response set, while the creation of disorder requires at least some monitoring, judgment, and correction (motivational hypothesis). These 2 views were investigated in an experiment in which Ss had to produce "random" sequences of binary events by pressing alternative keys connected to a computer. Cognitive (e.g., knowledge of randomness) and motivational (e.g., self- vs forced pacing and the presentation of interfering information) factors were systematically varied. Results partially support the hypothesis that nonrandomness is due to a "logical error" modifiable by cognitive influences; evidence was also found for stereotype response tendencies that can be controlled to a limited extent by Ss. (Czechoslovakian & Russian abstracts) (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes the methodology of computer processing of eye movement recordings performed by a corneal reflection technique. A semiautomatic method of leading the X,Y coordinates of eye fixation points from frames of 16-mm film into a LINC computer is discussed, including a technique for correcting the errors due to irregularities of the corneal surface by means of 2-dimensional interpolation. Different programs for processing eye movement data are also presented. (Slovak & Russian summaries) (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes the developmental changes in a group of 36 Czech infants assessed from 1 to 14 mo of age using the Kent Infant Development (KID) Scale and compares KID Scale assessments made by the infants' parents with professional ratings (i.e. psychologists using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development). Results indicate that the KID Scale assessments give reliable data on infant development in the course of the first 14 mo. The KID Scale assessments of motor development correlated significantly with the Bayley assessments of motor development at 6, 9, and 12 mo. Correlations for mental development were significant at 3 and 12 mo only. The low agreement between the KID Scale and the Bayley assessments at 6 and 9 mo may be due to different items included in both scales at these ages. Parents indicated that the completions of the KID Scales motivated them to become more involved in the problems of infant development and to become better observers of their infant's behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied conditioning in 17 male university students during Stage 2 sleep. The occurrence rate of conditioned EEG responses increased and the number of differentiating EEG responses decreased with the number of sessions in individual Ss. According to EEG measurements, a conditional as well as differentiating response could be developed in sleep. The most successful phase of learning appeared at the beginning of conditioning, i.e., in the 1st and 2nd session. GSRs showed, however, a significant habituation trend. In this respect no changes occurred favoring learning, with 1 exception. Not even in that case was it possible to eliminate the possibility of establishing conditioned responses. (Czechoslovakian & Russian summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Administered tests of environmental consciousness, intelligence, and anxiety to 264 13–16 yr olds from Central Europe. The Austrian Ss showed a higher differentiating ability than did the Ss from Moravia, Slovakia, and Hungary. All had a positive relation to nature and showed a negative attitude toward such pollutants as power stations and cars. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In this paper, an innovative fourteen site, eleven country, collaborative investigation of resilience is described. As part of a larger mixed methods study to understand resilience as a social and ecological construct, a 58-item measure of resilience was developed. Piloting of the measure with 1451 youth ages 13-23 confirmed that the measure demonstrates good construct validity. In this paper we describe the study and the measure, and discuss implications for understanding resilience across cultures and contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Relationship between sensitivity to injustice and personality traits
Influence of anger occurrence as an indicator of sensitivity to injustice on values in the scale "reactive aggression"
Article
The aim of the research was to find out the relation between sensitivity to injustice and other personality traits. The authors based their view on the definition of sensitivity to injustice as a personality trait and some research findings regarding the reactions toward events considered as unjust. In order to obtain the relevant data the authors developed a questionnaire measuring the frequency of occurrence of unjust events in the classroom. To measure the personality traits use was made of the Frieburg Personality Inventory (FPI). The research was conducted on a sample of 128 secondary school students (average age 16 yrs). It was found that students who are more aggressive, egocentric, suspicious, mistrustful, immersed in their own thoughts and introspective, harboring feelings of misunderstanding and unfair treatment, are more sensitive to injustice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Proposes a revised method of similarity analysis based on the concept of correlational similarity and representing an improvement on the model proposed by G. Ekman. It is concluded that if judgmental factors are oppositional in bipolarity (as against situations where they are not), far more interpretational information relative to processes or strategies of judgment are obtained. (Czech & Russian summaries) (25 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
107 Ss (aged 17–18 yrs) were presented with a series of fuzzy sets of figures similar to elliptical or rectangular shapes and asked to rate the degree of similarity. It was hypothesized that Ss would use minimum–maximum or multiplicative strategies when operating with the fuzzy sets. Findings demonstrate that no logical consistency existed between individual estimates of the results of operations and computed values based on 1 of the 2 strategies. Data provide only slight support for the proposed hypothesis. Findings are discussed in the context of methodological limitations imposed by visual comparison problem solving. (Czech & Russian abstracts) (5 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Attempted to determine the role of mental processes in mental representation and in its transformations, and their relation to memory achievements in recall and recognition tasks. 39 20–23 yr old students completed measures of intelligence; planar imagination tests; perception and transformation of space schemes; visual illusions; rod-and-frame tests; several personality measures (e.g., risk taking, anxiety, achievement motivation); and Taylor's figure, a measure of memorization and recognition of point structures. Findings indicate that several psychic functions take part in the creation and transformation of mental representation. Besides the role of perception, the role of memory, especially coding and rehearsal strategies, was evident. Results show the significant relationship between the recall of matrices and their transformation and the recall of Taylor's figure, while the relation with recognition was not significant, in spite of the fact that the same stimulation material was used. (Slovak & Russian abstracts) (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Measured changes in the heart rates of 15 artistic undergraduates during rest and 4 stages of creative activity. Ss were given a stimulus painting, asked to examine and interpret it, paint a representation of their ideas about the stimulus, and then evaluate their own work. Heart rates were highest during S's interpretation and analysis of the stimulus, followed by the drawing and painting activity and S's evaluation of his own work, and the resting stage. It is suggested that the mean heart rate is a more sensitive index for judging differences in the stages of creative process than intraindividual variability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the relationships between figural and verbal creativity, verbal and nonverbal intelligence, linguistic aptitudes, formation of associations, experiences of fear and anxiety, various personality factors, selective status, experiencing of certainty and uncertainty, and lack of interest in practical activity. Factor analysis was performed using data from a battery of 19 tests and inventories (including the Modern Language Aptitude test, the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Adjustment Inventory, and the 16 PF) presented to 29 Ss (mean age 19 yrs). Results yielded 22 factors covering 95.25% of variability. Despite the small number of Ss, the heterogeneity of the data, the temporal influences, and the experimental nature of some of the methods, the results are seen as implying that creativity cannot be understood uniquely as a cognitive phenomenon, but should be understood and investigated as a complex of cognitive and personality factors. (Czech & Russian summaries) (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Considers creativity to be a vectorial result of several intellectual and affective-motivational factors included in creative activity. The problem-solving process was used to examine creative activity in a study with 32 college students with high performance in mathematics and in 24 Ss with low math performance. High mathematics Ss were more adept at solution-finding than low Ss. It is concluded that the solution-finding process depends on the conceptual and imaginal thinking abilities; the flexibility, fluency, and originality of S's thinking; and other personality traits. (Slovak and Russian summaries) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Sought to verify select relationships between creativity in prosocial behavior and sense of humor. The S sample consisted of 23 5th and 24 6th graders from a secondary school in Bratislava. To identify creativity, the author used the 2nd subtest of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (M. Jurčová, 1984) figural version and K. K. Urban's creativity test (1993). To determine the tendencies to behave prosocially, the SOCAG untraditional semiprojective method by V. Dačkal (1988) was used. In addition to the total score of prosocial behavior, aggressive and prosocial behavior can also be differentiated using this method. Additional rating scales were used. Results from a total score for 2 factors: (1) reaching social goals using humor and (2) coping with problems through humor were analyzed. Findings indicate a connection between the phenomena under study and creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presented 6 musical and 6 comparable control (noise) segments to 24 Ss (aged 18 to 22 yrs), under conditions in which pupil response and preference ratings could be observed. Both measures yielded similar mean profiles: While pupil response means for the noise control segments did not vary significantly, ratings of liking were associated with significant changes in pupil dilation, and ratings of disliking with pupil constriction. Correlations between preference ratings and pupil responses within musical selections were zero, suggesting relative independence of the 2 response systems. Such independence was further supported by a factor analysis of pupil responses, which yielded only 1 factor, while a comparable analysis of the preference data yielded 2 factors. (Russian & Slovak abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Hypothesized that (1) blind Ss would recall words presented acoustically significantly better than normal Ss, (2) blind Ss would show greater certainty in their responses, (3) totally blind Ss would perform better than blind Ss with residual sight, and (4) both blind and sighted Ss would show significant recall for nouns and low-frequency words. A recall experiment with l5 students (mean age 18.5 yrs) confirmed the hypotheses. It is concluded that memory is an important means of blindness compensation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Peter Halama
  • Slovak Academy of Sciences
Ivan Sarmany-Schuller
  • Slovak Academy of Sciences
Ahmet AKIN
  • Sakarya University
Oleksiy Polunin
  • Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
Jitse P van Dijk
  • University of Groningen