Studia Linguistica Universitatis Iagellonicae Cracoviensis

Published by Uniwersytet Jagiellonski – Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego
Print ISSN: 1897-1059
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This paper presents a series of addenda to Stanisław Stachowski’s Historisches Wörter­buch der Bildungen auf -cı // -ıcı im Osmanisch-Türkischen (1996). The data are taken from transcription texts prior to Meninski (1680) – comprising both lexicographical and documentary texts – and listed in chronological order, according to the pattern I have already followed in previous papers of mine intended to supplement Stachowski’s other historical-lexicographical works.
 
The study was conducted at the University of Silesia within the group of approximately 100 children from three kindergartens and one primary school where storytelling was applied to teach German. The following paper focuses on the analysis of the applied storytelling technique and gives a detailed description of the results. Of particular importance in the case of the following study is the long-lasting effectiveness of the adopted teaching technique. The article describes how this particular teaching technique has influenced the children’s attitudes towards the target language and culture. It also affords some fresh insights into the process of teaching an FL to children.
 
In his article the author deals with the meaning of uč, which appears in lines 44 and 46 of the so-called “Manichaean Pothī-book” and not only means “end” but can also point to the “exterior / the beginning (of your path [= your teaching])” in that text.
 
Chulym Turkic is still one of the lesser known and researched Turkic languages. Having said that, in the case of Middle Chulym several studies have been published in the last few years. Since Küärik lexical material is included in Radloff’s dictionary, the least attested is Lower Chulym: this can only be found in various works by Duĺzon, which are frequently difficult to obtain. In this discussion a short text which was originally published by Duĺzon in an article from 1952 is reproduced, after which a linguistic analysis is undertaken to determine the accuracy of Duĺzon’s translation. The text is interesting from both a linguistic and ethnographic perspective: it documents e.g. the use of the past tense in -AďigAn which is barely attested in Turkic languages. It also describes the funeral rites of Chulym Turks after their conversion to Christianity.
 
shows the number of occurrences of clearly in each of the subcorpora, its frequencies per 200,000 words and per article.
The aim of this paper is to identify and systematize the functions of clearly in academic discourse. The adverb shows a continuum of manner and modal meanings, and signals the existence of reliable evidence for claims, which makes it a useful rhetorical device in research articles. The study is based on a corpus of 80 research articles (ca. 580,000 words) representing three disciplines and three branches of science: linguistics (the humanities), sociology (social sciences) and physics (natural sciences). It shows that clearly is used to involve the reader in the process of data analysis (both manner and modal uses), to summarize the findings, make conclusions (modal uses), and to appeal to shared knowledge (discourse marker). Appeals to shared knowledge are only attested in the subcorpora of linguistics and sociology, which tend to adopt a more interactional style of writing than the natural sciences, while the other functions are found in the research articles of all three disciplines. Using White's (2003) notion of heteroglossic (dis)engagement, clearly can be said to have dialogically contractive functions. Its presence in the text indicates the author's wish to encourage the reader to adopt his/her perspective.
 
This paper examines the factors influencing syntactical transfer in TLA. There are several factors that influence syntactic transfer in TLA: linguistic (such as typology); individual (such as learners’ “attention control” and age); psycho-linguistic (such as psychotypology and the learners’ awareness of cognates); and other factors (such as L2 type and amount of instruction). In summary, it was found that negative syntactic transfer from both L1 and L2 to L3 occurs when (a) languages are typologically dissimilar (b) learners’ “attention control ability” is low, and (c) L2 level of proficiency and exposure is advanced and L3 level of proficiency is low. In contrast, positive syntactic transfer from L1 and L2 to L3 occurs when (a) languages are typologically similar, (b) students perceive these languages as similar, and (c) L1 and L2 level of proficiency is high and L3 level of proficiency is low. Additionally, the learners’ age was found to potentially influence the language (L1 or L2) from which the transfer occurs into L3: L3 adult learners may count more on their L2 as a source of positive syntactic transfer into L3 whereas children may count more on their L1 as a source of positive syntactic transfer into L3. Finally, it was found that when L1, L2, and L3 are equally proximate, it is the L2 that has the primary influence on positive and negative syntactic transfer in TLA.
 
The present paper examines the factors influencing lexical transfer in third language acquisition (TLA) by examining studies devoted to lexical transfer from L1 and L2 into L3 that were mainly conducted in Europe. There are several factors that have influence on lexical transfer: linguistic (such as typology), contextual (such as naturalistic setting vs. formal setting), psycho-linguistic (such as psychotypology and the learners’ aware­ness of cognates), individual (such as learners’ age) and other factors (such as L2/L3 proficiency level). The results of the survey indicate that negative lexical transfer from both L1 and L2 to L3 occurs (a) in naturalistic contexts, (b) when languages are typo­logically similar, (c) when students perceive these languages as similar, and (d) when L2 proficiency level is high and L3 proficiency level low. In contrast, positive lexical transfer from L2 to L3 occurs (a) in formal settings, (b) when students perceive these languages as similar, (c) when learners’ awareness of true cognates is high, and (d) when both L2 and L3 proficiency level are high. Additionally, the learners’ age was found to potentially predict the relative weight of lexical transfer in TLA in the following manner: negative lexical transfer from L1 and L2 to L3 may increase with age. Finally, it was found that when L1, L2, and L3 are equally proximate, it is the L1 that has the primary influence on lexical transfer in TLA.
 
Didżej and didżejować appeared in Polish due to language contact and loanword assimilation processes; the former is the English noun DJ in graphic disguise, the latter is a Polish verbal derivative that conceals the English etymon. The article focuses on discussing and exemplifying the multiple ways in which English acronyms and alphabetisms are assimilated and integrated in the Polish lexical and grammatical systems. Part 1 of the article concerns loanword adaptation processes that have been identified for English lexical loans in several European languages. The linguistic outcomes of loanword adaptation processes, which both occur during the borrowing process and follow it, serve to support an observation that intensive lexical borrowing from English is a change-provoking and development-motivating process that leads to linguistic diversity rather than linguistic homogeneity. An illustration of contact-induced linguistic diversity with corpus-driven data is preceded with a brief discussion of English abbreviations, which, in Part 2, are contrasted with their “polonized” versions that undergo formal, semantic and pragmatic changes in the recipient language.
 
This paper presents a series of addenda to Stanisław Stachowski’s Historisches Wörter­buch der Bildungen auf -cı // -ıcı im Osmanisch-Türkischen (1996). The data are taken from transcription texts prior to Meninski (1680) – comprising both lexicographical and documentary texts – and listed in chronological order, according to the pattern I have already followed in previous papers of mine intended to supplement Stachowski’s other historical-lexicographical works.
 
The article discusses the results of a longitudinal study of how modality, as an aspect of spoken discourse competence of selected thirteen advanced students of English, developed throughout their three-year English as a Foreign Language tertiary education. The study investigated possible factors determining the development of three aspects of modality: (1) epistemic modality, (2) specific modality, that is those modality expressions that are both characteristic of natural English discourse or are underrepresented in L2 discourse, and (3) modality diversity. The analysis was carried out in relation to a number of variables, including two reference levels, one represented in English native discourse and the other observed in teacher talk in actual Practical English classes, language type exposure, as registered by the subjects of the study on a weekly basis.
 
The paper discusses some cognitive processes that underlie emergence, development and disappearance of image (“one-shot”) metaphors. It is claimed that expressions with a primarily literal meaning can function in a particular discourse so that they become elevated to the status of rich image metaphors. The first step on the way towards metaphorization involves the emergence of metonymic expressions, which are based on the speakers’ choice of salient elements of events or situations. Two or more such metonymies can then coalesce via conceptual integration to create an image metaphor. The metaphor, in turn, can be transformed into an idiomatic expression, separated from its original non-verbal context. The discussion is illustrated with a slogan used in connection with recent social and political developments in Poland.
 
The main goal of this research was to discover the influence of high frequency sensorineural hearing loss on familiar speaker recognition during earwitnessing line-ups. The secondary objectives were to estimate the influence of familiarity with voices of the suspects on performance in the auditory speaker recognition test, and to correlate the results with forensically important factors such as a confidence scale from the line-up markings. The recordings from the line-up sessions were low-pass filtered to ensure an equal degree of signal distortion for all subjects and imitate the moderate, severe and profound hearing loss conditions. The results show that the correlation between mimicked hearing impairment and ability to identify a familiar speaker is statistically significant. It was observed that higher degree of signal distortion caused lower accuracy of recognition. Interestingly, it was reported that higher levels of familiarity and exposure to speakers’ voices had a negative effect on speaker identification.
 
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s accent is often used as an illustration of the elite pronunciation heard among the north-eastern US upper classes until roughly the mid 20th century. Known under several names and often considered a mixture of British and American features, this variety is frequently identified with the American Theatre Standard, a norm popularized by acting schools in the early 20th century. Working on the assumption that Roosevelt is an exemplar of the north-eastern standard, the aim of the current study is a preliminary acoustic exploration of his accent with the aim of assessing the plausibility of such comparisons, focusing on the dress, trap, bath, start and lot vowels. Density plots created based on F1 and F2 measured in eight radio speeches were used to examine the relative position of these vowels in the vowel space. Linear mixed-effects regression was then used to model F1 and F2 in selected pairs of vowels to determine whether the differences along the two formant dimensions are significant. The results confirm a conclusion reached in an earlier auditory study (Brandenburg, Braden 1952) according to which Roosevelt’s bath was variable between [æ] and a lower and retracted [a], a vowel quality found in Eastern New England and in American Theatre Pronunciation. At the same time, a merged start/lot vowel in Roosevelt’s speech makes it unjustified to fully identify his accent with the latter variety.
 
This author's aim is to show that the general notion "dogmatic dictionary" actually comprises various scholarly etymological dictionaries that should be distinguished from each other due to their different informational potential.
 
This paper investigates four bilingual English - Upper Sorbian/Upper Sorbian - English dictionaries regarding the presence of Anglicisms therein. The paper describes the place of Anglicisms in the macrostructure of the lexicons as well their treatment within entries either as headwords or counterparts. The paper enumerates their numerical presence as well as the types of borrowings, and the other processes responsible for enriching the lexis of Upper Sorbian with English lexical elements as revealed in the dictionaries. The paper discusses the information regarding the adaptation of English lexical items in Upper Sorbian (phonetic, graphic, morphological and semantic) that can be obtained from the lexicographic works.
 
Distribution of Stance and Engagement markers in English and Spanish per genre
Distribution of Stance and Engagement markers in English and Spanish in news reports
The paper describes the process of validating a reliable annotation scheme for the categories of Stance and Engagement in English and Spanish using a bilingual sample of English-Spanish journalistic texts extracted from the MULTINOT corpus (Lavid et al. 2015). The bilingual sample includes three different newspaper genres: news reports, editorials and letters to the editor. Following the generic annotation pipeline proposed by Hovy and Lavid (2010), the paper describes the different steps to validate an annotation scheme to capture the main features of Stance and Engagement and their realizations in English and Spanish. This includes the instantiation of the theoretical categories, the development of annotation guidelines and the performance of an inter-annotation agreement study on a small training corpus to measure the reliability of the proposed tags. The paper also describes the results of the annotation of a larger corpus using the validated scheme (Moratón 2015). This reveals interesting patterns of variation in the distribution of Stance and Engagement in the three newspaper genres, which can be fruitfully used for contrastive linguistic and computational purposes.
 
Binomials in general and English binomials in particular are a frequent, complex and important linguistic as well as stylistic phenomenon.¹ Compared to other linguistic phenomena, however, they are a relatively under-researched field. Therefore our aim is to provide a concise survey of English binomials, sketching their structure, function, history and the current state of scholarship, and pointing out possibilities for further research.² The first part of this article was published in the previous issue of the journal. In Part II we move on to the etymological (9.) and the semantic structure of English binomials (10.). Very broadly speaking, we thus move from aspects that concern mainly the surface to features that lie a little deeper down. The etymological structure has to do with the use and distribution of native words and of loan-words; the semantic structure comprises synonyms, antonyms, and complementary pairs, as well as factual, stylistic, and cultural binomials. We also deal briefly with the semantic features of multinomials (11.), with the relation of translated binomials to their (especially Latin or French) source (12.), with differences between authors and texts (13.), with the sequence of elements and the factors that influence the sequence (14.), and with the question how far binomials are formulaic and how far they are flexible and can be coined on the spur of the moment (15.). A brief conclusion (16.) and references complete the article.
 
Binomials in general and English binomials in particular are a frequent, complex and important linguistic as well as stylistic phenomenon.¹ Compared to other linguistic phenomena, however, they are a relatively under-researched field. Therefore our aim is to provide a concise survey of English binomials, sketching their structure, function, history and the current state of scholarship, and pointing out possibilities for further research.² In Part I we provide a preliminary definition of binomials (2.), explain the concept of multinomials (3.), discuss the functions of binomials (4.), give a brief review of research (5.), followed by a quick survey of binomials in the history of English (6.), and an example of a dense use of binomials, i.e. where several binomials are used in sequence (7.). Subsequently we discuss some formal features of binomials (8.), especially their basic structure and various variations of it (8.1.), their word classes (8.2.), the conjunctions used (8.3.), additional embellishment and strengthening, especially alliteration and rhyme (8.4.), and other morphological aspects, especially word-formation (8.5.). The second part of this article will be published in the next issue of the journal.
 
Although the earliest Turkisms that entered Arabic go back to the 9th century – when the Arabs began establishing regular contact with speakers of Turkic languages – a significant number of Turkish loans in both written and spoken Arabic only date from the time of the Ottoman Empire, which in the course of its expansion conquered and for centuries ruled a large part of the Arab world. This paper aims to examine the words of Turkish origin found in the dialects spoken in Egypt and parts of the Middle East (Syria, Lebanon, Palestine), i.e. the Arabophone regions that have been most exposed to Turkish influence for historical and cultural reasons. It has also been endeavoured to provide information about the etymology of the Ottoman-Turkish words (interestingly, as some of these come from Arabic, the Egyptian, Syrian, etc. words borrowed actually prove to be backborrowings).
 
Although the earliest Turkisms that entered Arabic go back to the 9th century – when the Arabs began establishing regular contact with speakers of Turkic languages – a significant number of Turkish loans in both written and spoken Arabic only dates from the time of the Ottoman Empire, which in the course of its expansion conquered and for centuries ruled a large part of the Arab world. This paper aims to examine the words of Turkish origin found in the dialects spoken in Egypt and part of the Middle East (Syria, Lebanon, Palestine), i.e. the Arabophone regions that have been most exposed to Turkish influence for historical and cultural reasons. Attempts have also been made to provide information about the etymology of the Ottoman-Turkish words (interestingly, as some of these come from Arabic, the Egyptian, Syrian, etc., words borrowed actually prove to be backborrowings).
 
Tobacco was certainly one of the most popular drug products in Europe until the end of the 20 th century. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the history of its designations is fairly often limited to general statements like, for instance, “from Spanish” (for English tobacco) or “from Turkish” (for Polish tytoń) and so on. This author aims at establishing some lexicological areas displaying various influences on the Slavic languages in that respect, as well as providing critical assessment of earlier claims and presenting his own observations concerning the Slavic designations of 'tobacco'.
 
Perceptual etymology is a new term which is introduced here to refer to an anthropological rather than a purely linguistic interpretation of the origins of words. This author tries to show in what way different aspects of our understanding of etymology can be combined to create a coherent and possibly full image of a word.
 
The present article constitutes the first part of a brief critical analysis of the research on attitude and attitude-(speech) behaviour relations. Its major aim is to show that the contribution from the socio-psychological paradigm can prove relevant and valuable when applied to sociolinguistic research on attitude and attitude-behaviour relations. The author argues that attitudinal investigations in sociolinguistics, despite their popu­larity and rich history, frequently suffer from a number of methodological and theoretical flaws. The author advances an argument that a reconceptualization of the construct of attitude and certain methodological principles can help refine the whole language at­titudes paradigm. Specifically, it is pointed out that a cognitive/information-processing approach to attitude formation, the theory of planned behaviour and other theoretical and methodological insights discussed in this paper can prove immensely rewarding and can give a new impetus for further research.
 
Top-cited authors
Andrii Danylenko
  • Pace University
Michał Németh
  • Jagiellonian University
Pavel Kosek
  • Masaryk University
Radek Čech
  • University of Ostrava
Marek Stachowski
  • Jagiellonian University