Structural Survey

Published by Emerald
Print ISSN: 0263-080X
Purpose The paper seeks to define the nature of the policy problems in Dutch building control. Design/methodology/approach The authors use Dunn's four‐phase methodology for public policy analysis, consisting of problem sensing, problem search, problem definition, and problem specification. Both a literature review and a field study into the operation of local building control authorities were undertaken. The field study incorporates characteristics of a survey, with methodology developed by Fowler. Findings Dutch building control legislation has been subject to many changes over the 100 years or so that it has been in force as it has responded to society's changing priorities. Throughout this period building regulation has become more detailed and more uniform across the country. Nevertheless, almost no legal changes have been made to the enforcement system. Responsibility for building control still lies with the municipalities and implementation is still not established by national legislation or policy document. Ongoing attempts to deregulate and standardise the legislative framework should therefore not stop at changing the regulations. Changes in the supervision system might offer an alternative route to improving the quality of the (technical) building control and clarifying the tasks and responsibilities of building control staff. Research limitations/implications The analysis focuses on problems in building control and does not consider design and construction problems. Practical implications The field study contains important lessons for building control practitioners and policymakers regarding current deficiencies in the implementation of building control legislation. Originality/value The paper provides a model for the analysis, and comparative study, of building control systems in other jurisdictions.
Presents the writer’s personal review of construction and design of mainly domestic buildings of the Second Millennium. After a brief historical commentary a summary of the main defects the surveyor is likely to encounter in buildings of each period of the millennium is given. The importance of local knowledge is emphasised and as an example the main problems encountered in buildings of the West of England are presented.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to study the minimum necessary net internal area of dwellings that should be established by Portuguese building regulations. Design/methodology/approach The following tasks are carried out: selecting the furniture and equipment necessary for each dwelling; determining the size of furniture and equipment and its typical arrangement; conceiving models of functional spaces; determining the net area of functional spaces and dwellings; comparing results with statistics on housing construction in Portugal and with mandatory area standards used in Portugal and ten other European countries. Findings The paper finds that the net internal area presently set by Portuguese building regulations should be increased by 5 to 15 percent. The net internal area figure obtained by the study is similar to mandatory regulations established by some other European countries. Research limitations/implications The study focuses on the net internal area of dwellings, although other space standards are also important to assuring the practicability of dwelling spaces; area standards were set on the basis of the current Portuguese situation and required adaptation when used in different social, cultural and economic contexts; area standards constitute a safety‐net against unacceptable dwellings rather than good practice guidelines. Practical implications The results may be used to support a review of Portuguese building regulations and provide guidelines for the design of dwellings. Originality/value A methodology to determine area standards is presented and applied. Up‐to‐date information on furniture size and arrangements is collected. The comparison enables an understanding of how the results compare in a European context.
Highlights the importance, when undertaking survey work, of being aware of the potential damage to property from encroachment by tree roots. Reviews the general principles and legislation, citing specific cases of liability for damage, the question of foreseeability, other contributory factors and remedies.
Purpose - Knowing which services are essential to tenants gives the housing associations the background to set priorities in maintenance policy and purchasing. The purpose of this paper is to explore residents' perceived importance of various maintenance services. Design/methodology/approach - The research question is explored through a large-scale survey of more than 6,000 tenants of Dutch housing associations. Priorities were studied in three different ways: respondents were asked to provide direct importance ratings, importance weights were derived from regression analyses, and, an importance-performance analysis (IPA) was performed. Findings - The results with regard to the priorities differ somewhat according to which method is used. However, the methods agree in that maintenance of heating and water systems and maintenance of hinges and locks of windows and external doors should get priority. If the goal is to increase customer satisfaction, the maintenance of exterior paintwork and bathrooms should also get appropriate attention. According to the IPA, the maintenance of ventilation systems should be taken good care of. Research limitations/implications - One limitation of the study is that residents have provided their preferences in maintenance service delivery without noticing the costs that are included with the several options. Furthermore, the priorities between service aspects, i.e. the aspects that determine the service quality of the maintenance service delivery were not measured. Practical implications - This paper provides insight into resident's priorities with regard to maintenance services. This can be of use for companies, such as housing associations. Furthermore, it contributes to scientific knowledge with regard to the impact of different measurement methods. Originality/value - Different applied methods for measuring priorities lead to different results. Both practitioners and researchers should take this into account when measuring priorities. The goal of the research should determine the choice of which method to use.
Japanese contractors have been successful in adopting total quality management (TQM) practices in their domestic operations. By examining Japanese contractors in a foreign country, the research presented in this paper shows that the implementation of TQM in the construction industry is constrained by national markets where the clients, subcontractors and site operatives are not imbued with the same quality culture. The location-bound nature of the production process, competitive bidding which emphasises cost, dependence on subcontractors and the non-direct link between the main contractors and site operatives are some of the constraining factors. Nonetheless, as demonstrated by the Japanese contractors, TQM routines can still be implemented, provided local norms and contracting practices are accommodated.
The origins of the roof of the Great Hall at Alexandra Palace go back to Owen Jones' project for a ‘Palace of the People’ to be built at Muswell Hill, published in the Illustrated London News in 1860, as North London's answer to the Crystal Palace which had newly moved to Sydenham. This was not built, but in response to public request, when the Great Exhibition of 1862 was dismantled, a large section including one of the lateral domes was erected at Muswell Hill to form the first Alexandra Palace. This was done under the direction of the architects, Meeson & Johnson, who produced the water colour painting now held at the Palace illustrating the project viewed from the north (Photo A). The building consisted of a long nave running east-west with three transepts, the largest in the centre being on the site of the present Great Hall with the crossing crowned by the mammoth dome raised higher than it had been at South Kensington by the introduction of an upper clerestorey level (Figure 1). The diameter of the dome was approximately 160 ft —larger than either the Pantheon (143 ft) or St Peter's (138 ft) in Rome.
Purpose – There has been a significant increase in flooding in the UK over the past ten years. During this time, Government policy has moved from investment in flood defences towards encouraging property owners to take responsibility for reducing the impact of flooding. One of the ways in which this can be achieved is for homeowners to adapt their properties to flood risk by implementing property level flood risk adaptation (PLFRA) measures. While there has been some attempt to develop an understanding of the benefits of such measures, these previous studies have their limitations in that the intangible benefits have not been fully considered. As such, there remains a need for further development of these studies towards developing a more comprehensive understanding of PLFRA measures. It is against this background the purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual cost benefit analysis (CBA) framework for PLFRA measure. This framework brings together the key parameters of the costs and benefits of adapting properties to flood risk including the intangible benefits, which have so far been overlooked in previous studies. Design/methodology/approach – A critical review of the standard methods and existing CBA models of PLFRA measures was undertaken. A synthesis of this literature and the literature on the nature of flooding and measures to reduce and eliminate their impacts provides the basis for the development of a conceptual framework of the costs and benefits of PLFRA measures. Within the developed framework, particular emphasis is placed on the intangible impacts, as these have largely been excluded from previous studies in the domain of PLFRA measures. Findings – The framework provides a systematic way of assessing the costs and benefits of PLFRA measures. A unique feature of the framework is the inclusion of intangible impacts, such as anxiety and ill health, which are known to be difficult to measure. The study proposes to implement one of the stated preference methods (SPM) of valuation to measure these impacts, known as the willingness to pay method, as part of a survey of homeowners. The inclusion of these intangible impacts provides the potential to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the benefit cost ratio (BCR) for different stakeholders. The newly developed CBA conceptual framework includes four principal components: the tangible benefits to insurers; the tangible benefits to the government; the tangible benefits to homeowners; and the intangible benefits to homeowners. Originality/value – This tool offers the potential to support government policy concerned with increasing the uptake of PLFRA measures through increasing the information available to homeowners and thereby supporting the decision-making process.
Conceptualising the gap between the science and the policy making
Purpose – Amidst the current economic climate, which places many constraints on expensive flood defence schemes, the policy makers tend to favour schemes that are sympathetic to the needs of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and which promote empowering local communities based on their individual local contexts. Research has shown that although several initiatives are in place to create behavioural change among SMEs in undertaking adaptation approaches against flooding, they often tend to delay their responses by means of a “wait and see” attitude. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – This paper argues that unless there are conscious efforts in the policy-making community to undertake explicit measures to engage with SMEs in a collaborative way, the uptake of adaptation measures will not be achieved as intended. With the use of the “honest broker” approach the paper provides a conceptual way forward of how a sense of collaboration can be instigated in an engagement process between the policy makers and SMEs, so that the scientific knowledge is translated in an appropriately rational way, which best meets the expectations of the SMEs. Findings – The paper proposes a conceptual model for engaging SMEs that will potentially increase the uptake of flood adaptation measures by SMEs. This could be a useful model with which to kick start a collaborative engagement process that could escalate to wider participation in other areas to improve impact of policy initiatives. Originality/value – The paper lays the conceptual foundation for a new theoretical base in the area, which will encourage more empirical investigations that will potentially enhance the practicality of some of the existing policies.
Purpose – The coheating test is the standard method of measuring the heat loss coefficient of a building, but to be useful the test requires careful and thoughtful execution. Testing should take place in the context of additional investigations in order to achieve a good understanding of the building and a qualitative and (if possible) quantitative understanding of the reasons for any performance shortfall. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Leeds Metropolitan University has more than 20 years of experience in coheating testing. This experience is drawn upon to discuss practical factors which can affect the outcome, together with supporting tests and investigations which are often necessary in order to fully understand the results. Findings – If testing is approached using coheating as part of a suite of investigations, a much deeper understanding of the test building results. In some cases it is possible to identify and quantify the contributions of different factors which result in an overall performance shortfall. Practical implications – Although it is not practicable to use a fully investigative approach for large scale routine quality assurance, it is extremely useful for purposes such as validating other testing procedures, in-depth study of prototypes or detailed investigations where problems are known to exist. Social implications – Successful building performance testing is a vital tool to achieve energy saving targets. Originality/value – The approach discussed clarifies some of the technical pitfalls which may be encountered in the execution of coheating tests and points to ways in which the maximum value can be extracted from the test period, leading to a meaningful analysis of the building's overall thermal performance.
Purpose – The purpose of this research project is to identify the legal and security issues, risks and barriers to the uptake of communication and document management technologies by the construction industry. Previous research suggests that the construction industry, especially in Australia, has been reluctant to adopt technology on a broad scale due to a range of legal uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to explain the relevant legal issues and risks and to suggest possible solutions for legally compliant electronic project administration in the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is based on research undertaken for the Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Construction Innovation (CRCCI) Research Project 2005‐025‐A, “Electronic Contract Administration – Legal and Security Issues”. The outcomes from the research to date include a literature review and several case studies. The research project will ultimately produce a set of recommendations for secure and legally compliant electronic project administration. Findings – It is apparent that, if the uncertainties associated with electronic project administration remain unresolved, then the practical consequences for parties using electronic project administration tools may be serious. On a more general level, these uncertainties will contribute to a reduced willingness by the construction industry to take advantage of modern communication technologies. Originality/value – This research contributes to the need for greater clarity and knowledge of the legal issues and risks of electronic project administration in the construction industry.
Highlights some of the difficulties associated with the process of acquiring essential building surveying skills, and proposes the use of computer technology together with video-disc technology, to improve and test knowledge acquisition. Outlines the current situation in surveying education, discussing class size, lecturer shortages, monitoring progress and the right teaching environment. Reviews communication media in the form of printed literature, videos, films and slides, concentrating on media interactivity, storage and quality. Explores computer-aided learning and the state of education using these methods. Suggests that this form of education can provide the vehicle to test and improve the technical knowledge, competence and skill of a building surveyor.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the main requirements of the Building Regulations Part L1A (2006) for new dwellings. An explanation of the technical basis for energy rating is given including how they are calculated, how fuel costs are used, the role of the standard occupancy pattern, and an appreciation of the Building Research Establishment Domestic Energy Model (BREDEM). The aims and requirements of the European Directive on the Energy performance of Buildings and its implementation for new and existing domestic buildings is also considered, together with the new home‐buying process due in 2007. Design/methodology/approach – The requirements of Part L1A of the Building Regulations are developed. These relate to the thermal properties of the building fabric including insulation, thermal bridging, air tightness and glazing, the efficiency and responsiveness of heating and hot water systems, ventilation and lighting. The procedures for demonstrating compliance of a design for a new dwelling are demonstrated using the new NHER Plan Assessor software. The methodology for calculating thermal transmittance coefficients (U‐values) is also demonstrated with the aid of an example. Findings – The changes in the Building Regulations will make new dwellings 20 per cent more efficient than current practice. The approach is now performance‐based where the carbon dioxide emissions are considered for the whole building and there is some design flexibility. The U‐value calculation is more accurate and allows for thermal bridging. The example demonstrated that in some cases the difference in U‐values calculated can be small but where the bridging effect is large this would not be the case. Pressure testing will be virtually mandatory and will have the effect of improving the air tightness of dwellings. Originality/value – This paper identifies the main changes in Part L1A and the implications for designers and other professionals who will be involved with compliance issues. Guidance is also given on how compliance might be achieved.
Introduction How old is concrete? 150 years, 2,000 years or 9,000 years? Since the invention of Portland cement by Aspdin in the early 19th century, concrete has become the most widely used construction material in the world. Yet, concrete durability can pose severe constraints on the concrete engineer and designer. In the search for materials which are more cost-effective or more efficient, cement replacement materials such as natural pozzolans, calcined clays, shale and soils, slags, rice husk ash or pulverised fuel ash are attracting much interest. Are these cheap replacement materials not compromising on quality and long-term durability? A first optimistic answer is given in this paper which will be especially useful for practising civil and structural engineers, materials technologists, engineers and designers.
Although cathedrals represent arguably the greatest contribution to our architectural heritage there is no legislation which controls measures to protect them from fire. Since the major fire at York Minster in 1984 the many cathedral authorities have undertaken varying amounts of work to prevent a similar tragedy, but there remain unprotected cathedrals and no consensus on further progress. Addresses the complex nature of cathedral buildings in fire safety terms along with the conflict inherent in introducing modern protective measures in structures of enormous historic and aesthetic quality. Examines data held by the leading insurer of cathedrals in England and Wales, the Ecclesiastical Insurance Group, and sets it alongside the authors' own research to reveal a picture of great variation in methods and measures of fire protection, and a sense of the changes which are underway or can be expected in coming years. At a time when grant aid for English cathedrals has become available and may soon be extended to cover fire safety measures, provides timely information on financial issues, technical difficulties and fire management policies which lie at the centre of debate, and considers some of the issues which must be addressed.
This paper considers the legal status of a surveyor appointed under section 10 of the Party Wall etc. Act 1996. By reference to that Act as well as to the Arbitration Act 1996, the European Convention and to rules of natural justice it argues that the section 10 procedure is a statutory arbitration. It therefore argues that the appointed surveyor is an arbitrator who must be independent, act impartially, and be immune from suit. It also suggests that surveyors’ awards can be adopted as judgments by the courts and that they can only be appealed against provided the strict appeals criteria of the Arbitration Act are met.
Purpose The paper seeks to examine the debate on mediator style and provide empirical evidence on mediator orientation, which has implications for party choice and the development of professional standards for construction mediators in the UK. Design/methodology/approach This paper analyses the theoretical arguments and distinctions in mediator style and assesses the available evidence relating to the utilisation of evaluative or facilitative mediator approaches in the UK and US construction industry. The paper reports on data from qualitative interviews with construction lawyers experienced in using mediation in the UK to assess the level of evaluative conduct experienced. Findings The findings suggest that interviewees had experienced a mix of evaluative and facilitative interventions by mediators. The data support the contention that construction mediation in the UK mirrors the experience of the USA and is becoming “lawyer‐driven” and adversarial, with mediators utilising evaluative techniques which some members of the legal profession prefer. Research limitations/implications The qualitative data are based on a small sample of mediation users in the UK construction industry. However, interviewees were selected from respondents to a randomly conducted large‐scale postal survey of commercial and construction lawyers. All interviewees were repeat users of the process and all but one had received training in mediation or are practising lawyer‐mediators. Practical implications The data provide evidence of different mediator techniques currently utilised in the UK construction industry and the practices of lawyers in the mediation process. The findings have implications for party choice and should inform the development of professional standards in construction mediation practice. Originality/value The paper provides original data on the practices of mediators and lawyers in construction mediation.
Purpose – Construction waste originates from various sources, generally from the inception of construction through to the completion of a building project. Previous research has shown that there is a link between the quantity of waste generated and the way labour is organized in the construction industry. However, these studies have failed to look into the sources of waste with respect to labour utilization and how it influences the generation of waste. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of labour arrangements on construction waste generation, particularly the sources of waste and the attitudes of workers. Design/methodology/approach – Using a combination of direct observations and source evaluations on six case study sites, the waste in direct and subcontracted labour (SL) arrangements was quantified. A questionnaire survey was administered to the workers participating in the observation study to elicit their attitudes to waste and closely linked issues. Findings – The results show that SL produced more waste than direct labour in all three work processes considered. A lack of organizational commitment and effective strategy emerged as the main problem in waste reduction. Practical implications – Subcontractors should be made responsible for their share of waste generated in a project. Main contractors should record who are “approved subcontractors” based on their performance at site which should include inter alia waste generation. The approved subcontractor method is a way of barring subcontractors from being included on future projects if they do not meet the performance standards of a main contractor. Originality/value – This study shows that waste generation has a relationship to organizational commitment and strategy rather than to workers’ attitudes. In order to manage construction waste effectively, it has to be considered in the financial equation of a project, because attitudinal changes are difficult to achieve unless there is a personal financial benefit attached to it.
Details research undertaken at Portsmouth Polytechnic where a theodolite intersection system was used to monitor deflections of a reinforced concrete dam at the Mary Rose site in Portsmouth. Provides a background description of the Mary Rose site, and the developments at Portsmouth Polytechnic which facilitated this work. Outlines the results of the analysis, and suggests that the technique will eventually replace some of the conventional methods currently in use.
Debonding, leading to the subsequent detachment of applied finishes to concrete buildings, is becoming a serious problem in many parts of the world. Checking building elevations by employing the technique of Infra-red Thermography using a process developed by the writer can give advance warning of potential defects. This can enable early remedial action to be undertaken to repair a building surface before it becomes detached from the concrete substrate, possibly resulting in a hazard to passers-by. The thermographic test method has been compared with other more traditionally used NDT methods including sounding, rebound hammer, and ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements. Although the thermographic equipment is initially more expensive, the surveying method can be shown to be faster and more accurate than any other technique currently available for this type of building evaluation.
Checklist (front)
photographs (Plate 1).
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss a method for assessing the condition of buildings. The method was developed in Portugal as part of a new Urban Tenancy Regime approved in 2006. Design/methodology/approach The method was developed in six phases, namely: definition of objectives; analysis of existing instruments; formulation of the proposal; discussions with organisations in the rented sector; pilot; and technical presentations of the final version. Findings The method is viable and adequate, since a balance was achieved between the accuracy of the results in view of their importance for the contractual relationship between landlord and tenant, and feasibility in terms of human and financial resources available for its implementation. Research limitations/implications The method has been in use for two years. Further research is needed to confirm the accuracy of the results. Practical implications The results are used to determine the maximum annual rent value and to summon landlords to carry out repairs if the state of the building falls short of the required standard of maintenance. In a broader perspective the method is also used to assess of rented stock condition of large property owners and, in an adapted form, to assess buildings viability and determine repair needs. Originality/value This paper is relevant because it describes the assessment method; the previous methods for assessing the condition of Portuguese buildings were too simplistic and lacked the accuracy, transparency and independence required.
Risk-priority matrix
Purpose This paper aims to provide insight into the use of a standard for condition assessment. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a literature review, an analysis of the development, content and practical use of the Dutch Standard for Condition Assessment of Buildings, and the findings of several research projects about condition assessment and maintenance planning by Dutch housing associations. Findings By using the standard for condition assessment, building inspectors can provide property managers with objective data about the condition status of building components. Aggregated condition data could be used for setting condition targets for built assets and for benchmarking. It is anticipated that as a result of the standardisation, condition surveys will become more reliable and as a consequence more popular among large‐scale property owners. Research limitations/implications The standard has been introduced recently. At present there is little experience of the use of (aggregated) condition data for maintenance planning and benchmarking built assets. Practical implications The standard is a tool to assess the technical status of the properties to underpin the long‐term maintenance expectations. Condition assessment is not meant for preparing the annual maintenance budget and planning of the work. Supplementary information is needed in the phase of preparing for the execution of remedial work. Originality/value This paper provides practical tools for condition assessment and maintenance planning.
Describes a computerized system of building appraisal - building quality assessment (BQA) - which has been evaluated by the Building Research Establishment. BQA is a tool for scoring the performance of a building, relating actual performance to identified requirements for user groups in that type of building. It can be used as an aid for portfolio or asset management, rent reviews, investment appraisals, purchasing or selling properties, defining quality at briefing stage for new build and refurbishment, and judging alternative design proposals. Gives examples of the category classification of user requirements; the sections into which those categories divide and also the factors that comprise each section, thereby providing a common basis for measurement by different people, in different places at any time.
RC structure and position of cracks created
General forms of nonlinear structural damping curve obtained from RC structure
Purpose – Condition assessment on reinforced concrete (RC) structures is one of the critical issues as a result of structure degradation due to aging in many developed countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the sensitivity and reliability of the conventional dynamic response approaches, which are currently applied in the RC structures. The key indicators include: natural frequency and damping ratio. To deal with the non-linear characteristics of RC, the concept of random decrement is applied to analyze time domain data and a non-linear damping curve could be constructed to reflect the condition of RC structure. Design/methodology/approach – A full-scale RC structure was tested under ambient vibration and the impact from a rubber hammer. Time history data were collected to analyze dynamics parameters such as natural frequency and damping ratio. Findings – The research demonstrated that the measured natural frequency is not a good indicator for integrity assessment. Similarly, it was revealed that the traditional theory of viscous damping performed poorly for the RC with non-linear characteristics. To address this problem, a non-linear curve is constructed using random decrement and it can be used to retrieve the condition of the RC structure in a scientific manner. Originality/value – The time domain analysis using random decrement can be used to construct a non-linear damping curve. The results from this study revealed that the damage of structure can be reflected from the changes in the damping curves. The non-linear damping curve is a powerful tool for assessing the health condition of RC structures in terms of sensitivity and reliability.
Examines the principle and details of BS 5750 accreditation in the context of professional firms. Discusses the three parts of BS 5750: design manufacture and installation, manufacture and installation, and final inspection and test, as well as the assessment options, documentation, and implementation. Concludes that the cost of quality assurance is increasingly worthwhile in a competitive and litigious age.
Recent governments have highlighted the problems of unfitness and why individual homeowners should intervene to deal with the maintenance problems of their own homes. Current estimates of the cost of comprehensive renewal are said to run into billions of pounds. There is also a genuine concern that the number of unfit dwellings will continue to increase regardless of the steady pace of renewal programmes. Arguably this concern has greatly influenced the dynamics of primary maintenance attributes of property owners. The primary attributes are recognised to be a product of increased owner-maintenance awareness; enhanced owner-maintenance skills and knowledge; and the owner-maintenance management abilities. These attributes are interwoven, and therefore cannot be left out of current initiatives to improving the backlog of under-maintenance in the owner-occupier sector.
Considers the reasons for the invalidity of party wall awards. Examines decided cases under earlier party wall legislation in the context of the Party Wall etc. Act 1996. Explains invalidity on the basis of an excess of the surveyors’ statutory authority. Defines this authority in terms of jurisdiction and power. Demonstrates the limits of the surveyors’ authority and emphasises the importance of strict compliance with statutory procedures. Concludes that surveyors should adopt an inquisitive and analytical approach to the scope of their authority to avoid the possibility of invalid awards. Echoes John Anstey’s earlier warning that surveyors should avoid a broad-brush approach to their duties which will only leave them “covered in soot”.
The world abounds with numerous examples of fault-free brickwork which have endured for centuries with little maintenance. In this country, bricks are an indigenous product and the use of brickwork is well understood, being a basically simple and economic method of building without sophisticated techniques.
The realisation that any edifice is both a static and also a continuously dynamic entity, should lead to the acceptance of the need to apply the skills of a number of disciplines, although this basic concept is most certainly not generally realised or implemented.
Briefly outlines the nature of vibrations and some of the factors to be considered in their measurement and analysis. Acts as an introduction to the surveyor or engineer who does not normally deal with vibrations, but who is aware that he may experience problems with them.
Outlines the history of the town of Bath in respect of its Georgian architecture and discusses the reasons and methods behind 20th century conservation schemes. Discusses the importance of the town in the development of urban planning and describes construction, design and materials originally used. Concentrates on damage and neglect caused by the Victorians, the Second World War, traffic and the declining prosperity of the town. Describes the conservation schemes undertaken during the post-war period, in particular the Town and Country Planning Act of 1947, the Bath Terraces Scheme, the work of Colin Buchanan and the results of slum clearance and commercial redevelopment. Details the two phases of the city council's conservation study and briefly discusses the current situation in Bath, mentioning the high cost of maintaining history property and the recent factor of Georgian buildings being split into small units.
Reviews EC funded “Woodcare” project conference held in London in September 1998. The research project studied the behaviour of the death- watch beetle and investigated why treatments had failed to eradicate the insect. An integrated pest management approach is advocated.
Introduction In recent years it has been observed that the groundwater level in the deep aquifer beneath central London is rising. It is becoming clear that this could have serious engineering implications for a significant number of structures. Sponsored by the Department of the Environment (DoE) and other interested parties, the Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) has commissioned a study into the nature and extent of these potential consequences and the steps which may be necessary to avoid them. This paper is based on work carried out under contract for CIRIA as a part of this study.
Discusses the use of carbon fibre plates for strengthening concrete structures and research and development by Professor Urs Meier at The Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Testing and Research (EMPA), on which the Carbodur system is based. Plate bonding, using mild steel strips, is now a proven process but, like all technology, progress moves the boundaries forward. Its replacement with carbon fibre strips has now created a system which is simpler to use, quicker to install and highly cost-effective. A three-year project has also been established by the Department of Trade and Industry, under the structural Composites LINK collaborative research scheme, to examine strengthening of bridges using polymeric composite materials (ROBUST).
Introduction The Victorian engineers built literally miles of mass brickwork retaining walls. Such walls relied on their dead weight to resist the overturning forces and tensile stresses caused by the retained earth, or other material. But the walls were of relatively massive thickness, under-exploited brick-work's compressive strength, and were structurally restricted by brickwork's low tensile strength. The advent of the more cost-effective reinforced concrete walls saw their vitual eclipse. Reinforcing the brickwork could result in a come-back.
Notes some methods of restoring the soundness and good appearance of brickwork. Discusses damage caused by frost, water penetration and soluble salts. Outlines techniques of repointing historic brickwork and special joint finishes, and examines the causes of cracks and instability. Mentions methods of cleaning brickwork, and suggests that the work be undertaken by skilled specialist contractors.
Outlines the history and functions of BEMS – Building energy and management systems and is intended as a briefing note to those not directly involved with the application of building controls, but who work with those who are. It details the technical aspects of the system, and discusses both schemes for future development and the system's relevance to structural engineers.
Discusses the 1984 study review by the Department of the Environment of existing knowledge regarding landslipping in Great Britain. Reviews the background to the study and presents some of the general results. Concludes that knowledge of landslide distribution, character and significance remain surprisingly poor, that old (ancient) landslides are much more widely distributed in the landscape than previously thought, and that such old features present an important potential threat to buildings and structures because they can be reactivated if disturbed. Suggests that heightened perception of landslide hazard will lead to greater consideration of ground stability prior to developments, including increased use of various types of survey techniques that exist, and delimit areas of actual and potential instability.
Outlines the threat posed by landslides in Great Britain, and examines the ways in which potential problems can be identified and accommodated by developers and engineers in the light of changes in the Building Regulations for England and Wales which took effect on 1 June 1992. Explores the causes of landsliding, and suggests the appropriate investigations which should be instigated by the developer if suspecting instability. Discusses remedial measures and presents a study of landslide management with the example of Ventnor on the Isle of Wight. Mentions the Planning Policy Guidance issued by the Department of the Environment, which advises local authorities, landowners and developers on the role of planning controls as a landslide management tool.
Outlines the methods used to construct two basements at the new British Library, and the precautions taken to monitor and prevent ground movement and related damage to adjacent buildings and London Underground tunnels. Discusses the proposed construction sequence, the prediction of ground movements and the comprehensive survey and ground instrumentation programme installed. Explains the type, purpose and criteria for the instrumentation required and details their positioning in order to monitor possible damage, with particular reference to London Underground and St Pancras Station. Details the results of the survey over the nine-year construction period, in comparison with predictions, and the plans for continuation of surveys until work is complete.
Provides information about the Brooking Collection of architectural details which is open for public consultation at the Dartford Campus of the University of Greenwich. The Collection contains original examples of windows, doors, fanlights, staircases, firegrates, rainwater heads and timber mouldings. These features date from the sixteenth century to recent decades. Suggests that this study collection can benefit professionals such as building surveyors and architects by facilitating the understanding of often hidden construction details, assisting the dating of a building and supplying patterns for replacement features.
Purpose – The conservation management plan (CMP) for a heritage building establishes the nature of the work required to conserve, maintain and enhance the cultural heritage significance of the property. A missing element from many CMPs has been a realistic consideration of the cost of the work at this early stage. The paper aims to show how cost planning of works in a heritage building's conservation environment can be achieved. Design/methodology/approach – A background to the structure and preparation of CMPs from the literature in Australia and the UK is presented. Experience gained from the costing and budgeting in the CMP for several heritage projects in Australia and the process, are both described, summarised and discussed. Findings – The CMP provides a comprehensive working management guide for owners and other stakeholders to follow when carrying out works to the heritage property and includes components such as current condition, legal responsibilities and statutory obligations, sequencing and timing of proposed actions. The addition of significant financial information such as maintenance programmes, funding sources, long and short term costs, financial resources of owner, technical constraints, current owners needs and requirements and conflict resolution provides the possibility of making the CMP a more valuable document to the funding agencies and the building's users. Practical implications – Heritage clients and users increasingly need to know their likely financial commitment before work commences. This early stage cost advice (indicative costs) integrated into CMPs can establish realistic budgets for decision making. Originality/value – The addition of the cost of the works as proposed in a CMP can support client and community groups in making requests for funding from the various government and private agencies with an interest in, or responsibility for, the future care and use of these properties.
This paper sets out to detect and explore underlying causes of increasing uncertainty and lack of transparency in the home maintenance sector. The study gives an account of owner-occupiers' experience on the standards of work they encounter with small-scale domestic traders. Part I of the study focuses on the consensus ranking of 13 building maintenance standards or attributes that owner-occupiers expect from builders (Xbmas) whilst part II focuses on the contrast between expectations and the actual standards that owner-occupiers observe from builders (Obmas). The application of nonparametric statistical techniques enabled the study to discover a consensus on what defines expectations and how these differ from observed standards. The final inventory generated on standard attributes is an essential information for existing builders, new entrants in the domestic sector and can be used to inform housing regeneration professionals and agencies involved in the design and management of schemes for small-scale builders.
This building represents a major advance in the design of low energy buildings. It was designed to demonstrate techniques which can be used in future low energy and environmentally-friendly offices. The building is naturally ventilated and uses its thermal mass to moderate the high summertime temperatures. Water is abstracted from a borehole and used as a very energy-efficient source of additional cooling for the building. The offices have a high proportion of glazing to make maximum use of daylight, together with solar louvres to limit solar heat gain. Other features are a super efficient lighting system, sophisticated controls, photovoltaic panels and the extensive use of re-cycled materials.
Provides a glossary of some (around 150) English-French and French-English building and surveying terms. References the Technical help to Exporters service, and three specialist dictionaries dealing with architectural, real estate and building terms. Illustrates possible pitfalls of poor translation – 'hydraulic rams' being translated in one firm's technical literature as 'watery sheep.'
Discusses the changes made in recent years to Building Regulations, concentrating on the introduction of the new system of building control in 1985, current reviews of the technical requirements, developments in Europe leading up to 1992 and changes in design and construction of buildings. Details the Stage 2 Review Approved Documents published by the HMSO in respect of ventilation, hygiene, drainage, heat producing appliances and conservation of fuel and power. Describes the Building Research Establishment (BRE) publication giving guidance on how technical risks can be avoided, covering structure, fire, site preparation and resistance to moisture, sound, stairs/safety and provision for disabled people. Outlines possible future developments and changes which might affect the Regulations, including the impact of Europe on the system.
The words ‘Building Society’ are synonymous with safety, security and freedom from risk, operating with a smooth, simple and almost magical efficiency. The Building Society movement has careered through the 1960s and 1970s and enjoyed remarkable growth, success and a virtual monopoly of the housing finance scene. However, it is clear that the 1980s will provide a fundamental and real test to Building Societies in terms of consumer satisfaction and competition from other sources — with particular emphasis on the lending side of operations.
Discuss the new face of building control which has led to a new breed ot building control surveyor. Argues that the focus has become more centred on the customer in conjunction with the new management culture. This has also led to an improvement in quality and value for money.
Outlines the requirements and methods of assessment of sound insulation in dwellings, as ordered by Part E of the Building Regulations 1985. Explores the origins of the performance standard and comments on the performance achieved in practice. Summarizes present proposals to increase the scope of Part E by means of a case study of a remedial exercise to improve poor sound insulation in newly built flats.
The Department of the Environment Stage II proposals for revision of Building Regulations pursue the aim outlined in the Government White Paper ‘Lifting the Burden’; that the Regulations should be reduced to the minimum required to secure their essential function; in this case to set basic standards of cost-effective energy efficiency, coupled with a need for simplification and greater flexibility. The present paper briefly describes the Stage II proposals and their technical background developed by the Building Research Establishment.
Top-cited authors
Yusuf Arayici
  • Northumbria University
Abang Abdullah Abang Ali
  • Universiti Putra Malaysia
S. M. Sapuan
  • Universiti Putra Malaysia
David Daniels
  • The University of Manchester
Maurice Murphy
  • Virtual Lab is part of Virtual Building Engineering Ltd which is a spin out from the Technological University of Dublin