Fundamental movement competency is essential for participation in physical activity and for mitigating the risk of injury, which are both key elements of health throughout life. The squat movement pattern is arguably one of the most primal and critical fundamental movements necessary to improve sport performance, to reduce injury risk and to support lifelong physical activity. Based on current evidence, this first (1 of 2) report deconstructs the technical performance of the back squat as a foundation training exercise and presents a novel dynamic screening tool that incorporates identification techniques for functional deficits that limit squat performance and injury resilience. The follow-up report will outline targeted corrective methodology for each of the functional deficits presented in the assessment tool.
The incidence of cancer development has reached a plateau while cancer survival rates have been increasing. Therefore, more cancer survivors are living with the negative effects of cancer and cancer treatments. Exercise can play a significant role in combating the negative effects of cancer and cancer treatments and improving quality of life during and following clinical treatment for cancer. However, exercise interventions must be individualized to optimally meet the needs of cancer survivors. This article provides valuable information for certified personal trainers regarding the modification of exercise interventions to meet the specific needs of the ever increasing population of cancer survivors.
First, the biomechanical differences between the acceleration phase and the maximum velocity phase of sprinting are considered. Second, research on the various resisted sprinting techniques is examined, linking these techniques to the biomechanics of the acceleration phase. Some suggestions are made regarding the application of these findings to the training of athletes.
The article examines the effectiveness of actual movement velocity and intention to move explosively as determinants of velocity-specific responses to resistance training. The training of specificity is an essential consideration when developing resistance training programs. It is known that various resistance training programs elicit different neuromuscular adaptations. The concept of the intention to move explosively being more significant than the actual movement velocity became popular among sports professionals and scientists.
One of the more common deficits identified by rehabilitation specialists and strength and conditioning practitioners is weakness of the glutei muscles, particularly the gluteus medius (GM). Gluteal weakness can reduce athletic performance and precipitate a number of lower extremity injuries. In this article, we discuss the anatomy and function of the GM musculature, present a review of the current literature pertaining to GM conditioning, and recommend an exercise model based on current strengthening guidelines.
Eccentric strength is an important component of functional daily activity and athletic performance; therefore, assessing this capability is important. Typically, isokinetic dynamometers are used to assess eccentric force capability. However, because of the limitations associated with the contraction mode (i.e., constant velocity), limited information can be obtained concerning functional muscle performance from this form of assessment. Consequently, the isoinertial assessment of eccentric force may provide more useful information for strength and conditioning practitioners. This article reviews what little research there is in this area, discussing the methodologies and limitations of the assessments used to quantify eccentric force capability.
There is an emerging trend within the strength and conditioning profession to identify and correct the faulty movement patterns of athletes before any substantial strengthening of muscle is undertaken. Strength and conditioning professionals in some cases fail to recognize the relationship between static posture and dynamic movement ability. This review will inform the reader of the prognostic value of screening static posture before assessing an athlete's movement ability. The characteristics of optimal standing posture are reviewed with supporting biomechanical rationale. Sport-specific populations are reviewed, and the benefits and consequences of "sport-specific postures" are discussed.
An examination of the roles and responsibilities of coaches clearly
demonstrated that coaches are in leadership positions (3). The coach, as leader, is one “who is able to influence others and who possesses managerial authority” (10, p. 569). How might a coach use effective leadership to get the best performance from his or her athletes? And what, in fact, determines an effective leader?
3.Case, R.W. Leadership in sport: The situational leadership theory. J. Phys. Ed. Rec. Dance. 55(January):15–16. 1984.
10. Robbins, S., R. Bergman, and I. Stagg. Management. Sydney:
Prentice-Hall Australia, 1997.
This review examines the influence of concurrent strength and endurance training on performance and physiological variables, including maximal oxygen uptake, the lactate threshold, economy of motion, changes in fiber type, and muscle stiffness. Practical recommendations for the strength and conditioning practitioner based on this information are also presented.
summary Weightlifting exercises can be ef- fective for enhancing athletic per- formance. This article provides a biomechanical and physiological discussion as to why weightlifting exercises are useful to improve ath- letic performance and how they may be integrated into a training program.
Many sports involve contact that can result in significant injury to participants. In addition, by their very nature, the vast majority of sports have inherent injury risks that can result from the most fundamental of movements, e.g., running, sprinting, accelerating, stepping and changing direction, landing, throwing, etc. However, there is evidence within the literature that it may be possible to reduce the incidence of the most common injuries by the systematic targeting of vulnerable areas of the body. This article outlines a prehabilitation model developed as part of the strength and conditioning program in an English professional rugby union club.
The training and match demands in the competition phase in team sport can vary dramatically depending on the quality of opposition, the number of days between games, and match location. The simple model described in this article can be used to predict the match difficulty and guide the prescription of future training loads during the in-season training phase in team sports.
Most team sports spend a considerable amount of time devoted to the physical and skill development of players. Fundamental to this process is the involvement of the visual system, and yet rarely do we hear of this quality being catered for within the strength and conditioning program. This article outlines some of the concepts associated with visual training as applied in the sports conditioning program at Gloucester Rugby Football Club in England.
PROVIDING CYCLISTS WITH A reliable measure of exercise intensity presents unique challenges. Environmental factors such as wind speed, road grade and surface texture, and air density interactively influence the resistance encountered during cycling and thus alter the speed a cyclist can maintain while riding at any specific intensity. For example, a cyclist might be capable of averaging 40 km/h in a tailwind with very little effort, but might be unable to maintain 20 km/h when climbing a hill at maximal effort. Journal Article
Power training recommendations have typically involved Olympic Weightlifting and plyometric exercise prescriptions, paying scant attention to upper body maximal-power demands. This article attempts to redress this situation by focusing upon strategies and specific techniques that can be implemented to enhance the effectiveness of upper body maximal-power training.
Mechanical power contributes to success of movements ranging from activities of daily living to sport tasks. Researchers have attempted to determine the load that maximizes mechanical power. However, does training at this load maximize power adaptations?
Hamstring injuries can be devastating for athletes and sports teams. Recent advances in technology have greatly enhanced our understanding of how and why hamstring injuries occur. Based on this information, professional sports teams have implemented various training interventions in an attempt to reduce the rate of hamstring injuries with varying success. Reviewing the recent literature on hamstring injuries and the studies that have reported decreases in injury rates could give further insight into how hamstring injures can be prevented and thus is the focus of this article.
summary: A strength base is considered critical to speed development and, consequently, a great deal of effort is spent improving the force capability of muscle. Using a correlational approach is one method used to quantify the relationship between strength and speed. However, better insight may be found investigating longitudinal studies that have quantified both strength and speed changes. Such an approach was used in this review to determine the magnitude of strength development necessary for improved running speed. (C) 2007 National Strength and Conditioning Association
summary: The body of knowledge is the sum total of our human understanding of the world around us. Studies in the area of strength and conditioning make up one of the many fields of knowledge, and strength and conditioning professionals must understand how our understanding is created to successfully use it to optimize their professional practices, approaches, and exercise prescriptions.
THIS RESEARCH BRIEF COVERS CONCURRENT STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE TRAINING IN ELITE SOCCER PLAYERS, THE EFFECT OF HYPERTROPHY TRAINING PROTOCOLS WITH MAXIMAL LOADING ON NEURAL DRIVE, THE EFFECT OF CLUSTER SETS ON POWER IN JUMP SQUATS, AND THE EFFECT OF AGE ON REPEATED-SPRINT ABILITY IN YOUTH SOCCER PLAYERS.
To meet national accreditation standards set by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies, the National Strength and Conditioning Assocation (NSCA) Certification Commission publishes statistics regarding the number of exam registrations, testing sites, exam question reliability, and pass/fail rates for the Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist and the NSCA-Certified Personal Trainer examinations.
Epidemiological studies over the past decade indicate high injury prevalence in preprofessional ballet (76%) and professional contemporary and ballet dancers (60–69%). Injuries can have detrimental effects both for the dancers and the dance company. Most injuries are in the lower limb and re- ported as the gradual onset of overuse. Professional dance companies have reduced injury incidence and severity through the implementation of com- prehensive injury audit programs and proactive exercise prescription. Injury prevention research in dance is scarce, and there has been no intervention targeting dance injuries. This article describes the development of 11+ Dance, an injury prevention training program designed for dancers, based on current evidence and best practice on injury prevention in sports. It is a 25–30-minute neuromuscular- based training program focused on strength, balance, and jumping/landing technique, with special attention to ankle, knee, and hip alignment. The high prevalence of injuries reported in the different styles of dance suggests that implementation of an injury prevention program is both the plausible and ethical action to take for all levels of performance.
IN AUGUST 2012, A NEW NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION LIMIT ON THE NUMBER OF STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING (SC) COACHES WHO MAY WORK WITH FOOTBALL BOWL SUBDIVISION TEAMS WENT INTO EFFECT. THIS RULE AFFECTED SOME OF THE LARGER PROGRAMS AND SEEMS TO HAVE NOT ALTERED ALREADY UNDERSTAFFED PROGRAMS. THIS NEW RULE DOES RAISE SOME QUESTIONS REGARDING ATHLETE SUPERVISION AND SAFETY AND NEW SC COACH DEVELOPMENT. SIXTEEN SC COACHES PROVIDED THEIR OPINIONS. A DESCRIPTION OF THE SHORT-TERM AND POTENTIAL LONG-TERM IMPACTS OF THIS RULE IS DISCUSSED.
The effects of COVID-19 restrictions were ubiquitous, including decreased physical activity globally. A recent study showed significant consequences on American student-athletes, who were forced to stay at home between March and June 2020. Inadequacy of equipment and programming hampered the resulting improvised training. Resistance exercise was the second most common mode used after cardiovascular exercise, and the primary equipment utilized was dumbbells and resistance bands. More women than men did not resistance train. More women believed they were eating less and healthier. Sleep length and disturbances increased; the latter more in women. Mental health concerns and decreased motivation to train became more frequent, especially within Division III more than Division I. The most-reported overall concerns were maintenance of fitness, sport-specific training, and health, possibly implicating the equipment/programming barriers as contributors to negative psychological effects. Providers of S&C, mental health, and other support services should plan for athletes' home situations toward any future extended lockdown.
THE ABDOMINAL CRUNCH IS A WELL-KNOWN EXERCISE PERFORMED BY GENERAL AND ATHLETIC POPULATIONS FOR THE PURPORTED BENEFITS OF IMPROVING FITNESS ATTRIBUTES, SPORT PERFORMANCE, AND CORE MUSCLE FUNCTION. DESPITE THE BENEFITS, PARTICIPATION MAY INCREASE ONE'S RISK FOR LOW BACK PAIN. WHILE A CLEAR VERDICT ON THE RISK-TO-BENEFIT RATIO REMAINS ELUSIVE, A DISCUSSION OF THE AVAILABLE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE (OR LACK THEREOF) SHOULD GIVE PRACTITIONERS THE ABILITY TO DETERMINE THE UTILITY OF THIS EXERCISE FOR THEIR CIRCUMSTANCE. WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU. VISIT NSCA-SCJ.COM TO WEIGH IN ON THE POINT/COUNTERPOINT QUICK POLL.