„12th International Session for Educators of Higher Institutes of Physical Education” w tym roku odbyła się pod hasłem „Governance in Sport and the Olympic Movement” („Zarządzanie w sporcie i ruchu olimpijskim”) i rozpoczęła się w dniu 25 maja powitaniem w Atenach. Następnego dnia uczestnicy sesji udali się do siedziby Międzynarodowej Akademii Olimpijskiej w Antycznej Olimpii. W godzinach popołudniowych miało miejsce uroczyste otwarcie w auli im. D. Vikelasa, na którym odsłuchano również hymn olimpijski. Uczestników sesji powitali prof. Konstantinos Georgiadis – Dziekan Międzynarodowej Akademii Olimpijskiej, i Michael Fysentzidis – obecny Prezydent Międzynarodowej Akademii Olimpijskiej oraz Członek Greckiego Komitetu Olimpijskiego. Pierwszy wykład wygłosił natomiast sir Craig Reedie, Prezydent Światowej Agencji Antydopingowej (World Anti-Doping Agency – WADA), na temat Zero tolerance on doping in Sport: What we have learned from the fight against doping. Wieczorem tego samego dnia zgromadzeni złożyli kwiaty na steli nagrobnej P. de Coubertina, a także oddano hołd takim postaciom, jak J. Ketseas i C. Diem (pionierzy Międzynarodowej Akademii Olimpijskiej). Sobota 27 maja rozpoczęła się od zwiedzania materialnego dziedzictwa kulturowego Antycznej Olimpii. Uczestnicy sesji odwiedzili m.in. stanowisko ar
* dr, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. E. Piaseckiego w Poznaniu, Wydział Turystyki i Rekreacji, Katedra Humanistycznych Podstaw Turystyki i Rekreacji; e-mail: malchrowicz@ awf.poznan.pl ** dr, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. E. Piaseckiego w Poznaniu, Wydział Turystyki i Rekreacji, Katedra Humanistycznych Podstaw Turystyki i Rekreacji; e-mail: jpoczta@awf. poznan.pl
180 Ewa MALCHROWICZ-MOŚKO, Joanna POCZTA
cheologiczne – teren pierwszych igrzysk olimpijskich. W godzinach popołudniowych miały miejsce wykłady – dr Uri Schaefer zaprezentował temat Higher education institutions using and leveraging the Olympic Games as a tool for building their research and teaching capacity, a Elizabeth Sluyter-Mathew oraz Elaine Cook przedstawiły założenia programu edukacyjnego IO OVEP. Wieczorem odbyły się dyskusje w grupach. Do najciekawszych wykładów kolejnych dni można zaliczyć m.in.: Governance of Olympic Legacy autorstwa prof. Vassila Girginova (Brunel University), specjalisty w zakresie dziedzictwa olimpijskiego Londynu 2012, Governance in Sport and the Olympic Movement: The future of mega-sport events, autorstwa prof. Marijke Taks (University of Ottawa), The Rio 2016 Olympic Games: The management of the Games and the social impact on the Media of Brazil, którego autorem był Roberto Maluf de Mesquita (Uniwersytet La Salle w Brazylii), The role of the Olympic Movement in the refugee crisis. An exercise program for refugees, autorstwa prof. Yannisa Theodorakisa (Uniwersytet w Salonikach). Popołudniami miały miejsce również prezentacje i wystąpienia uczestników sesji, w której wzięło udział blisko 80 reprezentantów ze wszystkich kontynentów – m.in.: Australii, Japonii, Indii, Argentyny, Kanady, Aruby. Zaprezentowano bardzo interesujące oraz różnorodne tematy z zakresu zarządzania sportem, wychowaniem fizycznym, edukacją olimpijską oraz igrzyskami olimpijskimi. Po uroczystymi zamknięciu sesji naukowcy otrzymali dyplomy oraz zaprezentowali konkluzje dyskusji, które miały miejsce w grupach, a następnie udali się do Aten, gdzie mieli możliwość zwiedzania Akropolu. Uczestnictwo w tegorocznej majowej debacie w Olimpii było niepowtarzalną okazją do konfrontacji własnych poglądów na tematy sportowe i olimpijskie z badaczami z całego świata, a także stworzyło wyśmienitą okazję do pracy badawczej – m.in. w bogato wyposażonej bibliotece olimpijskiej.
Według teologów średniowiecznych w dualistycznym postrzeganiu człowieka najważniejszy był rozwój duszy. Wśród elit intelektualnych byli jednak przedstawiciele uniwersyteckiej medycyny, którzy przyjrzeli się potrzebom deprecjonowanego ciała. Ich myśli zapłodnione zostały przez arabskich lekarzy, przywoływanych jako auctoritas. Tomasz z Wrocławia (1297–1378), lekarz, autor traktatu Regimen sanitatis, przekonywał, że dieta to nie tylko jadło i napój, ale także ruch, co dziś rozumieć należy jako styl życia. Ruch określił jako exercitium, czyli ćwiczenie, które jest korzystne dla ludzi zdrowych. Chorzy zaś powinni stosować ćwiczenia uszczuplone, co należy pojmować jako ćwiczenia dostosowane do indywidualnych potrzeb. To nowoczesna, jak na tamte czasy, myśl, stanowiąca dziś podstawy rehabilitacji medycznej. W skład primum exercitium wchodzi także nacieranie ciała, by otwierały się pory, oraz czesanie głowy. Peeling i masaż, tak współcześnie nazwalibyśmy te zabiegi. Ich zalecanie w średniowieczu świadczy o świadomości autora znaczenia skóry w ogólnej kondycji człowieka. Według Tomasza konieczne są także umiarkowane zabawy ruchowe – spacer lub przejażdżka konna, co autor określił mianem exercitium secundum. Przekaz Tomasza z Wrocławia to kolejny dowód złożoności epoki, gdyż zaświadcza, że i wtedy, mimo współczesnych sądów o degradacji kultury fizycznej w tych czasach, zalecano dbałość
o zachowanie sprawności cielesnej.
The study aims to develop mobile exercises through games to strengthen students’ creative thinking. To achieve the goal of learning a sports and health subject, teachers may use optional teaching methods. It is carried out using an experimental research and development project called The Postest-Only Control Group Design. When analyzing the quality of the learning process, a quantitative descriptive analysis technique based on Formative Class Evaluation (FCE) questionnaires are used. The implementation rate for all indicators was found to be 89%. The small group shows a probability index of less than 0.05% or 0.000 and an FCE index of 89.35%. The large group reveals 0.000 and the FCE category is 85.26%. It is necessary to research developing the activity of learning the movements performed by games to strengthen creative thinking, another influence on the creative thinking of students from both the product test group and the control group is the transfer of exercises through games. Based on FCE, it shows that learning quality is important for employment, and according to experts, the entire product design is also important to apply.
We just have the 575th anniversary of the memorable battle between a coalition of Christian armies and the army of the Ottoman Empire. Christians’ defeat had significant consequences not only for Bulgaria, but also for Byzantium and whole Europe. The aim of the presented work is a systematization of knowledge about artefacts paying homage to the Polish-Hungarian King Ladislaus III of Varna, who fell there, and thousands of knights of both sides of the fight. There has been applied participant observation of places commemorating those events, there were conducted interviews with persons preserving their memory, there were analyzed many academic dissertations, popular scientific works and other informative materials dedicated to that topic, there were gathered data about authors of works dedicated to that Battle of nations, aiming at creation of a relatively complete description of a marketing product for needs of cultural tourism. Since many artefacts commemorating the battle do not exist anymore or exist in undocumented legends, they were separated from description of those ones which exist and can be presented to tourists interested in them. Thus, the text describes in the chronological order Turkish memorabilia, Hungarian and Polish artifacts and their authors.
The aim of this article is to introduce assumptions in the scope of physical education, health education and care carried out in the Volhynian Gymnasium in Krzemieniec. The school that was established on the initiative of Tadeusz Czacki functioned over the period 1805–1833. It was the representative institution, in which education of young people was provided according to the newest for that age education models. In the curriculum there were proposals of the National Education Commission, part of which concerned issues connected with physical and health education. In the Volhynian Gymnasium physical education gained particular recognition and became equally important as other taught subjects. Pupils had to take part in physical activities, which included running, sword playing and swimming. Furthermore, additional activities like horse riding, fencing and dancing were organized. In school curriculum there was a hygiene course, and pupils were provided with the extensive medical care, starting education in this subject through providing medical attention in the school and at home.
Łyżwiarstwo w drugiej połowie XIX w. było jedyną zimową dyscypliną sportową uprawianą przez większość warstw społeczeństwa Galicji Zachodniej. Dużym zainteresowaniem cieszyły się ślizgawki w największym mieście badanego obszaru – Krakowie, a nieco później także w Tarnowie, Rzeszowie, Nowym Sączu czy Wadowicach. W 1881 r. w Krakowie zorganizowano pierwsze zawody łyżwiarskie. Jednak do 1890 r. łyżwiarstwo było głównie zimową rozrywką, uprawianą jako atrakcyjna zabawa towarzyska. Od 1890 r. Rada Szkolna Krajowa zobowiązała placówki szkolne do wprowadzenia do programu szkolnego kilku dyscyplin sportowych, m.in. łyżwiarstwa. Od tego czasu łyżwiarstwo uprawiano na skalę masową. Dodatkowo ruch na świeżym powietrzu wspierały nowo powstałe gniazda sokole, które kształciły nauczycieli gimnastyki oraz zakładały własne oddziały łyżwiarskie. Po 1900 r. sport łyżwiarski uprawiany był właściwie w każdym mieście Galicji Zachodniej, chociaż popularnością zaczął ustępować innym dyscyplinom zimowym – saneczkarstwu i narciarstwu. Bez wątpienia Kraków w latach 1867–1914 należy uznać za centrum sportu łyżwiarskiego w Galicji Zachodniej.
This paper presents some aspects of COVID-19 impact on cultural tourism and on the museum sector. Museums are closely linked to cultural and heritage tourism, considered a significant attraction.The tourism sector is among the most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and cultural tourism is not an exception. In 2020 around 95% museums around the world were closed – according to government sanitary regulations. The aim of the research was to identify the impact of COVID-19 disease on cultural tourism (measured by a number of visitors in the most popular museums in 2019 and 2020) and museums’ adaptation to the sanitary restrictions during the pandemic time. For a few decades museums have tried to enhance their digital activities such as online educational programmes, online collection display, online exhibitions, live events, learning programs, brochures, podcasts, social media and virtual tours. These activities and various projects became especially important during the lockdown caused by the pandemic outbreak, as many museums continued their missions during the pandemic. Some museums have reopened (with strict limitations defined by sanitary restrictions), but many institutions remain closed. It shows how crucial IT innovations are. The paper concludes with some reflections on museums’ offer during the pandemic time and cultural tourism prospects in the post-pandemic time.
This paper aims to consider a sector of cultural tourism: gastronomy tourism (also known as food tourism, culinary tourism) in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. This is a conceptual paper, based mainly on the critical review of academic literature and UN WTO, UN WHO and UNESCO documents. By synthesising available data and research results, this paper provides an assessment of the present situation of gastronomy tourism, and tries to formulate some trends possible to be developed in the future, once the pandemic is over (as a potential role of culinary tourism in the revival of the whole sector). The research questions focused on the meaning and tradition of gastronomy tourism, consequences of the COVID-19 crisis and post-pandemic regeneration of the sector. The paper concludes that trends seen in gastronomy tourism sector before lockdown are no longer applicable during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. The new technologies helped to overcome some of the challenges which this industry currently faces. Several potential trends might be developed after the pandemic crisis, serving as local food and local culinary tradition promotion. Suggestions are provided for further research as discussion about more resilient, sustainable and inclusive gastronomy tourism in the future as well as recovery practices within the domestic hospitality are important.
When the COVID-19 epidemic spread around the world, researchers did many studies about sports and COVID-19, but there was not much quantitative research. Therefore the purpose of this study was the effect of the COVID-19 epidemic on the sports performance of Asian football clubs with quintile regression. This study used panel data for fifteen Asian football clubs from April to December 2020. The research used the points of Asia football clubs to estimate their sports performance. Also, this study collected cases and deaths caused by the COVID-19 epidemic as the other two variables. According to the results, because coefficient estimates (degree of dependence) for each quantile are equal (for both effects CA on SP and effect DE on SP), the dependence structure is said to be constant. Therefore, a positive estimate and equivalent in all quantile for the impact of cases of COVID-19 virus (CA) on Sports Performance (SP) show that cases of COVID-19 virus (CA) have a constant positive effect on sports performance (SP). A negative estimate and equivalent in all quantile for the impact of death of COVID-19 virus (DE) on Sports Performance (SP) show that death of COVID-19 virus (DE) has a constant negative effect on Sports Performance (SP).
On a global scale, the travel and tourism sector is the part of the economy that has been notably severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This article presents the state of the tourism sector in Poland on the eve and in the first year of this pandemic. First, key definitions were briefly discussed as a foundation for tourism policy. The defined terms include the following: tourism, visitor, hiker, tourist, international (incoming) and domestic tourism, tourism sector, invisible export industry, tourist accommodation facility, tourist attraction. Then, data on international and domestic tourism in Poland just before the COVID-19 pandemic was presented, including the number of tourists served by the Polish tourism sector. The tourist attractiveness of Poland, the base of accommodation facilities, the share of tourism in Poland’s GDP and national employment were discussed. Poland’s flagship tourist attractions in 2019 were presented, among which the most important are cultural heritage attractions, sacred places and natural heritage. The issue of the COVID-19 pandemic was presented and on its background scenarios developed by the UNCTAD for the tourism sector related to travel restrictions introduced in response to the pandemic. Declines in tourism indicators between 2019 and 2020 were presented. Next, the strategy of the middle was characterized as a method used in the anti-crisis policy in the tourism sector, and the middle scenario that emerged in the Polish tourism sector in the first pandemic year is indicated.
In Europe, for more than three millennia, the development of individual disciplines has been accompanied by the evolution of sports facilities. It covers the period from the Ancient Olympic Games to modern sports architecture. The sports architecture heritage, as a magnet for cultural tourism, is evident. Millions of tourists visiting the famous sites are the proof how important these places are for our identity and tradition of European civilization. The most important historic sports facilities are inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List: ancient Greek and Roman amphithe-atres, thermal baths, antique arenas. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has hit the tourism sector hard. It is essential to reformulate present rules of the historic sports facilities visits and to consider the future directions of cultural tourism re-development at the UNESCO Heritage Sites. Recently there has been a revival of interests in sports heritage and many tourists want to explore famous landmarks of the past. Despite the pandemic time restrictions, it is also possible at present. However, new actions and policies are required to meet sanitary requirements and recommenda-tions, and rebuild consumer confidence.
The tourism industry is especially sensitive to a pandemic and other unexpected circumstances as natural disasters, war, terrorist attacks. Different types of crisis bring various consequences. In 2020 the outbreak of the COVID-19 disease and travel restrictions caused bruises to the tourism and hospitality industries. Hotel managers, hotel staff and their guests had to take a series of measures to deal with various challenges and face a new situation. This paper aims to critically examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism and hotel industries and discuss some possible survival strategies to be implemented in the hotel sector during the pandemic crisis (in the short and long-term perspective). The research was based on an overview of the relevant literature and sanitary rules developed by UN WHO, local governments and the hotel industry. The authors critically investigated some available statistic data to compare room occupancy before the pandemic and during the COVID-19 crisis and hospitality services offered to hotel guests before the pandemic and after its outbreak. The main findings are presented from several dimensions: hotel and health crisis, sanitary restrictions and possible recovery recommendations.
This paper is aimed to describe the association between tourism and transport, seen in the perspective of the COVID-19 pandemic. The dual role of transport and tourism in the pandemic crisis is very special: it spreads the virus around the world and at the same time is mostly impacted by the pandemic negative consequences. The research was based mainly on the critical review and analysis of the secondary data (SDA method), such available resources as literature, statistic data and reports, actions taken by governments, international institutions and law regulations (published in 2020-2021). This approach allowed deep insight and overview of the most important issues of transport that have influenced tourism in the pandemic crisis. The final result of the study showed that for destinations highly dependent upon tourism-related revenue, the lockdown and transport suspension became a great concern and resulted in economy crisis. We acknowledge that due to the objective limitations, this paper cannot provide a comprehensive insight in tourism, transport and crisis issues. However, as this topic is a rarely discussed theme in academic texts, we hope that this paper could be found useful as it explores approaches to tourism from this new perspective. The paper ends with some reflections on sustainable development of the transport sector in the post-pandemic time, when tourism is expected to recover.
The article looks into motor racing and the activities of the Czech and Czechoslovak Autoclub since its establishment in 1904 until 1928. The activity of the Autoklub is analyzed mainly in connection with the establishment and activities of the social elites in interwar Czechoslovakia. Thanks to its representatives’ contacts with leading politicians and industrialists in the country, the Autoklub of the Czechoslovak Republic was a very influential organization. In its activities, it benefited from economic stabilization and the subsequent economic boom in the first decade of the existence of interwar Czechoslovakia
Creation of the Czecho-Slovak Republic after the WWI, in 1918, was a milestone also in the development of physical education and sport in Slovakia. New Czecho-Slovak government tried, within the new constitutional conditions, to enforce the Czechoslovak character of the state and to withhold the Hungarian influence in individual towns. Following its multi-national, multi-cultural and multi-confessional history, Slovakia had to get over long-time Hungarian wrongdoing and Hungarization also in the area of sport. Before 1918, the Hungarian and partially also German sport clubs prevailed and any efforts to establish Slovak sport clubs were more platonic than realistic. However, the conditions and circumstances changed and were adapted to the new state layout after 1918.Because of the tense military-political situation at the Czech borders and in Slovakia during 1918–1920, arrival of the Czech and also German sport organizations was postponed until 1921. The Sokol (Falcon) organization started to organize its advertising tours in Slovakia in 1921. Sim-ilarly, the German organizations DTV came to Bratislava in 1921 and to Spiš in 1922. In 1920, the Sokol organization had 93 units with 18 494 members, the RTJ organization had 31 units with 4139 members and the Orol(Eagle) organization had 149 units with 15 772 members. Nationally conscious members of Slovak intelligence were entering the Sokol organization independently of their party membership or political orientation. Bratislava was a typical example of such attitude. The long-time rival of the (originally Czech) Sokol organization was the Orol organization, which formally belonged to the Czecho-Slovak Orol but had also an autonomous management in Slovakia. Physical education in the Orol was only secondary, because the organization was mostly religiously focused. All relevant national physical education, sport, scout or touristic organizations gradually established themselves. Particularly the physical education organizations were ideologically closely connected with political parties. Football, volleyball, basketball, tennis, swimming, wrestling, box and table tennis became the most popular sports during 1918–1924. However, Slovakia lagged behind when talking about the material and technical equipment, swimming pools or gyms. Czech sport enthusiasts, who originally came during 1918–1920 to protect the new republic, often helped with the development and management of the sport clubs as well.
Initiated in the 20s of the twentieth century, the sports movement in police cultural and educational associations in Kalisz and Pabianice, after 1930 developed mainly in police sports clubs. The main reason for the management of the State Police to become interested in sports activities was the possibility of using the acquired skills in the course of performing official duties. Particularly promoted disciplines in the police environment were: shooting, athletics, cycling, marches with a load and police multi-sport. In the years 1926–1929 the State Police Headquarters organized nationwide sports competitions, in which the representation of the Łódź Voivodeship participated. The central struggle was preceded by provincial eliminations, dominated by policemen from the city of Łódź. Sporadically, the fight with them was established by competitors from the district headquarters of the State Police in Kalisz, Brzeziny and Piotrków. The highest place of the representation of the Łódź Voivodeship from the national competition was the third place won in 1926. In other years, the representation of the Łódź Voivodeship was located in the middle of the final table. Police clubs from Łódź, Kalisz and Piotrków competed with local clubs within the district sports associations. The highest level of sport was demonstrated by the multi-section Police Sports Club of Łódź. The most titled was the fencing section with Bolesław Banaś, the master of Poland in foil and épée.
The aim of the article was to present the contribution of Lvov’s skiers to the development skiing in Poland. There were described conditions of the skiing in Lvov especially terrain and climate conditions and the development of the skiing organisation’s activity between 1919–1939. The terrain in Lvov and nearest neighbourhood was advantageous but climate often made skiing difficult. The skiing developed dynamically and it was popular in different social environments including also national minority groups. The Jewish skiing organisation cooperated with Polish under the Polish Ski Federation but Ukrainians were outside of the federation. The article includes also quantitative indicators of the development skiing in Lvov in the context of the Polish Ski Federation total data. Lvov’s skiers were in great number between members of the Polish Ski Federation and their quantity tended to rising between 1932–1939. In the late 1930s the amount of ski competitors decreased in comparison to all members of the Lvov’s skiing societies. This trend indicated faster increase the amount of recreational and tourist skiers than competitors.
After Poland regained its independence, Częstochowa was one of the largest cities in terms of population. In relation to football, it was treated as a province, and the sport discipline itself was just developing. The stadiums were created as well as the 1st Stadium dedicated to football, which influenced the dissemination of this discipline. The number of clubs with the football section increased every year. In 1923, two clubs from Częstochowa and one from Raków formed the Częstochowa ‘C’ division, performing under the auspices of the Krakow Regional Sports Association. Four years later, there were already two groups of fourteen teams in genral. Teams from Częstochowa competed under patronage of Sosnowiec Subdistrict Football Association. Between 1919–1927 neither of teams from Częstochowa got promoted to division “A”. In the year 1927 Częstochowa Sub-District Football Association was established, whose functioning had a significant impact on the further development of football in Częstochowa. In that period of time the best teams were: Częstochowa Sports Club, “Victoria 1922” Częstochowa Sports Club, Sports Club Czestochowa and Sports Club “Warta” Czestochowa.
After the truce between Poland and Russia had been signed in October 1920, the soldiers of the Ukrainian People’s Republic who crossed the Polish border were first disarmed and then impris-oned in internment camps. In 1921 over 15 000 people were sent to camps on the territory of the province of Łódź, namely to Kalisz-Szczypiorno, Piotrków Trybunalski and Strzałkowo. The camps functioned until 1924 and after their liquidation, the internees had to leave the territory of Poland or, after obtaining the status of political immigrants, they were granted a permit to stay. Those who stayed settled in Kalisz, in the so-called Ukrainian Stanitsa. They lived in shabby con-ditions. However, although isolated and subjected to hostile agitation by Bolshevik authorities, they managed to restore their patriotic and national spirit as well as their sports and health character. Cultural and educational activity, apart from theatres, choirs, libraries, the press was run primarily by schools. The Ukrainian people attended both camp (Ukrainian) schools and Polish schools where they participated in PE classes as part of the curriculum. Moreover, the sports movement developed, supported by the American YMCA association. Their sports level made it possible to compete with the leading regional teams. Sports Activities, apart from their pro-health impact, integrated the Ukrainian community.
In Łódź and other bigger towns of Łódzkie region football was played since the beginning of the 20th century. After gaining independence by Poland on the territory of the newly proclaimed voivodship it soon became the most popular sport discipline. It also had its fans in the country. The organizer of football championships was the Regional Association of Football of Łódź which was founded in 1920. After the year of 1925 the organizer was Łódź Regional Football Association (ŁOZPN). The region was placed on 4-6th position in the country. The highest level of sport education were presented by clubs and associations in the very town of Łódź. The leading role was played by Łódzki Sport Club. The footballers of ŁOZPN were appointed to the national representative team. Antoni Gałecki (ŁKS), a participant of XI Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936 and Football World Championships in France in 1938, gained this honour 22 times. The biggest obstacle of the development of football was the shortage of fields.