Sport i Turystyka Środkowoeuropejskie Czasopismo Naukowe

Published by Uniwersytet Humanistyczno-Przyrodniczy im. Jana Długosza w Częstochowie
Print ISSN: 2545-3211
Publications
„12th International Session for Educators of Higher Institutes of Physical Education” w tym roku odbyła się pod hasłem „Governance in Sport and the Olympic Movement” („Zarządzanie w sporcie i ruchu olimpijskim”) i rozpoczęła się w dniu 25 maja powitaniem w Atenach. Następnego dnia uczestnicy sesji udali się do siedziby Międzynarodowej Akademii Olimpijskiej w Antycznej Olimpii. W godzinach popołudniowych miało miejsce uroczyste otwarcie w auli im. D. Vikelasa, na którym odsłuchano również hymn olimpijski. Uczestników sesji powitali prof. Konstantinos Georgiadis – Dziekan Międzynarodowej Akademii Olimpijskiej, i Michael Fysentzidis – obecny Prezydent Międzynarodowej Akademii Olimpijskiej oraz Członek Greckiego Komitetu Olimpijskiego. Pierwszy wykład wygłosił natomiast sir Craig Reedie, Prezydent Światowej Agencji Antydopingowej (World Anti-Doping Agency – WADA), na temat Zero tolerance on doping in Sport: What we have learned from the fight against doping. Wieczorem tego samego dnia zgromadzeni złożyli kwiaty na steli nagrobnej P. de Coubertina, a także oddano hołd takim postaciom, jak J. Ketseas i C. Diem (pionierzy Międzynarodowej Akademii Olimpijskiej). Sobota 27 maja rozpoczęła się od zwiedzania materialnego dziedzictwa kulturowego Antycznej Olimpii. Uczestnicy sesji odwiedzili m.in. stanowisko ar * dr, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. E. Piaseckiego w Poznaniu, Wydział Turystyki i Rekreacji, Katedra Humanistycznych Podstaw Turystyki i Rekreacji; e-mail: malchrowicz@ awf.poznan.pl ** dr, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. E. Piaseckiego w Poznaniu, Wydział Turystyki i Rekreacji, Katedra Humanistycznych Podstaw Turystyki i Rekreacji; e-mail: jpoczta@awf. poznan.pl 180 Ewa MALCHROWICZ-MOŚKO, Joanna POCZTA cheologiczne – teren pierwszych igrzysk olimpijskich. W godzinach popołudniowych miały miejsce wykłady – dr Uri Schaefer zaprezentował temat Higher education institutions using and leveraging the Olympic Games as a tool for building their research and teaching capacity, a Elizabeth Sluyter-Mathew oraz Elaine Cook przedstawiły założenia programu edukacyjnego IO OVEP. Wieczorem odbyły się dyskusje w grupach. Do najciekawszych wykładów kolejnych dni można zaliczyć m.in.: Governance of Olympic Legacy autorstwa prof. Vassila Girginova (Brunel University), specjalisty w zakresie dziedzictwa olimpijskiego Londynu 2012, Governance in Sport and the Olympic Movement: The future of mega-sport events, autorstwa prof. Marijke Taks (University of Ottawa), The Rio 2016 Olympic Games: The management of the Games and the social impact on the Media of Brazil, którego autorem był Roberto Maluf de Mesquita (Uniwersytet La Salle w Brazylii), The role of the Olympic Movement in the refugee crisis. An exercise program for refugees, autorstwa prof. Yannisa Theodorakisa (Uniwersytet w Salonikach). Popołudniami miały miejsce również prezentacje i wystąpienia uczestników sesji, w której wzięło udział blisko 80 reprezentantów ze wszystkich kontynentów – m.in.: Australii, Japonii, Indii, Argentyny, Kanady, Aruby. Zaprezentowano bardzo interesujące oraz różnorodne tematy z zakresu zarządzania sportem, wychowaniem fizycznym, edukacją olimpijską oraz igrzyskami olimpijskimi. Po uroczystymi zamknięciu sesji naukowcy otrzymali dyplomy oraz zaprezentowali konkluzje dyskusji, które miały miejsce w grupach, a następnie udali się do Aten, gdzie mieli możliwość zwiedzania Akropolu. Uczestnictwo w tegorocznej majowej debacie w Olimpii było niepowtarzalną okazją do konfrontacji własnych poglądów na tematy sportowe i olimpijskie z badaczami z całego świata, a także stworzyło wyśmienitą okazję do pracy badawczej – m.in. w bogato wyposażonej bibliotece olimpijskiej.
 
The study aims to develop mobile exercises through games to strengthen students’ creative thinking. To achieve the goal of learning a sports and health subject, teachers may use optional teaching methods. It is carried out using an experimental research and development project called The Postest-Only Control Group Design. When analyzing the quality of the learning process, a quantitative descriptive analysis technique based on Formative Class Evaluation (FCE) questionnaires are used. The implementation rate for all indicators was found to be 89%. The small group shows a probability index of less than 0.05% or 0.000 and an FCE index of 89.35%. The large group reveals 0.000 and the FCE category is 85.26%. It is necessary to research developing the activity of learning the movements performed by games to strengthen creative thinking, another influence on the creative thinking of students from both the product test group and the control group is the transfer of exercises through games. Based on FCE, it shows that learning quality is important for employment, and according to experts, the entire product design is also important to apply.
 
We just have the 575th anniversary of the memorable battle between a coalition of Christian armies and the army of the Ottoman Empire. Christians’ defeat had significant consequences not only for Bulgaria, but also for Byzantium and whole Europe. The aim of the presented work is a systematization of knowledge about artefacts paying homage to the Polish-Hungarian King Ladislaus III of Varna, who fell there, and thousands of knights of both sides of the fight. There has been applied participant observation of places commemorating those events, there were conducted interviews with persons preserving their memory, there were analyzed many academic dissertations, popular scientific works and other informative materials dedicated to that topic, there were gathered data about authors of works dedicated to that Battle of nations, aiming at creation of a relatively complete description of a marketing product for needs of cultural tourism. Since many artefacts commemorating the battle do not exist anymore or exist in undocumented legends, they were separated from description of those ones which exist and can be presented to tourists interested in them. Thus, the text describes in the chronological order Turkish memorabilia, Hungarian and Polish artifacts and their authors.
 
In Europe, for more than three millennia, the development of individual disciplines has been accompanied by the evolution of sports facilities. It covers the period from the Ancient Olympic Games to modern sports architecture. The sports architecture heritage, as a magnet for cultural tourism, is evident. Millions of tourists visiting the famous sites are the proof how important these places are for our identity and tradition of European civilization. The most important historic sports facilities are inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List: ancient Greek and Roman amphithe-atres, thermal baths, antique arenas. The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has hit the tourism sector hard. It is essential to reformulate present rules of the historic sports facilities visits and to consider the future directions of cultural tourism re-development at the UNESCO Heritage Sites. Recently there has been a revival of interests in sports heritage and many tourists want to explore famous landmarks of the past. Despite the pandemic time restrictions, it is also possible at present. However, new actions and policies are required to meet sanitary requirements and recommenda-tions, and rebuild consumer confidence.
 
On a global scale, the travel and tourism sector is the part of the economy that has been notably severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This article presents the state of the tourism sector in Poland on the eve and in the first year of this pandemic. First, key definitions were briefly discussed as a foundation for tourism policy. The defined terms include the following: tourism, visitor, hiker, tourist, international (incoming) and domestic tourism, tourism sector, invisible export industry, tourist accommodation facility, tourist attraction. Then, data on international and domestic tourism in Poland just before the COVID-19 pandemic was presented, including the number of tourists served by the Polish tourism sector. The tourist attractiveness of Poland, the base of accommodation facilities, the share of tourism in Poland’s GDP and national employment were discussed. Poland’s flagship tourist attractions in 2019 were presented, among which the most important are cultural heritage attractions, sacred places and natural heritage. The issue of the COVID-19 pandemic was presented and on its background scenarios developed by the UNCTAD for the tourism sector related to travel restrictions introduced in response to the pandemic. Declines in tourism indicators between 2019 and 2020 were presented. Next, the strategy of the middle was characterized as a method used in the anti-crisis policy in the tourism sector, and the middle scenario that emerged in the Polish tourism sector in the first pandemic year is indicated.
 
This paper presents some aspects of COVID-19 impact on cultural tourism and on the museum sector. Museums are closely linked to cultural and heritage tourism, considered a significant attraction.The tourism sector is among the most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and cultural tourism is not an exception. In 2020 around 95% museums around the world were closed – according to government sanitary regulations. The aim of the research was to identify the impact of COVID-19 disease on cultural tourism (measured by a number of visitors in the most popular museums in 2019 and 2020) and museums’ adaptation to the sanitary restrictions during the pandemic time. For a few decades museums have tried to enhance their digital activities such as online educational programmes, online collection display, online exhibitions, live events, learning programs, brochures, podcasts, social media and virtual tours. These activities and various projects became especially important during the lockdown caused by the pandemic outbreak, as many museums continued their missions during the pandemic. Some museums have reopened (with strict limitations defined by sanitary restrictions), but many institutions remain closed. It shows how crucial IT innovations are. The paper concludes with some reflections on museums’ offer during the pandemic time and cultural tourism prospects in the post-pandemic time.
 
The tourism industry is especially sensitive to a pandemic and other unexpected circumstances as natural disasters, war, terrorist attacks. Different types of crisis bring various consequences. In 2020 the outbreak of the COVID-19 disease and travel restrictions caused bruises to the tourism and hospitality industries. Hotel managers, hotel staff and their guests had to take a series of measures to deal with various challenges and face a new situation. This paper aims to critically examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism and hotel industries and discuss some possible survival strategies to be implemented in the hotel sector during the pandemic crisis (in the short and long-term perspective). The research was based on an overview of the relevant literature and sanitary rules developed by UN WHO, local governments and the hotel industry. The authors critically investigated some available statistic data to compare room occupancy before the pandemic and during the COVID-19 crisis and hospitality services offered to hotel guests before the pandemic and after its outbreak. The main findings are presented from several dimensions: hotel and health crisis, sanitary restrictions and possible recovery recommendations.
 
Creation of the Czecho-Slovak Republic after the WWI, in 1918, was a milestone also in the development of physical education and sport in Slovakia. New Czecho-Slovak government tried, within the new constitutional conditions, to enforce the Czechoslovak character of the state and to withhold the Hungarian influence in individual towns. Following its multi-national, multi-cultural and multi-confessional history, Slovakia had to get over long-time Hungarian wrongdoing and Hungarization also in the area of sport. Before 1918, the Hungarian and partially also German sport clubs prevailed and any efforts to establish Slovak sport clubs were more platonic than realistic. However, the conditions and circumstances changed and were adapted to the new state layout after 1918.Because of the tense military-political situation at the Czech borders and in Slovakia during 1918–1920, arrival of the Czech and also German sport organizations was postponed until 1921. The Sokol (Falcon) organization started to organize its advertising tours in Slovakia in 1921. Sim-ilarly, the German organizations DTV came to Bratislava in 1921 and to Spiš in 1922. In 1920, the Sokol organization had 93 units with 18 494 members, the RTJ organization had 31 units with 4139 members and the Orol(Eagle) organization had 149 units with 15 772 members. Nationally conscious members of Slovak intelligence were entering the Sokol organization independently of their party membership or political orientation. Bratislava was a typical example of such attitude. The long-time rival of the (originally Czech) Sokol organization was the Orol organization, which formally belonged to the Czecho-Slovak Orol but had also an autonomous management in Slovakia. Physical education in the Orol was only secondary, because the organization was mostly religiously focused. All relevant national physical education, sport, scout or touristic organizations gradually established themselves. Particularly the physical education organizations were ideologically closely connected with political parties. Football, volleyball, basketball, tennis, swimming, wrestling, box and table tennis became the most popular sports during 1918–1924. However, Slovakia lagged behind when talking about the material and technical equipment, swimming pools or gyms. Czech sport enthusiasts, who originally came during 1918–1920 to protect the new republic, often helped with the development and management of the sport clubs as well.
 
Initiated in the 20s of the twentieth century, the sports movement in police cultural and educational associations in Kalisz and Pabianice, after 1930 developed mainly in police sports clubs. The main reason for the management of the State Police to become interested in sports activities was the possibility of using the acquired skills in the course of performing official duties. Particularly promoted disciplines in the police environment were: shooting, athletics, cycling, marches with a load and police multi-sport. In the years 1926–1929 the State Police Headquarters organized nationwide sports competitions, in which the representation of the Łódź Voivodeship participated. The central struggle was preceded by provincial eliminations, dominated by policemen from the city of Łódź. Sporadically, the fight with them was established by competitors from the district headquarters of the State Police in Kalisz, Brzeziny and Piotrków. The highest place of the representation of the Łódź Voivodeship from the national competition was the third place won in 1926. In other years, the representation of the Łódź Voivodeship was located in the middle of the final table. Police clubs from Łódź, Kalisz and Piotrków competed with local clubs within the district sports associations. The highest level of sport was demonstrated by the multi-section Police Sports Club of Łódź. The most titled was the fencing section with Bolesław Banaś, the master of Poland in foil and épée.
 
After the truce between Poland and Russia had been signed in October 1920, the soldiers of the Ukrainian People’s Republic who crossed the Polish border were first disarmed and then impris-oned in internment camps. In 1921 over 15 000 people were sent to camps on the territory of the province of Łódź, namely to Kalisz-Szczypiorno, Piotrków Trybunalski and Strzałkowo. The camps functioned until 1924 and after their liquidation, the internees had to leave the territory of Poland or, after obtaining the status of political immigrants, they were granted a permit to stay. Those who stayed settled in Kalisz, in the so-called Ukrainian Stanitsa. They lived in shabby con-ditions. However, although isolated and subjected to hostile agitation by Bolshevik authorities, they managed to restore their patriotic and national spirit as well as their sports and health character. Cultural and educational activity, apart from theatres, choirs, libraries, the press was run primarily by schools. The Ukrainian people attended both camp (Ukrainian) schools and Polish schools where they participated in PE classes as part of the curriculum. Moreover, the sports movement developed, supported by the American YMCA association. Their sports level made it possible to compete with the leading regional teams. Sports Activities, apart from their pro-health impact, integrated the Ukrainian community.
 
In Łódź and other bigger towns of Łódzkie region football was played since the beginning of the 20th century. After gaining independence by Poland on the territory of the newly proclaimed voivodship it soon became the most popular sport discipline. It also had its fans in the country. The organizer of football championships was the Regional Association of Football of Łódź which was founded in 1920. After the year of 1925 the organizer was Łódź Regional Football Association (ŁOZPN). The region was placed on 4-6th position in the country. The highest level of sport education were presented by clubs and associations in the very town of Łódź. The leading role was played by Łódzki Sport Club. The footballers of ŁOZPN were appointed to the national representative team. Antoni Gałecki (ŁKS), a participant of XI Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936 and Football World Championships in France in 1938, gained this honour 22 times. The biggest obstacle of the development of football was the shortage of fields.
 
The Jewish population in Volhynia constituted 9.9% of the province’s total population (205,500 as of 1931). Jews were the largest national group living in cities, about 48.6%. Jewish urban population constituted 13% of the total population and were very active in sports activities. They attended instructor courses in various sports areas and actively created regional branches of sports associations in Volhynia. The most popular sports among the Jewish population were football, boxing, cycling, athletics and skiing. Jewish athletes successfully competed in different sports events in the provincial, national and international arenas. Football players of the Hasmonea Równe club won the title of the best football team in the province of Volhynia three times. After winning the Volhynia Regional Football Association football team, the Hasmonea Równe junior football team participated in the Polish Championships for junior teams. Jewish footballers from the province of Volhynia participated in the matches of the representations of the cities, the word of Province Volhynia, and the national sports competitions of the Polish Makkabi teams. Representatives of other sports disciplines such as boxing, cycling and skiing also successfully competed at the regional (provincial) level.
 
Powiat rówieński w 1921 r. wszedł w skład województwa wołyńskiego II Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Z części gmin powiatu rówieńskiego, 1 stycznia 1925 r. utworzono powiat kostopolski. Znaczącą większość powiatu stanowiła ludność ukraińska. Drugą i trzecią grupę narodowościową stanowiła społeczność polska i żydowska. Powiat rówieński zamieszkiwały także inne społeczno-ści, m.in.: czeska, niemiecka i rosyjska. W latach 1921–1939 nastąpił rozwój wychowania fizycznego i sportu w Równem i w powiecie rówieńskim, m.in. w kwestii infrastruktury sportowej, jak również kształcenia kadr dla potrzeb wychowania fizycznego i sportu. Dużą rolę w rozwoju aktywności fizycznej odegrały organizacje i towarzystwa młodzieżowe i społeczne, m.in.: Towarzystwo Gimnastyczne „Sokół”, Wołyński Związek Młodzieży Wiejskiej i Związek Strzelecki. Znaczącą rolę w działalności sportowej odegrały kluby sportowe. Rozwojowi aktywności sportowej sprzyjały powstające na Wołyniu struktury sportu, m.in. okręgowe związki sportowe, mające siedzibę w Równem. Wychowanie fizyczne i sport realizowane były wśród ludności ukraińskiej – na Wołyniu działalność zaznaczyły organizacje „Płast” i „Junak”.
 
The development of sport in the police in 1922–1939 played an important role in the professional and private life of every policeman. In the police work, the basis for the implementation of the entrusted tasks is an above-average level of motor skills. The physical fitness system in the Silesian and state police of the Second Polish Republic is completely omitted in the literature on the subject. Therefore, the goal of this article was to undertake further historical research in this area, taking into account the broad issue of the development of sport in The Police during this period. In the article, on the basis of a query of historical materials collected in the Archives of Modern Records in Warsaw, the Central Archives of Police in Warsaw, the State Archives in Katowice, the Silesian Government and the Provincial Office in Katowice, I described courses and trainings increasing the fitness and promotion of physical culture among officers. They form the entire system of improving the efficiency in the ranks of The Silesian Police. I detailed the actions that led to the uprising in Silesia and across the country dozens of Police Sports Clubs. The article is an attempt to present an important issue concerning the functioning of this formation in the field of pro-sport activities. It contains descriptions of courses, trainings, sport disciplines, instructors and trainers, types of competitions and sports results at the voivodeship level.
 
The main purpose of the article is to collect and organize all the facts related to the history of football in the Lublin region. Determining the time limit from the establishment of the Lublin Regional Football Association from February 26, 1922 to the memorable Polish Junior Football Championship until 1939, in which Unia Lublin defeated Wisła Kraków with a result of 3:2. The final thread of the article is the junior final match which was played on June 4, 1939 in Warsaw as the pre-match of the Poland-Switzerland match which ended with the result 1:1. The article shows what the first official football matches looked like, what the clubs participating in the national games had to face, and how the structures of the Lublin District Football Association organization changed over the years. Most of the facts presented in this article can be found in the chronicles of football clubs from the very beginning of their operation, as well as in the annual reports on sports and organizational activities that were submitted during general meetings by club leaders during the period in question.
 
The aim of the article is to depict the participation of athletes, originated from the Union of Gymnastic Societies ‘Sokół’ (Falcon) in Poland, in the summer and winter Olympic Games in the interwar period. The Olympians represented gymnastics, athletics, boxing, wrestling and cross-country skiing – sports that were initiated on Polish soil yet during the partitions and were widely exercised in ‘Sokół’s’ societies in the interwar period. In this article, the political and social context accompanying the development of professional sport in “Sokół” can be found. Moreover, included biograms of the Olympians mention, in addition to sports successes, their membership in‘ Sokół’, and their social and professional activities after the end of a sports career. The aim of the article is to depict the participation of athletes, originated from the Union of Gymnastic Societies ‘Sokół’ (Falcon) in Poland, in the summer and winter Olympic Games in the interwar period. The Olympians represented gymnastics, athletics, boxing, wrestling and cross-country skiing – sports that were initiated on Polish soil yet during the partitions and were widely exercised in ‘Sokół’s’ societies in the interwar period. In this article, the political and social context accompanying the development of professional sport in “Sokół” can be found. Moreover, included biograms of the Olympians mention, in addition to sports successes, their membership in ‘Sokół’, and their social and professional activities after the end of a sports career. Futhermore, this study presents athletes whose biographies were contained in the published biographies and memoirs. This sources unambiguously confirm that their membership in the “Sokół” was not incidental, and their social identity was shaped in the process of education of the Society. This research area has begun to interest sport historians for some time, but publications are still incidental and rather focused on the achievements of the 'Sokół' in the dissemination of sport in selected regions of the country rather than the performance in competitive sport. The research methodology is based on the analysis of historical sources, such as sports press, diaries, and in-depth biographical studies.
 
In Czechoslovak swimming circles, swimming clubs were often criticized for having active sports contacts with many countries, especially Germany, Austria, Hungary, France, Sweden, England, but completely forgot about Slavic nations such as Poland and Yugoslavia. The reason could be found mainly in the fact that swimming in the Slavic countries developed only after the war. There were also financial reasons and greater distances between the states. After the successful European Championships in Budapest in 1926, when it turned out that the swimmers of the Slavic nations were able to compete in Europe, the International Secretary of ČSAPS, Eng. Hauptmann proposed to the South Slavic and Polish Swimming Associations to hold the swimmers’ championships of these nations. The proposal was adopted unanimously with great enthusiasm. This resulted in a convention, signed by the leading officials of the Yugoslavian, Polish and Czechoslovak Associations, in which all participating associations undertook to host the Slavic Championships in three consecutive years: in 1927 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in 1928 in Prague, Czechoslovakia, and 1929 in Warsaw, Poland. According to this convention, the Slavonic Championships were held with a full Olympic program according to the FINA regulations.
 
A lot has been already written on the Czechoslovak results at the Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles in 1932. However, not much is known about the journey of the Czechoslovak team to the venue and back. This text focuses on this adventure, describing the problems that the Czecho-slovakian team faced in the context of the economic crisis, the actual journey to the United States on board the steamship, the trip across the United States, the encounters with Czechoslovak com-patriots and American politicians, sporting successes at the Olympic Games and the spectacular return of Czechoslovak athletes to Prague. The method used for this paper is the historical method. Primary sources were the main sources of information, mainly the estate of the General Secretary of the Czechoslovak Olympic Committee, František Widimský, his memoirs, period articles and unique photographs from the archive of the Czech Olympic Committee. Thanks to these sources, the entire course of the journey was successfully reconstructed.
 
Zwycięstwo polityki czy sportu olimpijskiego? O historii Gretel Bergmann w kontekście Letnich Igrzysk Olimpijskich w Berlinie w 1936 roku [recenzja filmu Berlin 36 (reż. Kaspar Heidelbach)].
 
The beginning of basketball in the world dates back to 1891 when a Canadian, James Naismith, invented the game for students in Springfield. After a short time, matches were played in Europe, in Paris (1893) and London (1894). The first demonstrational game in Poland was played by women in 1909, in Lviv. The discipline spread throughout Europe after World War I. In the 1920s, some state and international organizations were established to standardize the rules of the game. They allowed to play the first national championships and afterwards to organize interstate matches. In 1935, the First European Men’s Basketball Championship was organized, and three years later, women made their debut in the competition of this rank. Between 1938 and 2021, there were thirty-eight editions of the championships, in which the Polish national team participated twenty-nine times. Most medals were won by athletes from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Czechoslovakia, France, Bulgaria, and Spain. Poland’s most outstanding achievement was the gold medal won in Katowice in 1999. What is more, Polish women won two silver medals (1980,1981) and two bronze medals (1938,1968).
 
The emergence of women’s team sports in University Sports Association (Akademicki Związek Sportowy – AZS) in Poland took place in the second decade of the 20th century. In the 1930s female student teams competed in Polish championships in Czech handball, basketball and volleyball. After the Second World War, team games continued to be popularized in the academic community. Women participated in university, inter-university and international competitions in basketball, handball and volleyball. A competition had the greatest popularity in of the Academic Polish Championship and the Polish Championship of Higher Education Institutions. In addition, sports teams representing AZS participated in professional sports in basketball, football, field hockey, handball and volleyball. In the professional sport most successes had teams AZS Warsaw, AZS Wrocław, AZS Katowice and AZS Poznań. The development of team sports games in the academic community was related to, among others with the decisions of institutions managing physical culture in Poland in 1945–1989. These guidelines had an impact on organizational changes in the structures of AZS and on shaping the academic model of sports competition.
 
The paper explores the process of forming the system of top-level sports in the Czechoslovak armed forces during 1945–1960. Emphasis is placed on examining the postwar development of the institutional framework and the impact of sociopolitical developments on the subject matter. The army’s support for the training of top-level athletes was a logical consequence of the conditions existing during that period and the adoption of the model practiced in the Soviet Union and in all countries of the Eastern Bloc. After the Communist Party took power in February 1948, the new government redefined the significance of physical education and sports. Sports at the top and lower levels were stripped of their apolitical nature and inherent purposes, as the prospects of achieving top-level performances presented a potential for using the achievements for propaganda purposes by the communist regime. Amid the militant atmosphere of the Cold War, the Ministry of National Defense had a unique status, which facilitated the functioning of a government-controlled system of top-level sports training. The ministry had strong financial resources, and its sports program encompassed both professional soldiers and conscripts fulfilling their two-year military duty. On the one hand, universal conscription facilitated the identification of high-potential individuals, and on the other hand, material support and technical resources offered conditions unrivalled elsewhere. Moreover, the military environment did not contravene amateur regulations in effect at that time, and a person’s military status did not contradict his or her civilian ideological principles. Following a period of searching for the optimal structural framework, an organizational structure was established that relied on Dukla Military Sports Clubs, which formed the base of world-class national teams for several subsequent generations.
 
After the Second World War, physical culture in Poland undoubtedly became an instrument for strengthening the position of communist authorities in public. However, despite the unfavourable political aspects, participation in mass sport has definitely contributed to the integration of local community, followed by collective social initiatives. The rebuilding of structures of physical culture in Pomerania proceeded differently in comparison to other areas of our country. Several factors contributed to this, including economic, social and demographic changes that took place after the end of warfares, which were closely related to the process of settling and developing the Regained Territories. The Society of Physical Culture Propagation had the most important role in the dissemination of physical culture. It was followed by: Provincial Sports, Tourism and Leisure Center named Balt-Tourist, with its counterparts at the lower organizational level, The Municipal Sport, Tourism and Recreation Centers of Gdańsk, Gdynia and Sopot, which often organized Saturday and Sunday leisure time as well as The Polish Tourist – Sightseeing Society, while among youth organizations the Polish Scouting Association. The term “mass sport” was a product of the PRL period, to a large extent its existence was a fiction, along with the progressing ideologisation of physical culture, based on the Soviet model. At the same time, the proposed activities were a form of spending free time and the possibility of joint family activities, integration of the local community.
 
In the era of the global dissemination of martial arts and combat sports, including those from East Asia, judo is a clear example of the successful globalisation of national sports discipline. Basically, no one doubts that this concerns a popular Japanese sports discipline, which is managed by one international federation, and the whole world competes in championship tournaments and the Olympic Games. However, is there really only one type of judo? And is it only understood as this sports discipline? The author cites facts showing the process of the parallel institutionalisation of other judo variants, appearing under different names. Firstly, there is the "European" judo-do, secondly Kodokan judo or Butokukai judo, complemented by techniques of jujutsu self-defence (Japanese jūjutsu) and finally today’s Idokan judo. The Idokan organisation has also been teaching judo in the broad sense for over 70 years as various methods of martial art guided by the principle of flexibility.
 
In the nineteenth century and in the first half of twentieth century, the area of Central Pomerania was inhabited primarily by Germans. In the first post-war years, there was a multi-million migration related to the settlement of the so-called Recovered Territories. Rapid development and settlement of the largest number of Poles in the area became one of the most important tasks after the end of hostilities, as a result of which these areas were significantly damaged, therefore there was no housing base for arriving migrants. It was also a significant problem in the organization and creating administrative structures in the field of physical culture management. When the Koszalin Voivodship was founded in 1950 and the administrative provincial authorities of physical culture management were appointed, the Provincial Committee of Physical Culture was created. Organizational structures of physical culture and sport in Koszalin region were formed in accordance with the state policy. In the first half of the 1950s, physical culture in the Koszalin Province experienced a regression. It was not until 1967 that the activities revived in the field of broadly understood physical culture. The County and Municipal Committee of Physical Culture and Tourism activated cooperation with social organizations, e.g. the Society for the Promotion of Physical Culture and district sports associations.
 
Wrestling appeared in the region of Warmia and Mazury relatively late and in the LZS Association just in the mid 60’s. Rural athletes were particulary fond of freestyle. It was practised in six LZS clubs: Zarzew Mazuchówka, Mazur Wydminy, Naprzód Sulima, Pogoń Ryn, Giżycko and Piast Sterławki Wielkie. Despite the lack of highly qualified staff and spartan training accommodations, mediocre successes were achieved in the regional, zonal and nationwide competition. Shaped by hard physical work, sports progress empowered the character of practitioners, the correct recruitment and selection, determination and commitment to training process and the lack of alternative forms of spending spare time. The youth from small towns and villages perceived sport as one of the few attractions. Therefore the possibility of wrestling, created by sports activists, had many supporters. Sport activities integrated young people in small towns and villages, it was also a good way to get to know other larger agglomerations, their history, monuments and cultural traditions and all this complemented school educational process.
 
Background. Fighting Arts are interesting from the perspective of their institutionalisation, organisational development, globalisation and glocalization, and also as vehicles of cultural dialogue. Problem. The authors tackled the problem of describing and explaining how martial arts organisation functions in the aspect of its participation in cultural dialogue. An example is EMAC, the European Martial Arts Committee. Method. The qualitative method of single case study research, both descriptive, as well as interpretive and evaluative was used. The second qualitative method used is visual anthropology. Results. Cultural dialogue and diffusion of symbolic content are illustrated by the fact of awarding the highest honour decorations to people from various countries, but mainly Western countries – for merits for Asian martial arts. In the case of EMAC and IPA (Idokan Poland Association) symbolic content on the decorations is either universal (phoenix, idea of nobility) or Christian/Polish (Saint George, a hussar). Therefore, rewarded people are ambassadors not only for martial arts themselves, but institutions awarding decorations appear as vehicles of cultural dialogue. Conclusions. Through the presence of appropriate iconography and symbolism on the awarded honorary medals, symbolic content diffuses, which concerns its dissemination, internalisation and inculturation. Regardless of the belief of the people participating in the activities of the organisation, on the one hand, the knightly ethos of Europe is accepted, and the traditions of Asian martial arts on the other.
 
Top-cited authors
Natalia Bielikova
  • Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University
Błażej Cieślik
  • Akademia Jana Dlugosza w Czestochowie
Bozena Ostrowska
  • Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu
Tomáš Tlustý
  • University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
Natali Chuprun
  • Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi Hryhorii Skovoroda State Pedagogical University, Ukraine