Sport Sciences for Health

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Models’ coefficients obtained using different predictors groups are displayed for the PL (panels A and B), HYP (panels D and E) and LIN (panels G and H) models. Panels C, F and I depict performance predictions using different predictors groups for the PL (panel C), HYP (panel F), and LIN (panel I) models, respectively. The transparent grey area shown on panels C, F and I represents the mean ± 1SD of the actual 1-h track running performance [dashed lines represent the mean ± 1SD, the dot line represents the mean running performance value when using predictors groups 1–3 (20,778 ± 560 m) and 4–6 (20,787 ± 525 m)]. In each panel, both individual (open circle) and mean ± SD (horizontal solid lines) values are reported for PL (top panels), HYP (middle panels) and LIN (bottom panels) models. §p < 0.05 main effect of predictors groups. Follow-up comparisons with Benjamini–Hochberg’s p value correction: ap < 0.05 predictors group 1 vs predictors group 2, bp < 0.05 predictors group 1 vs predictors group 3, cp < 0.05 predictors group 1 vs predictors group 4, dp < 0.05 predictors group 1 vs predictors group 5, ep < 0.05 predictors group 1 vs predictors group 6, fp < 0.05 predictors group 2 vs predictors group 3, gp < 0.05 predictors group 2 vs predictors group 4, hp < 0.05 predictors group 2 vs predictors group 5, ⁱp < 0.05 predictors group 2 vs predictors group 6, jp < 0.05 predictors group 3 vs predictors group 4, kp < 0.05 predictors group 3 vs predictors group 5, lp < 0.05 predictors group 3 vs predictors group 6, mp < 0.05 predictors group 4 vs predictors group 5, ⁿp < 0.05 predictors group 4 vs predictors group 6, and op < 0.05 predictors group 5 vs predictors group 6. CSHyp and CSLin estimates increase with short-event PB times (predictors group 2, 3, and 5) and decrease with longer event PB times (predictors group 1, 4, and 6)
Concordance plots for the PL (panels C, F and I), HYP (panels B, E and H) and LIN (panels C, F and I) models when the predictors group 1 (top panels), 2 (middle panels) and 3 (bottom panels) were used. Concordance plots depict the bias (i.e., the average value of Δabs, solid line) and the limits of agreement (bias ± 1.96SD, long-dashed lines) for each predictive model. Each panel shows the relationship between Δabs and actual performances along with the equation found. Data points represent the athletes
Concordance plots for the PL (panels A, D and G), HYP (panels B, E and H) and LIN (panels C, F and I) models when the predictors group 4 (top panels), 5 (middle panels) and 6 (bottom panels) were used. Concordance plots depict the bias (i.e., the average value of Δabs, solid line) and the limits of agreement (bias ± 1.96SD, long-dashed lines) for each predictive model. Each panel shows the relationship between Δabs and actual performances along with the equation found. Data points represent the athletes
Relationship between PLV20 and actual 1-h track running performance across the predictors groups. Data points represent the athletes. The regression line (solid line) and its 95% CI (short-dashed lines) are reported in each panel (SEE standard error of the estimate)
Pacing profile (panel A), step length (panel B) and step frequency (panel C) of the 1st and 2nd best 1-h track running performance. 1st best performance = continued line and filled circles; 2nd best performance = dashed line and open circles. To note, significant slight increments and decrements over time were found for step length and step frequency, respectively, in both athletes (see text for more details)
Article
  • Michele GirardiMichele Girardi
  • Chiara GattoniChiara Gattoni
  • Luca SponzaLuca Sponza
  • [...]
  • Dominic MicklewrightDominic Micklewright
Purpose This study aimed at comparing the predictive accuracy of the power law (PL), 2-parameter hyperbolic (HYP) and linear (LIN) models on elite 1-h track running performance, and evaluating pacing profile and running pattern of the men’s best two 1-h track running performances of all times. Methods The individual running speed–distance profile was obtained for nine male elite runners using the three models. Different combinations of personal bests times (3000 m-marathon) were used to predict performance. The level of absolute agreement between predicted and actual performance was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), paired t test and Bland–Altman analysis. A video analysis was performed to assess pacing profile and running pattern. Results Regardless of the predictors used, no significant differences ( p > 0.05) between predicted and actual performances were observed for the PL model. A good agreement was found for the HYP and LIN models only when the half-marathon was the longest event predictor used (ICC = 0.718–0.737, p < 0.05). Critical speed (CS) was highly dependent on the predictors used. Unlike CS , PL V20 (i.e., the running speed corresponding to a 20-min performance estimated using the PL model) was associated with 1-h track running performances ( r = 0.722–0.807, p < 0.05). An even pacing profile with minimal changes of step length and frequency was observed. Conclusions The PL model may offer the more realistic 1-h track running performance prediction among the models investigated. An even pacing might be the best strategy for succeeding in such running events.
 
Flow diagram of search strategy, retrieval of records, and evidence synthesis
A schematic diagram illustrating the main systems involved in balance control and how they are affected by aging
Article
  • Arfa ParveenArfa Parveen
  • Sarah ParveenSarah Parveen
  • Majumi M. NoohuMajumi M. Noohu
Background There is impairment in maintaining balance while doing activities of daily living in aging individuals due to deterioration in the sensory, cognitive, and musculoskeletal systems. The positive effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in older people have already been established. Nowadays, researchers are stressing over the importance of multicomponent exercise programs where a combination of exercises like aerobic, resistance, and balance and coordination exercises, etc., was used. Purpose The present review summarizes the effects of concurrent exercise training (aerobic + resistance) and multicomponent exercise programs on balance, fear of falling, and muscle strength in older adults. Methods MEDLINE (accessed by PubMed) and Web of Science (Web of Science Core Collection) were searched using a combination of keywords. Results The result in a majority of the included studies showed positive improvement in balance, fear of fall, and strength of muscles. Improvement in muscle strength is more evident when subjected to resistance exercise training alone than concurrent training. Conclusions Multicomponent exercise training program when compared with concurrent training is more effective in improving balance, fear of fall, and muscle strength in older adults.
 
PRISMA flow diagram for home-based exercise in older adults
Article
Aims: The aim of this review study was to examine the effectiveness of home-based and community-based exercise programmes in the rate of falls and improving physical functioning in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: All types of home-based and community-based exercise interventions were searched. From 1186 studies identified, 14 studies were selected for the umbrella review. Most studies had high methodological quality. The types of interventions were multi-functional programmes (n=11 studies) and Otago Exercise Programme (OEP) (n=3 studies). Results: The results showed that home-based and community-based exercise interventions can reduce falls by 22–32%. Studies that included meta-analysis showed that the clinical significance of home-based interventions in fall prevention and improving physical function was moderate to high. Conclusions: In conclusion, home-based and community-based exercise interventions are a safe, effective, and feasible method of fall prevention that could be implemented with minimum supervision by allied health professionals to maximise autonomy, self-efficacy, and adherence in community-dwelling older adults.
 
Study selection flowchart. Exclusion criteria and measured variables before and after 8 weeks of exercise protocol are shown. BMI body mass index, BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor, FBS fasting blood sugar, HOMA-IR homeostatic model Assessment-Insulin Resistance; TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol. *Only LDL-C was calculated by Friedewald equation (LDL-C = total Chol-(Triglyceride/2.2)-HDL-Ca) and other biomarkers measured from blood directly
Serum irisin concentrations in exercise and control groups (n = 21 vs n = 21, respectively). Values are presented as mean ± SD and analyzed by ANCOVA. Significant between-group differences were observed: F (1, 39) = 7.04; P = 0.011. ** (significant increase vs control group; P < 0.01)
Serum BDNF concentrations in exercise and control groups (n = 21 vs n = 21, respectively). Values are presented as mean ± SD and analyzed by ANCOVA. Significant between-group differences were observed: F (1, 39) = 6.355; P = 0.016. ** (significant increase vs control group; P < 0.01)
Article
Objectives Brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and irisin serum levels might mediate the protective role of exercise training against menopause-induced metabolic disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an 8-week combined aerobic exercise training and muscular strength range of movement (MSROM) on serum levels of BDNF, irisin, and insulin resistance indices in postmenopausal women diagnosed with diabetes. Methods In this study, 42 participants were randomly assigned into two groups (exercise and control, 21 in each). The exercise group performed 24 sessions (3 sessions/week) of combined aerobic training (55–75% heart rate reserve) and MSROM for 8 weeks. Before the start of interventions and also 36 h after the last session, fasting serum BDNF, irisin, insulin, fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (TC), low and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL and HDL), and triglyceride levels were measured by ELISA. Results Our findings showed a significant increase in serum level of irisin and BDNF (P = 0.011; P = 0.016, respectively), but a reduction in FBS TC, insulin, and LDL (P < 0.01), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (P = 0.011) compared to the control group. Despite a decrease in the level of triglyceride, body mass index (BMI), and an increase in HDL level, these changes were not significant compared with the control group. Conclusion Our data indicate that 8 weeks of combined aerobic training and MSROM is a safe strategy to alleviate insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly postmenopausal women with type II diabetes partly via BDNF and irisin signaling.
 
Article
Purpose: This 11-week study aimed to correlate the neuromuscular profile and the total volume of resisted sprint training (RST) under different velocity loss (VL) magnitudes in male professional soccer players. Methods: Seventeen soccer players (age 25.8±4.3 years; height 180.0±8.6 cm; weight 77.7±9.7 kg) were randomly allocated into two training groups, who trained at distinct percentages of VL: 10% of VL (G10, n=8) or 20% of VL (G20, n=9). The velocity-based sled training consisted of 20m resisted sprints executed with a progressive loading increase (45% to 65% of body-mass). Sprint times (10m and 20m), vertical jump height (countermovement jump [CMJ] and squat jump [SJ]), knee flexion and extension peak torque, as well as isometric rate of torque development, and lower-limb lean mass were correlated with the total volume of RST performed by G10 and G20 groups. Results: The G10 performed 31% less repetitions and total RST distance than G20 (p=0.002). Significant negative Pearson’s correlations (large-to-very large) were observed between total volume performed by G10 and CMJ height (r=-0.85, confidence interval at 95% [95%CI]=-0.98 to -0.58, p=0.02, Cohen’s D effect size [ES]=0.41) as well as SJ height (r=-0.90, 95%CI=-0.99 to -0.66, p=0.005, ES=0.80), and knee extension concentric peak torque (r=-0.69, 95%CI=-0.99 to 0.91, p=0.05, ES=0.03). No further correlation was found (p>0.05). Conclusions: When lower magnitudes of VL were used during training sessions (10%), the stronger and more powerful players performed lower volume of RST. Interestingly, this relationship is not confirmed when higher magnitudes of VL (20%) are prescribed (greater fatigue incidence).
 
An analysis of the receptor operating characteristics (ROC) curve to evaluate the cut-off for muscle oxygen saturation and maximum metabolic steady state
Reference of muscle oxygen saturation at the maximal metabolic steady state: comparison by VO2max levels
Article
Purpose Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensors measure muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) as a performance factor in endurance athletes. The objective of this study is to delimit metabolic thresholds relative to maximal metabolic steady state (MMSS) using SmO2 in cyclists. Methods Forty-eight cyclists performed a graded incremental test (GTX) (100 W-warm-up followed by 30 W min) until exhaustion. SmO2 was measured with a portable NIRS placed on the vastus lateralis. Subjects were classified by VO2max levels with a scale from 2 to 5: L2 = 45–54.9, L3 = 55–64.9, L4 = 65–71, L5 = > 71, which represent recreationally trained, trained, well-trained, and professional, respectively. Then, metabolic thresholds were determined: Fatmax zone, functional threshold power (FTP), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and maximal aerobic power (MAP). In addition, power output%, heart rate%, VO2%, carbohydrate and fat consumption to cutoff SmO2 point relative to MMSS were obtained. Results A greater SmO2 decrease was found in cyclists with > 55 VO2max (L3, L4 and L5) vs. cyclists (L2) in the MMSS. Likewise, after passing FTP and RCP, performance is dependent on better muscle oxygen extraction. Furthermore, the MMSS was defined at 27% SmO2, where a non-steady state begins during exercise in trained cyclists. Conclusion A new indicator has been provided for trained cyclists, < 27% SmO2 as a cut-off to define the MMSS Zone. This is the intensity for which the athlete can sustain 1 h of exercise under quasi-steady state conditions without fatiguing.
 
Scree plot with the identification of one domain in the Fear of Return to Sport Scale (FRESS)
Path diagram of Fear Return to Sport Scale (FRESS) with 1 domain and 8 items. F, fear of returning to sport
Characterization of the sample of qualitative variables (n = 192)
Article
Objective To create, develop, and validate the Fear of Return to Sport Scale (FRESS) for injured professional or recreational athletes in rehabilitation. Methods This is a questionnaire validation study. To determine the structural and construct validity, 192 injured professional or recreational athletes of different sports modalities were included. We used a subsample with 32 participants to analyze test–retest reliability and internal consistency. Main outcome measures were the FRESS, Numerical Pain Scale (NPS), Pain-Related Catastrophizing Thoughts Scale (PCTS), Self-Estimated Functional Inability because of Pain Questionnaire for athletes (SEFIP-sport), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Initially, 25 questions were proposed by the specialists. Of these, 4 questions were excluded due to similarity with others. After applying the content validity coefficient, 8 questions were excluded for presenting a value lower than 0.80, leaving 13 items. The exploratory factor analysis identified the one-dimensional structure of the FRESS with 13 items. However, five items were excluded for presenting high covariance with the error of several other FRESS items in the confirmatory factor analysis. Thus, the final version of the FRESS was defined with one domain and eight items. Regarding the construct validity, we observed a magnitude of correlation varying between 0.257 and 0.470 between the FRESS and the instruments used here. We observed adequate test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.896) and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.868). Ceiling and floor effects were not observed. Conclusion The FRESS with one domain and eight items has acceptable measurement properties and its use in clinical and sports environments to measure the fear of returning to sport in injured professional or recreational athletes is supported.
 
PRISMA flow chart for the study selection
Article
Background Although outdoor water sport activities are gaining increasing attention for their therapeutic potential in the social and care management of populations with chronic diseases, these practices are currently underutilised. Moreover, the available body of literature on the topic has not been critically and comprehensively assessed yet. Aims (1) To appraise the health effects of outdoor water sport activities for chronic disease populations; (2) to preliminarily assess the potential size and scope of the available research literature for this emerging field and identify potential gaps and avenues of development. Methods A literature search was performed scanning PubMed (including MEDLINE), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Scopus from inception to December 2021. A scoping review was carried out by appraising all the available evidence on outdoor water sport interventions specifically designed for therapeutic purposes for individuals with chronic disease. The quality score of each study was calculated with the Tool for the assEssment of Study qualiTy and reporting in Exercise (TESTEX) tool. Results Fifteen studies (five RCTs, seven non-RCTs and three CTs with healthy subjects as controls) met the inclusion criteria and were assessed. Among the studies selected, two focused on canoa kayak, one on stand-up paddle, two on surfing, two on sailing activity, and eight on dragon boat padding. The median TESTEX score for study quality and reporting was 6/15, i.e ., “very low” (range 5–8). Based on the qualitative analysis, the few individual studies that could be included reported generally positive results, ranging from improvements in antioxidant action and cardiovascular function for dragon boating, to beneficial effects on balance, postural control, and flexibility for on-water paddle board activities. Overall, outdoor water sport interventions were associated to higher rates of adherence than conventional trainings. Conclusions Very low to low quality evidence from a limited set of pilot studies seems to suggest beneficial effects of outdoor water sports for chronic disease populations. However, such preliminary findings need to be replicated through large, high-quality RCTs to be conducted in target populations. Avenues of development, scoping directions and translational perspectives for this specific research field are proposed and discussed.
 
Timeline of the research procedures
Percentage of similarity between neuromuscular and morphological patterns of young people with sport initiation with those of young athletes of different sports. Analysis of artificial neural networks of the MLP’s type. SI Sports Initiation, BJJ Brazilian Jiu-jitsu. A Neuromuscular similarities of the sports initiation group in relation to athletes. B Morphological similarities of the sports initiation group in relation to the athletes. C  Mixed model to verify the similarity of the morphological and neuromuscular patterns of the sport initiation group in relation to the athletes
Article
Background Artificial neural networks (ANN) are proving to be a useful tool to assist professionals in multiple fields of study. However, the use of ANNs to match sport initiation (SI) standards and to assist during the selection and mentoring of young sports talent has not yet been tested. Objective To use artificial multilayer neural networks (MLPs) to perform a combination of the morphological and neuromuscular patterns of SI youth with those of young athletes. Methods 75 young men (13.3 ± 1.65-years), 87% of whom were athletes from different sports (volleyball, rowing, soccer, tennis, Brazilian-jiu-jitsu (BJJ), swimming) and 13% were SI practitioners were included. Their morphology was verified by anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Neuromuscular performance was verified by neuromotor tests (handgrip, vertical jump, countermovement, and medicine-ball throw). MLPs were programmed to verify the percentage of similarity between the morphological and neuromuscular patterns of youngsters in SI with those of young athletes of different sports. Results SI indicated similarity with the morphological patterns of 90% with tennis, 87% with soccer, 80% with swimming and 79% with BJJ. SI indicated similarity with neuromuscular patterns of 87% with soccer, 81% with swimming and 75% with BJJ. When combining the morphological and neuromuscular patterns SI showed similarity of 88% with soccer, 79% with swimming, 77% with BJJ and 70% with tennis. For rowing, there were no significant similarities. Conclusion It was possible to conclude that using MLPs is a strategy that helps direct young people from SI to a specific sport.
 
The flexion–relaxation test performed by one participant of the study
Typically flexion–relaxation test and wavelet analysis on concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) bursts in one participant of the study. a Surface electromyography (sEMG) and kinematic data of the flexion–relaxation test (in blue the angle position of the trunk, in green the lumbar flexion, in orange the flexion trunk velocity, in red the sEMG signal, an in black is indicated the sEMG window under analysis). b 1-s width segmentation on sEMG data with middle point obtained at the peak velocity for the ECC burst. c 1-s width segmentation on sEMG data with middle point obtained at the peak velocity for the CON burst. d Discrete wavelet matrix applied on the segmented ECC burst. e Discrete wavelet matrix applied on the segmented the CON burst
Mean comparisons on the spectral characteristics of the multifidus lumborum muscle. *P < 0.05
Mean comparisons on the spectral characteristics of the longissimus muscle. *P < 0.05
Article
Purpose Muscle activation can reflect the stability of the lumbar spine based on the electrical features and kinematics during a dynamic test. However, there is a lack of knowledge of the activation of paravertebral muscles i.e., during the flexion–relaxation test. Hence, we determine the band frequency differences between eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) contraction during the flexion–relaxation test in healthy untrained participants without lumbar pain, both multifidus lumborum and longissimus muscles. Methods 40 healthy participants (aged 30.6 ± 6.9 years) were recruited. Kinematic and surface electromyography were collected to compare the ECC and CON spectral characteristics of both multifidus lumborum and longissimus. The bursts were transformed using a discrete wavelet transform (Daubechies). The band frequencies were compared through mean comparison test with alpha set to 5%. Results Both multifidus lumborum and longissimus muscles had higher intensity in ECC contraction than CON for frequency bands lower than 32 Hz (P < 0.05); meanwhile, there was a higher intensity in CON contraction than ECC for frequency bands higher than 32 or 64 Hz until 256 Hz (P < 0.05). Conclusion For both paravertebral muscles analyzed, discrete wavelet decomposition suggests that during the flexion–relaxation test there is an ECC contraction characterized by low-frequency bands compared with the CON phase characterized by medium- and higher-frequency bands both paravertebral muscles analyzed. The spectral characteristics might be a useful physiological neuromuscular reference to the pathophysiology adaptations of the paravertebral muscle contraction.
 
Squat position for lower extremity static fatigue
Article
Background The body exhibits dynamic and static movements in response to the changes in the center of gravity in some positions. Balance plays a key role in all sports branches and daily life because it can control the lowest energy consumption and muscle activation. Objectives This study investigated the effects of lower extremity static muscle fatigue on static and dynamic balance components. Design/methods The sample consisted of 40 healthy volunteers aged 18–24 years. Participants took part in an isometric fatigue protocol for lower extremity muscles. A squat position was used for static fatigue for lower extremity muscles. Measurements were performed in a squat press for 25 s, with the knee at a 90-degree angle and a load of about 30% of the participant's weight isometrically. The protocol was repeated five times. The participant was allowed to rest for two minutes between each repetition. The muscles and their antagonists that contracted most actively during the squat press exercise were vastus lateralis obliquus, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, biceps femoris, semi tendineus, and lateral gastrocnemius. Electromyography (EMG) measurements were conducted on these muscles bilaterally and motion analysis system was used to standardize the 90-degree angle of the knee joint. Results There was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test Eyes Open (EO) static balance scores, pre- and post-exercise post-test dynamic balance scores between non-athletes and athletes, pre- and post-exercise post-test dominant leg EO, and pre-test non-dominant leg between non-athletes and athletes (p < .05). There was a significant difference in the Median Frequency (MF) (Hz) values of the dominant leg agonist rectus femoris (p < .05) and the antagonist muscle semi tendineus (p < .05) scores during isometric squat press between athletes and non-athletes. Conclusions We need different applications to understand the mechanisms underlying balance and discover athletes' potential. Lower extremity proprioception exercises have positive effects on static body balance parameters.
 
Participants' region distribution
Article
Purpose Teachers are exposed to inherent psychosocial risks in the workplace such as chronic stress, psychological distress, exhaustion, and burnout syndrome. To compare the values in psychosocial variables based on compliance with the recommendations for physical activity by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the type of physical activity performed. Methods The study had a non-experimental and comparative design, with measurements in a single group. The sample was composed of 415 physical education teachers from Spain, with an age range of 21–53 years (28.78 ± 6.15) and a heterogeneous distribution of gender (69.4% male; 30.6% women). The Perceived Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, and an Ad-Hoc questionnaire were used to record the sociodemographic aspects and physical-sports practice. Results Most of the teachers complied with the recommendations for physical activity practice ( n = 335; 80.7%). Physical activity was associated with lower signs of burnout and a greater ability to overcome. Although, teachers who did not comply with WHO recommendations, showed greater stress and emotional exhaustion. In conclusion, enough practice of physical activity based on WHO was shown as a preventive factor of stress and signs of burnout. Conclusions The findings suggest that perform physical activity based on the WHO recommendations helps for work stress prevention and burnout syndrome in teachers, as well as to overcome work adversities.
 
ATP hydrolysis in lymphocytes and platelets at pre, one week and eight weeks after exercise protocol. Data analyzed by the GEE test, expressed as mean and standard deviation
ADP hydrolysis in lymphocytes and platelets at pre, one week and eight weeks after exercise protocol. Data analyzed by the GEE test, expressed as mean and standard deviation. Asterisk indicates statistical difference *p < 0.05
AMP hydrolysis in lymphocytes and platelets at pre, one week and eight weeks after exercise protocol. Data analyzed by the GEE test, expressed as mean and standard deviation
ADA activity in lymphocytes and platelets before, one week and eight weeks after the physical exercise protocol. Data analyzed by the GEE test, expressed as mean and standard deviation. Asterisk indicates statistical difference *p < 0.05
Article
Background Sedentary lifestyle habits are directly related to the increase in the production of reactive oxygen species, to provide a chronic state of oxidative stress. Furthermore, the purinergic system is involved in extracellular signaling and thus influences pathological and physiological processes. Thus, physical exercise is responsible for triggering molecular and tissue changes, to condition the body’s pathophysiological processes, being often suggested as a form of non-pharmacological treatment in different health conditions. Aim To evaluate the effect of physical exercise on markers of oxidative stress and the purinergic system in young adults. Method Sixteen women students, aged between 20 and 40 years, were submitted to the physical exercise protocol, both aerobic and resistance (concurrent training) during the period of eight weeks, making a total of 20 h of training. Results Our findings showed that physical exercise was responsible for increasing the hydrolysis of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (p = 0.001) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) (p = 0.041) in platelets, indicating an increase in ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (ecto-NTPDase) after eight weeks of physical exercise. Furthermore, there was an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (p = 0.012) and protein thiols (PSH) (p = 0.004) after one week of exercise. Furthermore, it can be considered that resistance exercise can stimulate the antioxidant defense mechanisms as well as promote an anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet aggregation state. Conclusion In conclusion, physical exercise alters both the mechanisms of oxidative stress and the purinergic system, to have the potential to attenuate inflammatory mechanisms.
 
Experimental design. SmO2, muscle oxygen saturation.
Muscle oxygen desaturation and resaturation rate before and after ingestion of capsaicin and placebo. The black bars represent the capsaicin group, whereas the white bars represent the placebo group.
Article
Purpose Capsaicin (CAP) has been demonstrated to activate the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), which can regulate nitric oxide production and, consequently, affect oxygen delivery to the muscles. In addition, TRPV1 activation can lead to calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is crucial for optimal force development. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a single dose of capsaicin on leg extension exercise performance and skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO2) during exercise and exercise recovery in physically active individuals. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, eight males ingested 12 mg of CAP or maltodextrin as a placebo (PLA). Forty-five minutes after supplementation, the participants performed three sets of leg extension exercises at 70% of 1 repetition maximum, and the number of repetitions was evaluated. During exercise and exercise recovery, SmO2 parameters were recorded. Plasma lactate was analyzed before supplementation, immediately, and 10 min after exercise. Results There were no changes in SmO2 parameters (p > 0.05) and the number of repetitions (p > 0.05) throughout the three sets of leg extensions. Additionally, a medium (d = 0.67), large (d = 0.83) and small (d = 0.31) effect size was observed in resaturation rate during set 1, set 2, and set 3 recovery. Plasma lactate increased significantly (p < 0.05) immediately after exercise in both CAP and PLA groups without significant changes between the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion A single dose of capsaicin did not change SmO2 parameters and muscular performance during resistance exercise in physically active individuals.
 
Representative image of frontal plane angular measures. Hip adduction displacement was calculated through the difference between “a” and “b” angles, while knee FPPA displacement, the difference between “c” and “d” angles. The sum of the displacement of hip adduction and knee FPPA was considered the dynamic valgus index (DVI)
Dynamic Valgus Index (DVI) during single-leg squat after controlling the analysis by ankle DF ROM and hip abductor strength. The values are expressed in corrected means and 95% confidence interval. PFP patellofemoral pain group; CG control group
EMG amplitude values (%MIVC) of trunk and hip (A), knee (B) and ankle/foot (C) joints during single-leg squat after controlling the analysis by ankle DF ROM and hip abductor strength. The values are expressed in corrected means and 95% confidence interval. EO external oblique; GMed gluteus medius; TFL tensor fascia latae; VL vastus lateralis; VM vastus medialis; RF rectus femoris; FIB fibularis longus; TA tibialis anterior; PFP patellofemoral pain group; CG control group. * Different between-groups
Article
Purpose Lower limb alignment during weight-bearing tasks have been associated with ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DF ROM) and hip abductors muscles' strength. It remains unclear which differences exist on kinematics and proximal, local and distal muscle activation between patellofemoral pain (PFP) and asymptomatic people after controlling the analysis by these measures. Methods Thirty women (PFP, n = 15 [age 26.33 ± 4.18 years; body mass index: 24.51 ± 3.61 kg/m²]; asymptomatic—CG, n = 15 [age: 29 ± 5.23 years; body mass index: 23.12 ± 3.31 kg/m²]) completed the following tests: (i) passive ankle DF ROM and (ii) hip abductor isometric strength. After that, the participants performed five repetitions of single-leg squat. Frontal plane kinematics (using dynamic valgus index—DVI) and normalized EMG amplitude of the trunk [External Oblique (EO)], hip [Gluteus Medius (GMed) and Tensor Fascia Latae (TFL)], knee [Vastus Lateralis (VL), Rectus Femoris (RF), Vastus Medialis (VM)] and ankle/foot [Fibularis Longus (FIB) and Tibialis Anterior (TA)] were obtained during squat and compared between groups. Results PFP had a lower TA EMG amplitude (−54.19%; p = 0.002). After controlling the analysis by DF ROM and hip abductor strength, PFP had: (i) lower GMed EMG amplitude (−17.42%; p = 0.041); (ii) lower FIB EMG amplitude (−46.80%; p = 0.029); (iii) lower TA EMG amplitude (−53.42%; p = 0.004). Conclusions Ankle DF-ROM and hip abductor strength seems to influence on lower proximal and distal EMG amplitude observed during the single-leg squat in women with PFP. Future studies needs to consider an all-encompassing lower limb approach to better understand the sensorimotor control which contributes to lower limb alignment in PFP people.
 
Article
Nowadays, the covid 19 pandemics are challenging all students. The present study aimed to investigate whether motor skill development affects students' psychological and social traits during the covid 19 pandemics. The present study's population consisted of all students aged 9–17 years in the three grades of the elementary, middle, and high school in Mazandaran province in the academic year 2020–2021, which corresponded to approximately 534 thousand students. We used a simple random sampling to determine the sample size because Iranian schools were closed. In this study, we selected 15 individuals for each of the experimental and control groups. Due to some students dropping out or leaving the practice, the samples comprised 42 girls and 45 boys in the control group and 41 girls and 43 boys in the experimental group. To collect data, we used the Standard Student Social Skills Questionnaire by Garsham and Elliott (1990), Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Questionnaire, and Children's Depression Scale Short Form (CDS-A). We conducted the experimental group for 36 sessions, i.e., three months and three sessions per week, and each session lasted 30–45 min, depending on the quarantine conditions on the 19th day. To analyze the data, we used a two-way analysis of variance and the Scheffe post hoc test. The results showed that all groups had lower scores in psychological traits than those in the pretest. However, no significant difference was found between groups (P. < 0.05), and this effect was not significant in social traits (05/0 < P.). We also suggest that school principals and health care professionals use this study to design guidelines for creating a healthy environment and developing health-oriented educational programs to improve students' quality of life and health.
 
Modified Thomas test position
Comparison between angular measurements
Class intervals for hip and knee joints—Men
Class intervals for hip and knee joints—Women
Article
Purpose The assessment of muscle flexibility is important for physical exercise practitioners since an insufficient level of this physical capacity can be related to risk factors for chronic low-back pain (CLBP). This study aimed to assess the chance of shortening of the iliopsoas and rectus femoris muscles, using the modified Thomas test (MTT), to relate to CLBP. Methods Fifty-four resistance training practitioners of both sexes, aged between 18 and 55 years were evaluated. To check the hip and knee joints’ range of motion (ROM) reached during the MTT, images of the sagittal plane were recorded with a digital câmera. The recorded images were analyzed using the kinovea software, to obtain angular measurements. A binary logistic regression was used for evaluating the odds ratio of the independent variable (i.e., muscle shortening) influence on the dependent variable (i.e., CLBP). Results Significant differences were demonstrated between the hip extension angular measures in favor of women (p = 0.038758). Between lower limbs, women showed significant differences in favor of the left side measures of this joint (p = 0.036891). For the angular measurements of knee flexion, no significant differences were shown in both men (p = 0.441465) and women (p = 0.206936). A binary logistic regression showed no increased chance of the hip flexor muscles shortening being related to CLBP. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) were = 0.97 (0.92–1.01) and 0.99 (0.95–1.04) for range of motion (ROM) of the hip and knee joints respectively. Conclusion Even considering that the reduced hip joint ROM likely contributes to low-back pain, this variable alone does not explain the CLBP either in men or women.
 
Article
Purpose To compare changes in physical activity level (PAL), sitting time (ST), and binge eating disorder (BED) in overweight/obese adults vs. those normal weight during social distancing caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A cross-sectional and retrospective study was carried out with adults of both sexes, aged 18–60 years, which assessed, through an online form, the PAL, ST, and BED pre (PSD) and during social distancing (DSD) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The PAL and ST were assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the assessment of BED by the Binge Eating Scale. Results 323 responses were included in the analysis (194 normal weight and 129 overweight/obese). There was a decrease in PAL and an increase in the prevalence of BED in both groups; nevertheless, the overweight/obese group had a 62% chance of presenting lower PALs than normal-weight individuals (OR = 1.62; 95% CI 1.03–2.55) and showed a lower total weekly physical activity time during the pandemic (adjusted p = 0.05). In addition, overweight individuals were more likely to binge eat before (OR = 4.21; 95% CI 2.10–8.45) and during the pandemic (OR = 4.24; 95% CI 2.54–7.06) and showed a higher prevalence during social distancing. Conclusion The social distancing caused by the COVID-19 pandemic changed exercise behaviors and increased the prevalence of binge eating in the general population. However, overweight/obese participants engaged in less total weekly physical activity and showed a higher prevalence of binge eating before and during social distancing. Level of evidence Level III; analytical observational cohort study.
 
Article
Readiness and ability of a person to overcome stressful situations in any professional activity is particularly relevant for sports. The dynamics of negative states (anxiety, aggression) and hardiness in athletes in different periods of athletic activity (between competitions, 2–3 days before the competition, during the competition, and 2–3 days after them) was studied. The sample involved 56 athletes of both sexes aged 18–30 years (engaged in boxing, judo and combat sambo), and qualified as Master of Sports and Master of Sports of International Class. It is shown that before the competition there is an increase in aggressiveness, anxiety, and hardiness. Hardiness correlates directly with the negative emotional states. The highest indicators of aggressiveness, anxiety and hardiness are reached during the competition, when destructive and constructive aggression and constructive anxiety become dominant. After the competition, aggressiveness, anxiety and hardiness decrease, and the correlation between negative emotional states and hardiness is reversed. Thus, psychic tension during the competition is supported by negative states (aggressiveness, anger, anxiety), which are considered by Authors as the factors that activate the release of reserve energy and participation in mobilization of efficiency. After the competition, on the contrary, the decrease in negative states results in the decrease in hardiness intensity.
 
Single-legged drop landing test. a starting position on a 20 cm box; b ending position on the force platform
Schematic representation of the exercise protocol
Graphical representation for each outcome analyzed. Figure also shows time of peak ground reaction force (GRF) and time of landing. From bottom to top figures are GRF (Newtons), centre of pressure (CoP) displacement (m) in anterior/posterior direction (AP) and mediolateral direction (ML), ankle eversion/inversion (degrees), ankle dorsiflexion/plantarflexion
Ankle position immediately before landing and at Peak ground reaction force (GRF) for the single-legged drop landing test performed pre-, mid- and post-soccer exercise protocol. Ev-eversion; Inv-inversion; Plant-plantarflexion; Dors-dorsiflexion
Ground reaction force (GRF) and Center of pressure (CoP) at peak GRF for the single-legged drop landing test performed pre, mid and post soccer exercise protocol. A/P anterior/posterior; M/L medio/lateral; v vertical; disp displacement; BW body weight
Article
Purpose To identify the effects of fatigue from an exercise protocol (similar to a soccer match) on ankle motion and forces during single-legged drop landing. Methods Seventeen males aged (mean ± SD) 22.2 ± 2.0 years participated in this repeated measures study. A 90-min intermittent exercise protocol with a 15-min rest at halftime was performed. Before, at halftime and after the exercise, participants were tested via a single-legged drop landing task onto a force platform whilst wearing a three-dimensional inertial measurement system (Xsens). Ankle angles (plantarflexion/dorsiflexion and inversion/eversion) were analysed before landing and at peak ground reaction force after landing, and center of pressure was analysed at peak ground reaction force. Results No significant differences were found for the outcomes between pre-, halftime and post-exercise ( p > 0.05). Conclusions Findings suggest that exercises simulating a soccer match (regarding exertion) do not necessarily lead to significant changes in ankle motion or forces around the ankle.
 
PRISMA flowchart of systematic literature search on exercise rehabilitation and COVID-19 outcomes
Results of quality assessment of included intervention studies using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. a Traffic light plot and b summary plot
Article
Purpose Disturbance to physical and psychological characteristics among COVID-19 survivors are not uncommon complications. In the current systematic review, we aimed to investigate the role of exercise rehabilitation programs, either in acute or post-acute phase, on COVID-19 patients’ outcomes. Methods A systematic search was conducted in November 2021 of Web of Sciences, PubMed-Medline, Google Scholar, and Scopus. Observational and intervention studies on COVID-19-infected patients undergoing a rehabilitation program including any type of exercise were included if they reported physical or psychological factors as outcomes. The Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized controlled trials and Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal checklist were used by two independent reviewers. Results A total number of 469, and 957 patients were included in 9 intervention studies, and 14 observational studies, respectively. Most factors reported by studies as outcomes fell in the categories of exercise capacity, respiratory function, as well as psychological aspects. The reported outcomes in almost all studies, disclosed the overall beneficial role of exercise rehabilitation in improving the outcomes. Conclusion The current review demonstrated that exercise rehabilitation generally could have a beneficial role in improvement of both physical and psychological related outcomes. As the best onset time, and FITT components are not yet completely clear, further large, well-designed RCTs are suggested to provide details of exercise rehabilitation program.
 
Actual Sleep Time (A), Sleep Onset (B) and Sleep Offset (C) throughout the tournament. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. a = Significantly different to days 5, 8 and 9. b = Significantly different to days 3, 5, 8 and 9. c = Significantly different to day 9. d = Significantly different to days −1, 1 and 2. e = Significantly different to days −1, 1 and 5. f = Significantly different to days −1 and 1
Article
Purpose The current study aimed to characterise the sleep habits of elite basketball referees during international competitions. Methods Sixty-five elite basketball referees (international experience: 6 ± 3 years) provided actigraph-derived sleep data and daily mood scores during an international competition. Referees were also asked to provide reasons for nights of poor sleep. Results Referee’s actual sleep time was 6:23 ± 1:07 (h:mm), with 70% sleeping less than 7 h. Sleep onset and offset got later as the tournament progressed, but with minimal impact on actual sleep time. Sleep onset was later following evening games than on Rest Days (50 min, P = 0.05) and after Day Games (64 min, P < 0.001), while sleep offset was not different, resulting in shorter actual sleep times following Evening Games than Rest Days (− 36 min, P = 0.027) and Day Games (− 47 min, P < 0.001). Subjective mood status was not affected by tournament stage or game timing. The most common factors identified by referees as leading to poor sleep were ‘jet lag’ and Evening Games (both 16%). Conclusion These results highlight poor sleep habits of elite sporting officials during the most important international sporting events. Poor sleep was exacerbated in evening fixtures due to increased arousal and a curtailed opportunity for sleep rather than competitive anxiety as is often the case with athletes. Future studies should build upon our findings by investigating potential countermeasures to the issues we have identified.
 
A Adductor squeeze testing in the 0° and 45° B short-lever positions
Flowchart of data collection process
A Bland–Altman plots of inter-day MVIC measurements from both dominant and non-dominant limbs in the Hips 0 and Hips 45 B positions
Article
Purpose Determine the intra-day and inter-day reliabilities of the 0° and 45° short-lever adductor squeeze tests using hand-held dynamometry. Design Test–retest reliability Methods Seventeen (n = 17) academy basketball players (age range: 16–22 years) were recruited for this study. Participants performed three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) in the short-lever position in 0° and 45° of hip flexion. Adductor force and torque values were assessed for intra- and inter-day reliabilities and ability to detect the smallest worthwhile change (SWC). Results Both test positions demonstrated excellent intra-day and inter-day reliabilities (ICC > 0.90, CV < 10%). Both test positions were capable of detecting the SWC using adductor force but not torque measures. The peak force, first trial and the average force of three trials demonstrated excellent test–retest reliability (ICC > 0.90, CV < 10%). There was no significant difference in strength score when the device was placed on either the dominant or non-dominant limb (p ≥ 0.05). Conclusions Measuring adductor squeeze force in the 0° and 45° short-lever positions is reliable using hand-held dynamometry and both test positions are capable of detecting the SWC. The 0° test may illicit greater force values compared to the 45° test than previously reported. Using hand-held dynamometry, the device may be positioned against either the dominant or non-dominant limb.
 
Article
Purpose The Ohio State University Scale of Intra-Gross Motor Assessment (OSU-SIGMA) is a criterion-referenced test for assessing fundamental movement skills (FMS) among children aged 2.5–14 years. The OSU-SIGMA was developed as performance-based curriculum tool. The purpose of this study was to translate the English version of the OSU-SIGMA into Persian and assess the psychometric properties. Methods Two Persian-English speakers translated the OSU-SIGMA instrument and manual from English to Persian. Six experts in children’s motor development independently assessed the content validity (relevance of meaning and appropriateness) of the translated version. Children aged 2.5–14 years (n = 220; 50% girls) were video recorded while performing each of the 11 the FMS. The same children participated in a two-week test–retest. Eleven trained assessors viewed the videos and their scores used to assess internal consistency, inter- and intrarater reliability, and test–retest reliability. Results The translated version was rated ‘exactly relevant’ >90% for four of the seven locomotor skills and > 80% for the remaining locomotor skills and all object control skills. Coefficients for content validity range from 0.53 (running) to 0.77 (skipping and striking), with little difference between boys and girls. Coefficients for intra- and interrater were ≥ 0.90 and for internal consistency ≥ 0.90 for all skills. The correlations for the two-week test–retest ranged from 0.74 (running) to 0.96 (stair climbing). Conclusions The Persian translation of the OSU-SIGMA was found to be reliable and valid for the assessment of FMS among Iranian children aged 2.5–13 years. The OSU-SIGMA was designed using a curriculum-based approach. The translation provides teachers in Persian countries with a pedological approach to develop age-appropriate FMS activities that can be used for programming, screening, and the prescription of children’s FMS.
 
Practical significance analysis (effect size—ES) of muscular factors previously identified in the literature as potentially associated with hamstring strain injury in professional football players. The average value between right and left limbs was used for analysis. BFLH, long head of biceps femoris; H:Q, hamstring-to-quadriceps; PT, peak torque.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess if differences in hamstring strength, hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) strength ratio, and biceps femoris long head (BFLH) fascicle length exist between male and female professional football (soccer) players. Methods One-hundred professional footballers participated in this cross-sectional study: 50 men and 50 women. Ultrasound images of BFLH muscle and isokinetic dynamometry tests were performed. Results Men were stronger than women for hamstring concentric (2.01 ± 0.21 Nm/kg vs. 1.55 ± 0.23 Nm/kg; p < 0.001; large effect size, 2.08) and eccentric (2.87 ± 0.45 Nm/kg vs. 2.39 ± 0.32 Nm/kg; p < 0.001; large effect size, 1.23) peak torques. There was no sex-related difference for H:Q conventional ratio (concentric/concentric; 0.55 ± 0.06 vs. 0.55 ± 0.07); but women presented greater H:Q functional ratio (eccentric/concentric; 0.78 ± 0.12 vs. 0.85 ± 0.09; p = 0.003; moderate effect size, 0.66). Men and women presented similar BFLH fascicle length: 0.24 ± 0.05 vs. 0.23 ± 0.05 (values normalized by muscle length). Conclusions Among the muscular factors assessed in this study, men presented stronger hamstring muscles, women presented greater H:Q functional ratio, and there was no sex-related differences for H:Q conventional ratio or BFLH fascicle length.
 
Consort diagram showing the study design
Consort diagram showing of participant flow throughout the study
Article
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the efficacy of U.S. Montmorency tart cherry in treating recreationally active individuals with patellofemoral pain. METHODS: Twenty-four recreationally active participants with patellofemoral pain were randomly separated into either placebo (males N = 8, females N = 4, age = 43.30 ± 7.86 yrs, mass = 72.10 ± 17.89 kg, stature = 171.16 ± 10.17, BMI = 24.31 ± 3.75 kg/m 2 , symptom duration = 30.18 ± 10.90) or Montmorency tart cherry (males N = 9, females N = 3, age = 41.75 ± 7.52 yrs, mass = 76.96 ± 16.64 kg, stature = 173.05 ± 7.63, BMI = 25.53 ± 4.03 kg/m 2 , symptom duration = 29.73 ± 11.88) groups. Both groups ingested 60 mL of either Montmorency tart cherry concentrate or taste matched placebo daily for 6-weeks. Measures of self-reported pain (KOOS PF), psychological wellbeing (COOP WONCA) and sleep quality (PSQI) alongside blood biomarkers (Creactive protein, uric acid, TNF alpha, creatinine and total antioxidant capacity) and knee biomechanics were quantified at baseline and 6-weeks. Differences between groups were examined using linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: There was 1 withdrawal in the cherry and 0 in the placebo group and no adverse events were noted in either condition. The placebo condition exhibited significant improvements (baseline = 67.90±16.18 & 6-weeks = 78.04±14.83) in KOOS PF scores compared to the tart cherry group (baseline = 67.28±12.55& 6-weeks = 67.55±20.61). No other statistically significant observations were observed. CONCLUSION: Tart cherry supplementation as specifically ingested in the current investigation, does not appear to be effective in mediating improvements in patellofemoral pain symptoms in recreationally active individuals.
 
Article
Aim This study aimed to investigate lower limbs' functional performance in young male volleyball athletes. Methods Seventeen young male volleyball athletes, ages 15–17, performed weight bearing lunge test (WBLT) and the Y-balance test (YBT). Results There were no differences between the limbs in the analyses for WBLT and in all performance scores evaluated by YBT. However, the mean values of the YBT’s composite score were decreased compared to normative values and the correlations between WBLT and YBT presented weak values in almost all analyses. Conclusion Overall, functional symmetries between the limbs indicate low risk of lower limbs injury; results can be explained by the short period of practice. However, YBT’s composite score below the recommended values, suggests a neuromuscular training program. Finally, the weak correlations between WBLT and YBT indicate the necessity of performing both tests to have a more effective functional evaluation.
 
Flow diagram showing the literature search and selection process
Article
Background Green tea (GT) consumption may influence fat oxidation (FO), body composition and blood lipid profile in human subjects. Therefore, this study aimed to review the current literature regarding the interactive effect of aerobic and resistance training with GT ingestion on these parameters. Methods Electronic searches were performed in Google Scholar, PubMed, Elsevier, Science Direct, and national databases. Only studies on human subjects that included GT intervention and aerobic or resistance exercise from any date to May 30, 2021 were reviewed. Results Twenty-seven papers (n = 831 participants) were included. From these, 12 studies addressed the acute or short-term effect of GT consumption on substrate oxidation during exercise, 2 studies assessed the long-term effect of GT consumption and aerobic exercise on substrate oxidation during exercise, 9 studies examined the short-term or long-term effects of GT intake and aerobic exercise on substrate oxidation or cardiometabolic risk factors, and 4 studies investigated the long-term effects of GT consumption and resistance training on substrate oxidation or cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions Short-term consumption of GT may have positive metabolic effects during moderate-intensity exercise in inactive people or those who exercise recreationally. Likewise, a combination of moderate-intensity aerobic training and GT consumption for a minimum period of 8 to 10 weeks can increase FO during exercise in healthy individuals. Regular resistance training combined with GT consumption may have potential benefits in enhancing body composition, lowering triglyceride, and increasing high-density lipoprotein in sedentary obese/overweight people.
 
a Survival curve for the sampled data across 12 weeks after gym enrollment. b Survival curve for the sample data distributed between three chronotype groups
Article
Purpose Eveningness preference to sleep/wake and perform physical/cognitive activities has been associated with worse health outcomes, when compared to morningness preference. Physical activity is one potential mediator that could explain this relationship; however, most of these evidences come from cross-sectional design studies. Our goal was to assess whether chronotype could predict the risk of dropout of physical exercise programs. Methods We followed 153 newly enrolled volunteers at three different gyms, from both sexes, aged between 18 and 65 years, during 12 weeks. The daily frequency of exercises in the programs was objectively measured (gym’s electronic turnstiles). Using questionnaires, we collected data of variables related to demographic characteristics, health, physical activity, sleep, anthropometric and chronobiological parameters (Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire—MEQ). Two multivariate models were created using Cox regression analysis to test the risk of dropout of physical exercise practice. Both models accounted for age, educational level, civil status, membership plan duration, physical exercise practice frequency during week 1 and chronotype (MEQ score and chronotypes). Results Model 1 results showed that higher MEQ score was associated with a lower chance of quitting the program (HR = 0.98; CI95% 0.95–1.00; p = 0.046). Considering the chronotypes, E-types showed the highest dropout risk compared to that of M-types (HR = 2.22; CI95% 1.09–4.52; p = 0.027). Conclusion Our results suggest that chronotype is another variable to be considered in future studies on promoting PAs in formal environments. Likewise, the practice frequency during week 1 and duration of membership plan also deserve more attention in additional studies.
 
Article
Purpose To compare the effects of a 6-week plyometric training protocol performed on the ground or a mini-trampoline on basketball players' strength, jumping, landing, and balance. Methods This randomized clinical trial recruited 30 male basketball athletes, (17–21 years), were divided into three groups: plyometric training on the mini-trampoline group (MT) (n = 11), plyometric training on the ground group (GR) (n = 9), and control group (CON) (n = 10). Isometric strength, countermovement jump height, landing impact (ground reaction force) in single-leg drop landing jump, and balance [center of pressure (COP) Area, COP length] in single-leg standing tests (eyes closed and open) were evaluated before and after intervention performing a MANOVA with repeated measures (pre- and post-training) for each dependent variable. Results No statistical effects were found for strength and jump height for any group or moment. In the single-leg drop landing, GR and CON showed lower landing impact than MT (p < 0.001). For the COP area with eyes open, GR showed better results after training (p = .013), and MT showed worse results (p < 0.001). Regarding COP area with eyes closed, all groups demonstrated improvements (p = 0.001). Regarding the COP length with eyes open, interactions showed differences between all groups, but not for moments pre- and post-training (p = 0.37). Improvements in COP length with eyes closed were observed post-training for all groups (p = 0.041). Conclusion To improve landing during jumps and balance performance, coaches should tend toward conventional plyometric training rather than on a mini-trampoline.
 
Measurement of the Craig’s test. A The examiner palpates the greater trochanter while fixing the pelvis. B The angle of the hip joint to determine the femoral anteversion angle is measured at the hip position at the most lateral aspect of the greater trochanter
Determination of the femoral anteversion angle. A Femoral neck axis. The femoral head and femoral shaft are outlined with ellipses, and their centroid is established. The femoral neck axis is the angle between the line connecting the ellipse centroids and horizontal line. B Femoral epicondylar axis. The femoral epicondylar axis is defined as the angle between the posterior femoral condyle line and horizontal line. Femoral anteversion angle (°) = femoral neck axis + femoral epicondylar axis
Determination of the α-angle. A line is drawn between the center of the femoral head and neck. The point where the neck protrudes from the circular femoral head outline is marked as (B), and a line is drawn from this point to the femoral head center, marked as (A). The α-angle lies between the AB line and the line connecting the femoral head center and the femoral neck center
Article
Purpose Decreased hip internal rotation is a risk factor of shoulder and elbow injury among baseball players. However, few studies have investigated whether the Craig’s test is a predictor of hip internal rotation among baseball players. The purpose of this study was to identify whether the Craig’s test is a predictor of the range of hip internal rotation of high school baseball players, using multiple regression analysis. Methods We selected 23 high school baseball players as participants. Both hips of the participants were examined and divided into the lead hip and trail hip groups. The range of hip internal rotation at 90° of hip flexion (HIF) and 0° of hip extension (HIE) was evaluated. The femoral anteversion angle and α-angle were calculated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the Craig’s test was performed. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictors of hip internal rotation by comparing the Craig’s test and the femoral anteversion angle and α-angle on MRI. Results On multiple regression analysis, the Craig’s test was a predictor of lead hip-HIF, trail hip-HIF, lead hip-HIE, and trail hip-HIE, and the respective R² values were 0.62, 0.57, 0.66, and 0.52 (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that the Craig’s test for high school baseball players is a predictor of HIF and HIE in the lead hip and trail hip. Since the Craig’s test results are the largest predictor of hip internal rotation, the soft tissues and Craig’s test need to be assessed among baseball players.
 
Flowchart of study design
Article
The purpose of this study was to verify the influence of physical activity level on the length of hospital stay in older men recovered from COVID-19. In total, 126 older men diagnosed with COVID-19 were admitted to the hospital between September and December 2020. Among them, 70 survived, of which 39 older men were included in the study. Within 30 days after discharge, patients answered the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to measure their physical activity level through phone contact, with questions corresponding to the week before symptom onset. Clinical and laboratorial data from admission, days between onset of symptoms and admission, length of stay, computed tomography abnormalities, and the need for the intensive care unit were collected. The groups (active × sedentary) were compared using the Student t test or Mann–Whitney test for quantitative data and chi-square test was used for categorical data. There is no difference between the groups in characteristics of admission (p > 0.05), except by potassium level. Active older men had a shorter length of stay (6.50 ± 3.46 vs 11.48 ± 7.63 days; p = 0.03), disease duration (15.71 ± 4.84 vs 21.09 ± 7.69 days; p = 0.02), and lower frequency of lung damage when compared to their sedentary counterparts. In conclusion, being physically active prior to infection can attenuate length of hospital stay in older men with COVID-19.
 
Study selection flow-chart
Article
Purpose This review aimed to assess the effects of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on mental health to elite athletes. The emotional background influenced their sport career and was examined by questionnaires. Methods We included original studies that investigated psychological outcomes in elite athletes during COVID-19 lockdown. Sixteen original studies ( n = 4475 participants) were analyzed. Results The findings showed that COVID-19 has an impact on elite athletes’ mental health and was linked with stress, anxiety and psychological distress. The magnitude of the impact was associated with athletes’ mood state profile, personality and resilience capacity. Conclusion The lockdown period impacted also elite athletes’ mental health and training routines with augmented anxiety but with fewer consequences than the general population thanks to adequate emotion regulation and coping strategies.
 
Presence of women in senior management positions across the world Country
Relationship between social factors with promotion of women
Article
Background: The aim of this study has been to investigate the relationship between social factors and the promotion of women to management position in sport organizations in Iran. Method: Regarding the objective, this study is practical and regarding the method of implementation, it is descriptive, the population of this research in 2021, includes all the staff of the Youth and Sports Office of West Azerbaijan of Iran up to 216 people. Using Morgan's tables 136 subjects were selected through stratified random sampling as the sample. In order to collect data, the questionnaires of social factors of the promotion of women to management positions were used, the validity of which was confirmed by experts and its reliability was obtained to be 0.86 through Cronbach's alpha test. Results: The results indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between gender and gender discrimination and women's promotion to the position of management in sport organizations. In addition, there is also a positive significant relationship between the elimination of conflict between work and family and also family support and women's promotion to manage mint positions in sports organizations. Conclusions: However, it appears that women are still faced with gender equity issues in sports governance, athletic media representation, and perception in sports. Therefore, the field of sport management should continue to work towards a level of quality that truly treats women as equals, offers them equal opportunity, and permits them to feel equal in sport management and athletic participation.
 
Flow diagram
Article
Purpose Poor lower extremity kinematics have been linked with lower extremity injuries. One of the main contributing factors in the development of poor lower extremity kinematics is hip muscle weaknesses. This systematic review aimed to summarize the literature related to the effects of hip muscle strengthening on lower extremity kinematics among healthy subjects. Methods A search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted using the following databases: Cochrane, Web of Science, MEDLINE, PEDro and EBSCO. The selected studies had to distinguish the effects of hip muscle strengthening in healthy subjects, as compared to non-intervention or other kinds of intervention, and investigate at least one of the lower extremity kinematic factors. Two researchers performed study screening for obtaining the quality assessment scores in each included study using the PEDro scale. Statistical heterogeneity was tested using the Chi² test and I² statistic. Results Five studies were entered to review. There was level 1b or moderate evidence based on one “high” quality study that demonstrated hip muscle strengthening intervention was effective in the improvement of lower extremity kinematics. Conclusion It is difficult to make any definitive conclusions based on the results of this review and further research is needed. However, it should be considered that prescription hip muscle strengthening interventions alone maybe has a small effect on lower extremity kinematics in healthy subjects.
 
Ellipse variation after 8 weeks in the three groups. *p < 0.05 vs. pre
Average forces variation after 8 weeks in the three groups. *p < 0.05 vs. pre
Load response variation after 8 weeks in the three groups. *p < 0.05 vs. pre
Pelvic inclination variation after 8 weeks in the three groups. *p < 0.05 vs. pre
Pelvic torsion variation after 8 weeks in the three groups. *p < 0.05 vs. pre
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of a static versus proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching protocols by means of spinometry and baropodometry. We hypothesized that PNF may be more effective than static stretching in supporting the static and dynamic balance. Methods Thirty-six sport science students were divided into three groups: the first group attended a warm-up protocol on the treadmill only (warm-up group) while the other two carried out the same warm-up protocol followed by a static stretching (static group) or by a Contract Relax Antagonist Contract stretching (CRAC group). Stretching programs were performed three times per week on lower limb muscles and the postural stability of each participant was evaluated at entry (pre) and after 8 weeks of training (post). Results The ellipse area after a warm-up-only protocol did not change; after the static stretching protocol, it was significantly increased (from 111.3 ± 35.8 to 135.0 ± 32.3, p < 0.05), while after the CRAC protocol, it significantly decreased (from 119.1 ± 23.0 to 88.2 ± 19.8, p < 0.01). CRAC group had a significant reduction in average forces (− 3.9% from pre to post, p < 0.05) and in load response (− 0.6% from pre to post, p < 0.05). Pelvic inclination was reduced from 2.22 to 1.33 mm ( p < 0.01) and pelvic torsion decreased by 0.94 ± 0.22° ( p < 0.05) after the CRAC protocol. Conclusions Eight-week CRAC protocol was an excellent training for static and dynamic balance improvement and it was more effective than static stretching.
 
The flowchart of the study
The measurement of the navicular drops. A In the status of non-weight-bearing (sitting). B In the status of weight-bearing (standing)
Article
Background Extrinsic and intrinsic foot muscles actively support the foot’s arches, particularly the medial longitudinal arch. Previous studies have focused on strengthening the intrinsic muscles, and some suggested focusing on extrinsic muscles as a useful intervention to improve flat feet. Aims The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic foot muscle exercises in improving the medial longitudinal arch in adolescents with flat feet. Methods Subjects were 36 adolescents with flat feet who were randomly divided into three groups (n = 12). Group 1 performed the extrinsic muscles exercises, and group 2 performed the intrinsic muscles exercises. The control group did not experience any exercises or other treatments. The navicular drop test was used for the foot posture examination in two statuses with and without weight-bearing. Results The one-way ANCOVA for between-group comparison and repeated-measures ANOVA for within-group comparison was used to analyze the data. There was a significant difference in the mean of navicular drop index between pre- and post-test for both exercise groups (p < 0.05). There was also a considerable difference between the two exercise groups, with the control group favoring the exercise groups. In comparison between the two exercise groups, the mean of navicular drop index was significantly different, favoring the intrinsic muscles exercises group. Conclusions This study showed that the intrinsic exercises were more effective than the extrinsic exercises, and it is suggested to target this group of muscles to design exercises to correct the flat foot deformity of adolescents. Trial registration Trial registration number and date of registration: UMIN000042189 on 01/12/2020.
 
Article
Purpose Physical activity may be effective for managing the consequences of aging with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet physical activity participation is exceedingly low among older adults with MS. This study examined variables from social cognitive theory (SCT) as correlates of physical activity in older adults with MS as an important first step for informing the design of behavior change interventions. Methods We focused on identifying correlates of light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) based on intensity-dependent benefits of physical activity. Older adults with MS (≥ 60 years, N = 441) completed an online survey including demographic and clinical characteristics, SCT variables (self-efficacy, exercise goal setting, social support, and outcome expectations), and physical activity (LPA, MVPA). Results Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that all SCT variables correlated with both LPA and MVPA; however, correlations were stronger in magnitude for MVPA (range r = 0.25–0.56) than for LPA (all r = 0.11–0.20). Conclusion Our results suggest that behavior change interventions informed by SCT may be a promising approach for increasing physical activity, particularly MVPA, in older adults with MS, and this should be a focus of future research in this segment of MS.
 
Control and assessment period during season
Article
Purpose The purposes of this study were to describe the fitness and hormonal levels according to playing time (PT) (i.e., PT during season less (PT1) or more (PT2) than 50% of the total time) and maturation level (ML) (i.e., normal (ML1) and early maturity levels (ML2)), and to analyze the differences between groups for the measures of aerobic capacity, anaerobic power, power performance, and hormonal concentrations. Methods Twenty-four youth footballers of a U16 team participated in this study. Anthropometric measures, maturity status, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), maximal oxygen uptake, fatigue index, and countermovement jump were collected. Results Significant differences were found between both PT and ML groups for maturational status, aerobic capacity, power performance, and IGF1 concentrations. The interaction of PT and ML revealed significant differences for maturity offset and power performance. When using the skeletal age as a covariant, the previously significant differences found were reduced only to the fatigue index measure. Conclusions The response variables analyzed in the present study seem to be influenced by PT and ML. This must be considered when planning training, and coaches must be sensible to these effects as they may assume a preponderant role in PT.
 
Article
Information about comparing the effectiveness of exercise methods on management of disk herniation is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two programs of suspension and core stability exercises on some electromyography (EMG) coordinates, pain and range of motion of patients with disk herniation. Thirty-two men with disk herniation participated in this clinical trial study which was randomly divided into three groups of suspension exercises (n: 12, age: 34.25 ± 8.81, BMI: 24.01 ± 2.7), core stability exercises (n: 10, age: 35 ± 10.3, BMI: 25 ± 2.27) and control (n: 10, age: 34.4 ± 6.67, BMI: 23.76 ± 1.45). Electrical activity of rectus abdominis, internal and external oblique and erector spinae muscles was masured by superficial EMG, back pain by McGill Pain Questionnaire and range of motion by Modified Schober test, one day before and immediately after of intervention period. The experimental groups performed an 8-week training period while the control group was only followed up. Data were analyzed using paired sample t test and analysis of covariance test and statistical significance was set at 0.05. Suspension group showed significant improvement in EMG of rectus abdominis, internal and external oblique muscles (respectively, p = 0.030, p = 0.017, p = 0.022) and pain (p = 0.001) compared to core stability group; but there was no significant difference between two groups in EMG of erector spinae muscle and range of motion. Changes in both training groups were significant in all variables compared to control groups (p ˂ 0.05). Our findings showed that although both exercises were effective in patients with lumbar disk herniation, but the effectiveness of suspension exercises in increasing muscle activation and reducing pain was more pronounced than core stability exercises. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT): IRCT20191016045136N1.
 
Article
Purpose To assess the effects of two different physical education teaching strategies on promoting improvements in students’ volleyball gameplay performance. Methods A sample of 81 secondary school students (mean age: 14.7 years) were divided into a game-based group (n = 45), which experienced PE lessons based on Tactical Games Model (TGM), and a skill-based group (n = 36), which followed their traditional PE lessons based on directive- and drill-oriented approach. Psychomotor performance indexes (i.e., decision-making, skill execution, support, game play) were assessed by means of the Game Performance Assessment Instrument prior to, and at the end of, 18 lessons. 2 (group) × 2 (time) repeated measure MANOVA was conducted to examine the effects of teaching, time, and their interaction on gameplay components. Non-clinical magnitude-based inference method was used to interpret the main effects of these models. Results Between-group analysis revealed significant changes for the index of support (p = 0.02, very likely) in the game-based group, while within-group results revealed significant improvements in decision-making (p < 0.001, most likely) and support indexes (p = 0.02, very likely). Finally, the significant interaction term was related to an overall improvement of decision-making (p = 0.001, most likely), skill execution (p = 0.01, very likely), and support (p = 0.005, most likely) for the game-based group in post-test. Conclusion Findings support the use of the TGM throughout physical education in high school in extent to which the students improved in learning outcomes that are closely related to the real volleyball context, in a better understanding of the tactical awareness and, as a consequence, in better sport performances.
 
Measurements of end-diastolic inter ventricular septum (IVSd), left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameter (LVIDd) and left ventricle end-diastolic posterior wall thickness (LVPWd)
Pearson correlation tests of left ventricle mass with A fat mass B height C weight D body surface area (BSA) E Fat free mass (FFM). Open circles: untrained participants. Solid circles: trained participants
Article
Purpose Literature examining left ventricular (LV) structural adaptations to combined strength and endurance training is inconsistent. Rugby is a sport that combines these two exercise modalities, both during training and match play. This study aimed to explore differences in LV structure between high-level rugby players and untrained controls. Body composition analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate indexing variable for LV mass (LVM) and understand if increases in LV represent either a training-related physiological adaptation or reflect the groups’ anthropometric differences. Methods A cross-sectional design compared 10 rugby players and 10 untrained age-matched, male controls. Body composition was obtained by bioelectrical impedance. M-mode echocardiographic imaging was performed on the LV from the parasternal long axis view. Results Significantly greater end-diastolic interventricular septum, LV internal diameter, posterior wall thickness, LVM and LVM/fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.05) were found in rugby players compared to age-matched controls. Moreover, Pearson’s correlation tests revealed FFM to be the body composition variable with the strongest correlation to LVM (r = 0.775, p < 0.001). Conclusion The differences in LV structure between groups suggest that the combined endurance and strength training that rugby athletes are subjected to, induce a process of concentric and eccentric enlargement of the LV structure. Furthermore, the association found with FFM, suggests it to be the most appropriate body scaling variable to index to LVM and, thus, should be considered when describing increases in LVM. The present research suggests that increased LVM in the athletes group represents true physiological adaptations to training.
 
Classification of sports based on peak static and dynamic components. This classification is based on peak static and dynamic components of a sport during training or competition. The horizontal axis is the dynamic factor for exercise, defined in terms of the estimated percent of maximal oxygen uptake (max O2) achieved; an increase in this corresponds to increased cardiac output. The increasing static component is related to the estimated percent of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) achieved and results in an increased blood pressure load.
Adapted from reference 13 with permission
Article
Background Hypertension is an important cardiovascular risk factor that affects cardiac remodeling. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a type of cardiac remodeling and a significant risk factor for adverse outcomes. Elite athletes can develop LVH, also called athlete’s heart. While LVH is a reversible change, it is sometimes persistent. It is unclear whether athletes with LVH will suffer from future health disadvantages such as hypertension. Lifestyle-related factors may be involved in long-term health problems; nonetheless, the relationship between LVH and lifestyle is unclear. Aims We investigated the association between LVH and future hypertension in elite athletes, including the effects of lifestyle-related factors. Methods We evaluated the electrocardiographic data of 61 Japanese athletes who participated in the 1964 Tokyo Olympics to determine whether they had LVH, which was evaluated using the Peguero-Lo Presti criteria. Electrocardiographic and follow-up lifestyle data were obtained from the Japan Sport Association study subjects’ biographical information. Results During the mean follow-up period (47.7 ± 5.1 years), 25 athletes developed hypertension. The LVH group had a significantly higher rate of incident hypertension (60.0% vs. 30.6%, p = 0.02). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that LVH was associated with incident hypertension after adjusting for systolic blood pressure. The relationship was attenuated after including smoking history (LVH: hazard ratio, 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.97–4.73; p = 0.06). Conclusions LVH in athletes was associated with incident hypertension, and smoking attenuated this association. This suggests that LVH is not an independent factor for incident hypertension among elite athletes and that smoking history is an important confounding factor.
 
Diagram shows the measurements before and after 8-week resistance training protocol in control and experimental groups. The change percent of indices is depicted in the right-hand position in both groups. CON control group, EXP experimental group, WHR waist-hip ratio, BMI body mass index
Diagram shows the measurements before and after 8-week resistance training protocol in control and experimental groups. The change percent of indices is depicted in the right-hand position in both groups. CON control group, EXP experimental group. *Significant difference within a group
Diagram shows the measurements before and after 8-week resistance training protocol in control and experimental groups. The change percent of indices is depicted in the right-hand position in both groups. CON control group, EXP experimental group, QOL quality of life. *Significant difference within group; †significant difference between groups
Demographic data of the patients (Mean±SD)
Resistance training protocol
Article
Purpose The benefits of resistance training (RT) for migraineurs appears to be lacking although beneficial of aerobic training have been shown in previous studies. The aim of the current study, therefore, is to investigate the influence of RT on migraine headache indices, upper and lower-body strength, and quality of life (QOL) in women with migraine disorders. Methods Twenty female migraine patients who were referred by a neurologist were randomly assigned to two groups including RT group (n = 10) and control (CON) group (n = 10). The RT protocol consisted of 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 45–60 min per session. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and pain diary were utilized to measure the subjects’ migraine indices including duration, pain severity, and frequency within 48 h pre- and post-training protocol. Patients in the Control group (CON) have been refrained from regular exercise during this study. The quality of life (QOL) and muscular strength were measured by the Headache Impact Tests (HIT) and one-repetition maximum (1RM) test, respectively, for 48 h pre- and post-training protocol. Results The RT resulted in a significant decrease in the migraine indices (headache intensity, frequency, and duration) (p = 0.02, p = 0.001, p = 0.04, respectivetly). Increased quality of life and chest and leg muscular strength significantly (p = 0.001 for all) were also showed after 8-week RT protocol. However, there were not any significant differences between groups considering, BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR) after executing RT protocol (p > 0.05). Conclusion Based on the results of the current study that mainly had a positive trend, it could state that RT protocol with special consideration for migraine patients is probably an alternative therapy or augmentative complement to established interventions for migraine treatment.
 
Experimental design
Acute responses of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels after extreme conditioning training (ECT) session. Individual responses of the subjects at the pre and post-session moments (gray); mean BDNF acute response between the pre and post-session moments (black); *p ≤ 0.05
Article
Purpose To analyze the circulating serum levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in novice participants submitted to an extreme conditioning training session (ECT). Methods Ten untrained male subjects were submitted to an ECT session, composed by the protocol "as many repetitions as possible" (WOD-AMRAP). The training session lasted 9 min, including the exercises clean, wall ball throw, and double or single-unders. At the end of the training session, Borg's perceived exertion assessment (RPE, 0–10) was assessed to demonstrate the level of physical requirement. Blood samples were collected baseline and immediately after the ECT session to measure BDNF. The Cohen's d effect size calculation was used to evaluate the magnitude of training effects on the BDNF levels. In addition, Pearson's correlation was applied between training parameters and BDNF acute delta response. Results The following results were found: (1) all individuals reported a similar level of effort ([RPE] 8.8 ± 0.78); (2) total training load and total volumes were 1456.4 ± 334.12 kg and 127 ± 28.2 repetitions, respectively; (3) the ratio between total load and the total volume was 11.45 ± 0.21 kg/repetition; (4) the mean BDNF response showed a significant increase (PRE 12,617 ± 2070 vs. POST 13,642 ± 1791 pg/mL, respectively) [ES = 0.49]; 5) no correlation was found between training parameters and BDNF delta acute responses. Conclusion Through the results found here, we concluded that a high-density/effort WOD-AMRAP ECT session is able to stimulate the acute increase in serum BDNF levels in novice participants.
 
Study design and sampling
Article
BackgroundA higher cardiometabolic risk has been associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels and sedentary behaviours. However, most studies have focused predominantly on isolated behavioural, or CRF exposures.AimThe present study aimed to evaluate the joint association of self-reported, sedentary TV viewing and CRF with cardio-metabolic risk in schoolchildren.Methods Cross-sectional study with 2152 students (6–17 years old) from southern Brazil. Self-reported TV viewing and CRF were combined into a lifestyle-related exposure variable. Waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, and blood lipoprotein–lipids were determined and a clustered cardio-metabolic risk score (cCRS) was derived using internationally age and sex standardized Z-scores.ResultsIn boys and girls, the median values of cCRS were significantly (p < 0.05) higher among those with unfit levels of CRF, independent of TV viewing. The higher cardio-metabolic risk status was 18.0% more prevalent in participants classified as unfit, regardless of TV viewing. However, the higher cCRS associated with poor fitness was attenuated following adjustments for the confounding effect of adiposity, pubertal status, and sociodemographic factors.ConclusionA higher cCRS prevalence was associated with low CRF levels, regardless of TV viewing. The association between higher CRF and the cardio-metabolic risk appeared to be attenuated by confounders, particularly adiposity.
 
Article
Background The benefits of physical activity on health are well described in the general population. However, the association of physical activity in each domain and health among teachers is unknown.PurposeTo analyze the association between the domains and types of physical activity (PA) and the health of teachers.Methods The sample consisted of 500 Brazilian elementary school teachers who completed a self-report questionnaire to estimate PA and dependent variables (overweight, perceived physical fitness, recurrent musculoskeletal symptoms, chronic disease, burnout, common mental disorders, and occupational stress). Poisson regression was conducted to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) in multiple analysis.ResultsThe domains and types of PA associated with a lower prevalence ratio of the respective health-related disorders were: achievement of PA recommendation (low physical fitness, chronic disease, emotional exhaustion, low personal accomplishment, and common mental disorders, PR = 0.55–0.75); Leisure time PA (overweight, low physical fitness, musculoskeletal symptoms, PR = 0.59–0.75); Occupational PA and sports practice (overweight, low physical fitness, and common mental disorders, PR = 0.28–0.77); Strength exercises (overweight, low physical fitness, and chronic illness, PR = 0.62–0.63); Flexibility exercises (overweight, low physical fitness, and common mental disorders, PR = 0.67–0.70); and Domestic PA (chronic diseases, PR = 0.60). Occupational PA, active commuting, and sports practice were associated with a higher prevalence of depersonalization (PR = 1.56–1.76).Conclusion Heterogeneous results was found according to outcome. In general, PA across domains was associated with a better health profile in teachers, except for depersonalization, which was positively associated with PA.
 
Cluster solutions for physical activity, diet, and sedentary behavior according to age group in Brazilian adolescents, National Adolescents School-based Survey—PeNSE, 2015 (n = 16,336). Note: PA physical activity; SB sedentary behavior; F&V fruit and vegetables; SSB snacks, salt and beverages
Article
Background Clusters’ behaviors can change with age, moving from adolescence to adulthood.AimsThis study examined physical activity (PA), diet, and sedentary behavior (SB) clusters according to age groups (11–12, 13–15, 16–17, and 18–19 years) and its association with sex and maternal education.Methods Brazilian National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2015) (n = 16,522) data were analysed. Adolescents responded PA; consumption of fruits, vegetables; snacks, salt, and beverages (SSB); and SB. Two-step cluster analysis and Rao-Scott Chi square test were used.ResultsThe Actives; the All-day sitters; the Inactive 1 (with moderate consumption of F&V); and the Inactive 2 (with small consumption of F&V and SSB) clusters were identified. The Actives and All-day sitters existed in all age groups. The Inactive 1 were the cluster more prevalent in 11–12 (33.9%), 13–15 (42.5%) and 16–17 (43.8%) age groups while, All-day sitters were most prevalent in 18–19 (43.7%) age group. Boys were more likely to be in the Actives; as against girls in All-day sitters, Inactive 1 and 2 clusters. The Actives had a higher proportion of adolescents with low maternal education.ConclusionsSB increase in clusters over the increase of age group; else, adolescents in Actives groups decreased.
 
Body weight of ageing rats in different groups of study. The data are shown as mean ± SD. CON; uphill running (0 to + 15°), ECC; downhill running (ECC, 0 to − 15°); BCAA; Branched-chain amino acid
Gene expression of Akt (A) and mTOR (B) in soleus muscles of different groups of study. The data are shown as mean ± SD. * significant difference compared to control group (Without Nano-BCAA) (p < 0.05), # significant difference compared to Control with Nano-BCAA group (p < 0.05). CON; uphill running (0 to + 15°), ECC; downhill running (ECC, 0 to − 15°); BCAA; Branched-chain amino acid
Correlation between gene expression of Akt and mTOR in different groups of study. The data are shown as mean ± SD. CON; uphill running (0 to + 15°), ECC; downhill running (ECC, 0 to − 15°); BCAA; Branched-chain amino acid
Protein expression of mTOR in soleus muscles of different groups of study. The data are shown as mean ± SD. * significant difference compared to control group (Without Nano-BCAA) (p < 0.05), # significant difference compared to Control with Nano-BCAA group (p < 0.05). CON; uphill running (0 to + 15°), ECC; downhill running (ECC, 0 to − 15°); BCAA; Branched-chain amino acid
Article
AimThis study was aimed to consider the effects of uphill (concentric, CON) and downhill (eccentric, ECC) treadmill exercise with Nano-BCAA supplementation on muscle protein expression of Akt and mTOR.Methods Thirty aging male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of (n = 5 each group): control (healthy), uphill running (CON, 0 to + 15°), downhill running (ECC, 0 to − 15°), Nano-BCAA (BCAA with Nano-Chitosan), CON + Nano-BCAA, and ECC + Nano-BCAA. The exercise training was performed in an interval form, with 3 sessions per weeks lasting 8 weeks. BCAA (in Nano form) administered by gavage 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. RT-PCR was used to measure gene expression of Akt and mTOR. As well, protein expression of mTOR was performed by the IHC method.ResultsAdministration of BCAA with CON and ECC increased the Akt gene expression (p < 0.05). Co-treatment of Nano-BCAA and exercises leads to much higher values of Akt than does single treatment. Compared to the healthy control group (without Nano-BCAA), co-treatment of CON + Nano-BCAA and ECC + Nano-BCAA showed a significant increase in the mTOR gene expression (p < 0.05).Conclusion The use of walking exercises, especially with a negative or positive slope, along with proper nutrition (taking healthy supplements such as BCAA) could be effective in strengthening muscle tissue, especially at the cellular level (increasing the Akt/mTOR activity). It can be an optimal alternative for those who cannot use resistance training at old age.
 
Top-cited authors
Emerson Franchini
  • University of São Paulo
Federico Schena
  • University of Verona
Fabio Esposito
  • University of Milan
Giuseppe Coratella
  • Università degli Studi di MIlano
Hamdi Chtourou
  • Institut Supérieur du Sport et de l'Education Physique de Sfax, Université de Sfax, Tunisie