South East European Journal of Architecture and Design

Published by Scientific Foundation SPIROSKI

Online ISSN: 1857-9353


Published Papers about Interior Design from South East Europe in the Scopus Database (1977 - 2015)
  • Article

November 2015


15 Reads

Elena Nikoljski Panevski
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse current scientific impact of Published Papers about Interior Design from South East Europe in the Scopus Database (1977-2015). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Title search of the Scopus database was performed on October 02, 2015 about interior design from South East Europe in the Scopus Database (1960-2014). A total number of 5,808 documents worldwide were identified with “interior design” in the title, abstract or keywords. By limitation to South East European countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece, Kosovo, Moldova, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey, and Italy) only 151 documents were separated (2.6% of all documents). Selected documents were analysed by year, source, author, country/territory, document type, and subject area. RESULTS: The number of publication in the period of 1977-2005 year was very small and was increased with maximum of 19 papers in 2011 year. Three academic journals published most of the papers: Medicina Del Lavoro (14 papers); Work and Design Principles (5 papers), and Practices (4 papers). The biggest number of papers belongs to the author Nicoletti S with 6 papers, followed by Di Leone G, Carino M, Trani G, and Yildirim K (5 papers each). Universities from Turkey and Italy are dominant institutions which published academic papers. Prevalence of the published papers about interior design from South East Europe in the Scopus Database (1977-2015) was from Italy (67 papers), Turkey (55 papers), and Croatia (10 papers). Most of the documents published about Interior Design from South East Europe were articles and conference papers. Subject area medicine was predominant followed by engineering, social sciences, and others. CONCLUSION: Officials of the academic institutions in South East European countries should undertake more effective and proactive policies in order to include more journals in the Scopus database.

Macedonian Architecture From 19th Century in The Village of Leshok, Republic of Macedonia
  • Article
  • Full-text available

April 2021


4 Reads

INTRODUCTION: The old rural architecture in Macedonia is insufficiently studied and in many villages is in the process of extinction, especially in Western Macedonia where there are many villages whose inhabitants have emigrated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research is the folk architecture of the house in the village of Leshok, near Tetovo, and getting acquainted with the other types of objects that are part of the rural-economic yard and are inextricably linked to the daily work, life and customs of the peasant from this region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For analysis of the traditional architecture of the houses in the village of Leshok from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, 10 typical houses with different structure and location are chosen, which are identified and displayed by the Google Earth search engine. RESULTS: The basic characteristics of the architecture of the village house in Leshok are explained, where the economic yard together with the economic objects are included. The functional solutions of the foundations of houses from the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century are shown, the constructions used in the house of Leshok are described, as well as the materials that were used for their construction. In the end we get acquainted with the interior and the design of the premises in the old Macedonian house. CONCLUSION: Leshok belongs to the group of mountain villages of compact type. The configuration of the terrain, the dead riverbed, dictated the way of construction, where the houses are placed one above the other and each has a clear view of the valley. In that way, the basic architectural features of the Leshok house are formed. It is a typical mountain house built of stone and wood, on two floors and with an open veranda.

Typological representation of kitchens
Influence of Space Organisation on Kitchen Design From 2012 - 2022 in North Macedonia

February 2023


11 Reads

In the period from 2012 to 2022, the kitchen space is understood as the most economically frequent room, and in terms of specific requirements, the most complex for planning action. In the process of anthropological deposition and creation of these complex requirements, the kitchen project relies heavily on modern materials, and thus on new technologies. The paper will cover 20 (twenty) kitchen projects, concepts of existing projects from the Macedonian low-rise and high-rise housing structure with all their positive and negative aspects. The project is where everything begins and ends. The paper includes and makes typologies of projects that are most often encountered and projects for which the user experience shows through analyzes that they are accepted as functionally useful. By reviewing a series of changes in the architecture of kitchen spaces over the past 10 years, with a focus on the types of kitchens that were used and how they evolved over time according to the dimensions of the space and the needs of the user, the research focuses on the types of kitchens according to available kitchen dimensions.

Space in the 20th Century Theatre: 1. Theatre and Architecture

November 2015


6,328 Reads

AIM: The aim of this study is to present the state of the theatre and architecture as a part of Space in the 20th Century Theatre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three aspects of the architecture were described: theatre in the typology of architectural objects, theatre as a programme in architecture, and theatre as an art form. RESULTS: Theatre has never been, nor could it ever become a subject independent of architecture. Correspondingly, the stage space is not, and should not be a separate issue, the subject of "consultants", but a crucial and equally worthy part of the complex, rich and consistent structure of the theatre house - as a whole. The theatre house in its entirety becomes a public facility and begins to develop its central function in the city. From this point of view, it is not only that the theatre has not lost its traditionally dominant urban position, on the contrary, that position is constantly evolving. CONCLUSIONS: Theatre, based on interpersonal communications in real space and real time, provoking our experiences on the borderline between reality and illusion, and constantly questioning those boundaries, can possibly discover the “otherness of the real world”, that is to “change the nature of the individual, in order to change the essence of the world”.

Space in the 20th Century Theatre: 2. Determination, Consequence and Assumption

November 2015


196 Reads

BACKGROUND: Interaction of literature, visual and performing arts as well as media, especially in the second half of the twentieth century, has substantially transformed the technical and artistic resources the theatre uses.AIM: The aim of this study is to present determination, consequence and assumption as parts of Space in the 20th Century Theatre.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three aspects of the architecture were described in details: determination, consequence and assumption of the space in the 20th century theatre.RESULTS: The idea of theatre is conveyed through houses, books, research documents, history and theory, but it is also conveyed through "theatre people". This concept, can be and must be understood the two ways: as a guideline for a highly heterogeneous and inarticulate "global tribe", and at the same time, as the common name for members of a particular theatre - the theatre as a troupe, or theatre as a movement, but mostly the theatre as an institution of what we often call "the theatre house".CONCLUSION: The causal system of relationships between the theatre house, theatre people and theatre as an idea (or the idea of theatre) is the central theme of my understanding of the definitions, values and purpose of theatre.

Figure 1: Ada Bridge 
Table 1 : Analysis of methods for augmentation
Figure 4: Informational page in application 
Figure 5: AR presentation of 3D model 
Figure 6: AR presentation of video 
Presentation of Existing Architectural Objects Using Augmented Reality: Case study - Ada Bridge, Belgrade, Serbia

December 2015


423 Reads

The presentation of existing architectural objects is most often done because of its historic significance or design values. Contemporary methods of presentation imply the use of digital perspective images, videos, virtual reality or augmented reality. Augmented reality (AR) is computer technology where the perception of the user is enhanced by the seamless blending between real environment and computer-generated virtual objects coexisting in the same space. In this paper a case study of AR use for existing architectural object presentation for “Ada Bridge” across Sava River in Belgrade is presented.

Figure 2: Daniel Libeskind, the Jewish Museum in Berlin, part of the facade of the museum
Figure 3: Daniel Libeskind, the Jewish Museum in Berlin, installation of the Israeli sculptor Menashe Kadishmann-Fallen leaves
Memorial Architecture as the Symbol of Remembrance and Memories

June 2016


8,750 Reads

The aim of this study is to assess memory and remembrance in presenting important concepts that establish construction of space, architecture and memorialization of the Holocaust. Some examples of memorials as the visual arts in the evocations of the Holocaust indicate a change in the ideological image of memory and understanding approach to European heritage after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Architecturally, the memorial spaces created a system of allusions, coding of real space and new findings are part of the implementation and presentation of the architecture of memory.

Figure 1: An estimation of the total energy use in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2010 (NEEAP, February, 2012 p. 13) 
Figure 2: Final energy consumption, EU-28, 2014 (EUROSTAT, 2014) [5] 
Table 2 : Relative and absolute energy savings values
Figure 3: Total energy use for IEA member countries, 2013 (International Energy Agency, 2016: p. 6) [5] 
Assessment of the Energy Savings Potential in the Residential Building Stock in Bosnia and Herzegovina

November 2017


180 Reads

This paper intends to bring attention of both scientific and general audience to the status quo of the existing, residential building stock in Bosnia and Herzegovina, highlighting its energy savings potential. The research results presented in this text may be applicable on two levels: on a larger scale, the policy makers may use this data in the process of development of strategic and EE measures implementation plans, while, on a smaller scale, the individual users may gain practical insight into the benefits of energy saving measures and implement them in their own households. Moreover, the exposed data may be subject to further evaluations, studies and comparisons, while the presented methodology can be used by other researchers in countries where there have not been research activities on the existing residential buildings stock from the EE perspective.

Improvement of creativity via the six-steps bio-inspiration strategy

July 2017


1,342 Reads

Bionics is a relatively new interdisciplinary science, which synthesizes the knowledge of biology and other sciences. Industrial designers, architects and engineers find the application of principles and methods of bionics efficient for deriving inspiration and improving their creative thinking.Designers explore natural systems by adopting one of the two main bionic strategies: solution-driven or problem-driven approach. The first one deals with abstraction of the principle in biological systems as an inspiration for application in the product design process. The second one searches for a solution in natural systems for already recognized design problems.We adopted the Bi-directional bionic design method proposed by Versos and Coelho and started to implement it in our educational process. Many student projects have been made and important experience achieved. With this research we wanted to emphasize the possibilities and advantages of the bionic strategy and to offer our contribution for the phase of inspiration for a new product development or an improvement of the existing ones. Our main goal was to apply solution oriented strategy for efficient exploring of nature in the phase of searching for inspiration. We propose several steps in the process of exploration of natural systems followed by identification of important natural solutions and a structured way of documentation in order to become more noticeable and observable to attract an attention of designers and engineers. The recognized natural solutions could become a trigger for inspiration for various design solutions. The proposed strategy could be applied in the education of design and engineering students for improvement of their creativity.

Analysis of Heterogeneous Concepts during Projection of Facilities of Good Manufacturing Practice and Human Biobank

November 2015


2 Reads

The aim of this thesis is to analyse and to present heterogeneous concepts during projection of facilities of good manufacturing practice and human biobank.Feasibility study for bio banks of stem cells is prepared for one current health institution in Republic of Macedonia. The space covers 105 square meters for biobank for stem cells, as well as additional space. With this projects program are defined requested needs of the investor during preparation of the basic project for the biobank for stem cells. The prepared architectural – constructive solution allow smooth flow of the technology defined by the investor. The solution is optimal related to the function, construction and economics. It was established that in the Republic of Macedonia there is not present any kind of bank for stem cells, but there are present several liaison offices for collection and deposition of stem cells from several foreign countries. It is necessary to project, construct and to put in function several banks for stem cells in the Republic of Macedonia in order to fulfil the needs of patients with malignant diseases.

Umoljani Village on Bjelašnica: Life in the Way of Sustainability

May 2020


38 Reads

Bjelasnica Mountain occupies a central place in the geographical area of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to this fact, its altitude (2067 m), it is the border between Bosnia, on the one hand, and Herzegovina, on the other, and the border between the changed mediterranean and continental climates (while Bjelasnica itself has a mountainous to alpine climate). Due to these natural inputs, Bjelasnica is a „rain and snow catcher“, and because of its geological structure (mostly limestone), it is also the largest reservoir of water in B&H. That is why Bjelasnica is considered to be the „mother of B&H“, since at its base there are springs of two of the most important rivers in B&H (Bosnia and Neretva), and on its own (plateau of Bjelasnica) a large number of springs, watercourses, permanent lakes and bars. Natural conditions have been a magnet for inhabiting the Bjelasnica plateau, from prehistory to the present. Due to its specific natural values, in a combination of favorable social environment, Bjelasnica (with Jahorina, Trebevic and the city of Sarajevo itself) hosted the 14th Winter Olympic Games (1984) and subsequently hosted several FIS-races. The Umoljani village (geographical coordinates: 43° 40' 12.81'' N, 18° 13' 41.39'' E, about 1333 meters above sea level) is located on the southern slope of Bjelasnica mountain, in a gentle plain. The village belongs to the municipality of Trnovo (it is about 16.3 km away from Trnovo by air, 23 km from Sarajevo). Due to the abundance of natural resources (water, arable land, meadows, pastures, forests), the area of the Umoljani is constantly inhabited, from prehistory to the present. The presence of people in this area is evidenced by many cultural and historical monuments: antique hillforts, medieval necropolis of tombstones (stećci), remains of a medieval church, necropolis from the ottoman conquest and one of the oldest mosques in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1991-1995), the village lived in a more or less traditional way, within its traditional physical structure. During the war the village was flooded and its population was exiled. After the war, the village was quickly rebuilt, but in the changed socio-economic circumstances, and with architectural structures that in all respects reflect modern life. It is of the importance that the katun settlement (Gradina) above the village with traditional architectural objects is preserved, as a picture of the former Umoljani village. The Umoljani village is an exemplary study of the metamorphosis of settlements (driven by the changing social environment), in the rich natural environment where they continue to live, partly in the traditional way, and partly in the modern way, that is, in the way of sustainability.

Traditional Blacksmith Workshops (Majdani) In Ocevlje Near Vares

March 2023


2 Reads

Traditional blacksmith workshops (Majdani) are one of the examples of businesses in Bosnia and Herzegovina that have existed in their authenticity for more than five centuries (Geographical coordinates: 44º10'09.01''N, 18º27'52.79''E, elevation: 797). It is a specific way of producing a wide range of wrought iron products using resources from the immediate environment. Iron production has been a strategic issue since the beginning of human civilizations, both for the individual and for all levels of the social communities to which he belonged. The exploitation of iron ore, as well as its processing, was always strictly supervised and controlled by the very top of a social community (emperor, king, political and military top of the state).

Bosnian Cardaklia House: The Osmic Family's House in Mala Brijesnica near Gracanica

September 2020


20 Reads

The Osmic familyʹs house in Mala Brijesnica near Gracanica is located on flat terrain, on a slope with southwestern exposure. The house was built by Mr. Redzo Osmic in 1920-1926 years. The house is one of the most preserved examples of the authentic bosnian chardaklia house in Gracanica, but also in Bosnia and Herzegovina as a whole. The Osmic familyʹs house in Mala Brijesnica near Gracanica, according to the disposition of their horizontal plans, belongs to the type of three-tracs bosnian chardaklia house, which was developed through the basement, ground floor and first floor in a vertical slab. The dispositions of the horizontal plans of the house are designed in such a way that the house can be divided both horizontally and vertically into more autonomous housing units, which is one of the specifics of the Bosnian chardaklia house. According to its spatial concept, construction and materialization, and securing the cryptoclimate of space, the Osmic family house is an example of traditional bioclimatic architecture in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bosnian Chardaklia House: The Colic Familyʹs House in Vares

February 2022


5 Reads

The Colic familyʹs house is located at Nikovac Street no. 8 in Vares. Together with several houses on this street and houses in Matijevici and Benici streets, this house contributes to the ambience of this part of Vares where the values of the construction of the indigenous bosnian chardaklia house are still preserved. The house was built in the mid-19th century, within the well-known Vares Colic family, which had its own sawmill for cutting and processing wood. The house belongs to the type of three-tracks bosnian house with one divanhan. From the time of its construction to the present day, several renovations have been made on the house, both in the layout and materialization and in the furnishing of its interior. The house is still in use today, but occasionally.

Regeneration of Brownfield Area and Redundant Technical Culture Buildings to Symbols of Contemporary City

February 2016


1,100 Reads

Industrial complexes and technical culture complexes are significant morphological elements of the city.AIM: This paper focuses on the two European towns and showcases: Bilbao in Spain and Zagreb in Croatia.MATERIAL AND METHODS: The extravagant project of Gehry’s started the reformation of the Bilbao with growth of tourism and profit in general. Beside the urban regeneration, it started the trend of star-architects building their masterpieces one next to another along the river Nervion. This paper focuses on two complexes of technical culture buildings in Zagreb, presenting early conversion versus still unsolved regeneration.RESULTS: Former industrial city of Bilbao is nowadays a symbol of contemporary architecture featured by Guggenheim Museum and designed by Frank Ghery. It featured urban regeneration and numerous other examples of the contemporary architecture. This paper focuses as well on conversion of former wine-storage for mixed-use complex designed by Philippe Starck. The initial idea of the project was to revive the dying neighborhood because of the gentrification caused by the Guggenheim Museum. Zagreb intensive development in recent 150 years is based on industrialization process. After intensive deindustrialization, regeneration of redundant industrial complexes and technical culture buildings is segmented. Although the most prominent regenerations are significant architectural achievements winning the most prominent architectural awards, numerous complexes are awaiting for the conversions. Many of them are left to decay, or were demolished promptly, offering attractive location for new buildings that have been raised. This paper focuses on two complexes of technical culture buildings in Zagreb, presenting early conversion versus still unsolved regeneration. The first one is the avant-garde example of conversion of Tannery building for the Glypthotek of Yugoslav, i.e. Croatian Academy of Science and Art. The other example is Zagreb Fair, which realization since 1955 has initialized urbanization of late modern New Zagreb. Decay of Fair function, led to provisory or designed conversion of pavilions for new purposes, but the integral regeneration still is still missing.CONCLUSION:Urban regeneration should be considered seriously, and lead to transformation to contemporary city of 21st century.

Figure 1: The framework of the implementation of computer technology in the urban design process according to a cognitive approach (based on Batty at al. [15])
Theoretical Framework of Computer Cognition for Use in Urban Design Process

December 2015


4,083 Reads

AIM: The purpose of this paper is to highlight a new paradigm in the urban design practice, assigning a possible role to computer cognition in architecture.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Computer cognition is a synthesis of theories of cognitive science and the latest artificial intelligence-based computer principles. First, the development of computer systems used in architecture and urban design has been examined with the emphasis that one of the most important representations of urban systems is based on the cognitive aspect of urban environment.RESULTS: Thus, the relationship between urban environment and cognitive science and computer science has been established. A framework of the implementation of computer technology into the urban design process has also been created.CONCLUSIONS: Through the research framework of the new urban design tool – named DesignTool – the paper presents the initial theoretical postulates concerning the urban environment from the aspect of cognitive perception and their genesis.

Symbiosis as a Model of Connecting Urban Texture

November 2015


197 Reads

Today, the basic problems of architectural and urban design of the cities, is the way of connecting the urban fragments of the city as a whole and link them with different and important area of the city development, which is essential for the circulation and dynamics of the city. Specific urban fragments are connected or disconnected parts of the city that are recognizable as traces of the different layers of urban transformation through a consecutive publication of historical and structural processes that create a singular image of the city as a city collage-patch. The theoretical framework of the research concerns the theoretical concepts, movement of metabolism towards symbiosis, through works of: REM Koolhaas_”Project Japan”; Fuhimiko Maki_“Exploring the collective form”; Kisho Kurokawa_“Philosophy of Symbiosis”, Kenzo Tange_“Lineage of urban design” and The Urban Master Plan for the Reconstruction of Skopje; defining architecture as a living process; the relationship between architecture and its environment, in- between spaces etc. The analytical part includes analysis of existing sites through which passes river Serava. The three selected locations represent the permanence and the variability of the city in terms of unrelated parts and difficult to access, divided zones. Symbiosis as a model of intervention clearly define the concept of connecting urban public green spaces: City Park and area around cultural, historical monument Aquеduct and temporary housing arising from the same link; is aimed at a new time, or movement in different dimension of existence: the symbiosis of man and nature, a symbiosis of people and technology, a symbiosis of commerce and culture, a symbiosis of public and private, a symbiosis of different cultures, a symbiosis of work and play, a symbiosis of industry and society, a symbiosis of city and rural environment, a symbiosis of part and whole, etc. This study is generated by a new form of architecture and urban planning and sustainable development of the city, preliminary attempt to preserve the openness of the river Serava as an important natural resource that has an impact on the environment, converting it into a recreation area with pedestrian and bicycle paths that connects different zones; and place a new type of sustainable future transport - Еco cars. The urban connecting promenade offer and present different activities: temporary housing, public services, shops, kids playground, social spaces, workshops, exhibition spaces, and at the same time occupy free territories transforming into urban agriculture fields in a way to attract and to socialize different groups of users during the food production. The project is an experiment for a possible conceptual architecture and urban sustainable city development, according to the changing realities. The primary concept of the project includes scenarios of different transformations of the basic type, the area among public and private, define new lifestyles, spatial and programmatic mixes. In that sense, housing is a contextual element, not as objects but more as texture, as a condition of the field, that is moving into a rhythm, from the object to the composition.

Consumer - Oriented Street Furniture Design: Effects on the Identity of Urban Landscapes

July 2018


34 Reads

This master's thesis aims to analyze the effects of street furniture on the identity of urban landscapes and to develop a corresponding consumer-centred street furniture design solution. An understanding of three key aspects is necessary for the development of consumer-oriented street furniture which positively creates or co-creates the identity of the public space. These three aspects are: i) the users’ needs, preferences and perceptions; ii) meaning of, functions of, and interaction with street furniture; and iii) influence on the image and identity of the urban area. Historical overview, current trends, principles of street furniture design, criteria, consumer behaviour and behaviour of other stakeholders are presented in the chapter analysis and research. An overview of the most important principles of development of street furniture products - ergonomics, adaptability, inclusive design, modularity, bionics, eco-design, socialization and product life cycle - is also provided. The research and analysis consist of a literature review, survey, and concept evaluation by a multidisciplinary team of experts. First, key principles for the design of street furniture were identified based on the literature review and conducted the survey. Next, concepts were developed based on the survey and literature review findings. Last, following best practices in leading product design companies, these concepts were evaluated by a multidisciplinary group of experts in the fields of product design, architecture and urbanism, sociology, history of art, graphic design and local government. The evaluation was implemented through semi-structured interviews as part of which segmental grades and suggestions were developed for each concept. Based on the research, it can be concluded that the influence of street furniture on urban identity is twofold: through the creation of landmark and through the development of sentiment of belonging. Finally, the best-evaluated concept was developed, detailed and visually presented

Daylight, Definition, Interpretation and Application Today

October 2022


41 Reads

Light is a universal medium that illuminates our world. It is the key to discovering the mysteries of the universe, of the spiritual and physical dimensions of the human past, present and future. The history of light and its impact on our world is almost infinite, and through it we search for the origin of life and civilization. It is a story that starts with the beginning of the world and goes on all the way to the development of quantum physics. It unifies and intertwines the art, science, architecture, religion, and philosophy in time and space.

Figure 2: West silhouette -Dinamic composition of the school pavilions: A-Aula, B-classrooms, E-Gym
Figure 4: Detail-Section of Aula M=1:200
Figure 5: Typical architectural details of roof covering -Detail Section of Aula 1-1, M=1:20
Figure 8: Detail of west elevation -Gym, specification of fibercement boards on façade's envelope
Restoration of the Elementary School "Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi"-Skopje

October 2021


35 Reads

The post-earthquake rebuilding of Skopje provided valuable examples of modernist architecture that deserve to be included in the category of a protected building heritage. A prominent instance is the elementary school named after the famous Swiss educator and pedagogue "Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi", the first example in this area that introduces the practical application of deeply thought-out methods of integral education promoted by him in the early 19th century. Many contemporary architects have incorporated the efficient use of this educational concept, including the renowned Swiss architect Alfred Roth, creating a unique sample of a school that includes specific geographic and regional features (climatic, seismic, cultural - aesthetic). In terms of properties, the building contains originality, rarity, and aesthetic-artistic value. With reference to other criteria, it also includes the value of authentic preservation, which is in crisis without adoption of adequate and prompt protection and restoration measures. In respect of protecting the school from further destruction, the Swiss Embassy in Skopje made an official request for a study and design documents for the school reconstruction by detecting all critical issues, developed and executed by the expert team from the Faculty of Architecture in Skopje. This paper, which is based on the results of the research, conducted by us as a part of the group, aims to elaborate the methodological approach of the analyses contained in the study, which, as a pre-design procedure, provided a solid base for developing design documents. A significant component of the study that needs to be emphasized was the use of computer technology throughout the work process, using parametric insertion of structural and other elements of the building's architecture into a 3D model. This approach allowed the generation of architectural details across any part of the facility in an exact form, which proved extremely useful through the process of constructing the design documents.

Application of Positive Design Principles Towards Improvement of Human Mental Health

June 2018


8 Reads

In this master thesis, a research process for obtaining a creative solution which will contribute to solving problems created by the "urban jungle" we live in, and will help for the general improvement of people's mental health is presented. This goal is achieved by a detailed interdisciplinary research and application of modern methods and principles in the field of industrial design. The research allowed a better view of the problem-lack of adequate spaces in the city for productive time spending and increasing positive moods-that needs to be solved, and better defining of the main needs and desires of the target group from which the concepts and ideas emerged. Generally, this research, besides the theoretical analysis of the subject positive design, contains ethnographic research methods like observation of the target group, collecting photo materials, analysis of different situations, informative polls, analysis and systematization of data. In addition, the research is complemented in the field of urban design from aspect of analysis of the urban design principles, design for good mental health, existing ideas of urban solutions around the world and in Macedonia, and also, application of modular systems, ergonomics and inspiration from nature for eco design in urbanism. As a result of all the research done in this master thesis, an innovative, urban pavilion was designed. Pavilion which would achieve the goal-stress reduction and alleviating the everyday life of residents of modern cities. Also, the need for increasing awareness about the significance of positive design in the modern lifestyle was promoted, since design is the main element in all our surroundings that allows possibilities for deep influence in the way we think and feel which means that it can be used as a tool to improve the general wellbeing and society advancement.

Figure 4: Model predicted average HEALTH estimate with corresponding 95% CI* Legend:* dependant on bedroom rating, feng shui and stress variables (at average age)
P-values of the variance analysis* for mixed models: SLEEP, WELL-BEING, AWAKENING and HEALTH (without p- value correction)
Parameter estimates and their 95% CI for mixed model for SLEEP (with p-value correction) *
Parameter estimates and their 95% CI for mixed model for WELL-BEING (with p-value correction) *
Impact of Feng Shui Bedrooms on Self-Assessed Sleep and Well- Being: A Randomized Double-Blind Field Research with Instrumental Biocommunication

May 2021


72 Reads

Chinese feng shui is well-researched in social sciences but under-researched regarding its impact on the well-being of users. The main problem is the isolation of feng shui effects. Participants (n = 134) provided a photograph of their bedroom onto which feng shui recommendations were sent long distance (for 4 months), using an instrumental biocommunication device with a computer, white-noise diode and fengshui recommendations database. Three groups were formed, one acted as control (double-blind protocol). Data was collected through self-evaluating questionnaires (n = 10) on the quality of sleep and well-being. Data were statistically evaluated with R environment using linear mixed models and the analyses of variables: feng shui support, stress, age, and bedroom evaluation. Results for sleep show feng shui as the most statistically significant variable (p = <0.001). For each day the value for sleep increases by 0.003 on the Likert scale 1-5. In 120 days, it increases by 0.36. The impact is dynamic and in direct connection with the level of our living environment satisfaction, stress, and age. For well-being most statistically significant are stress (p<0.001) and the interaction of feng shui and bedroom rating (p<0.001). Positive feng shui impact is highest for participants without stress and low satisfaction with the bedroom environment.

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