South African Journal of Industrial Engineering

Online ISSN: 1012-277X
Knowledge of ISO 9001 Further information indicates that 21 of the 35 participants are indeed ISO-certified, indicating that the system is widely accepted in South Africa, but that improvements are indeed necessary. The data suggests that most of these companies have been certified for longer than five years. 
ISO 9001 Certification by participants 
Evaluation of the use of SPC tools 
Conference Paper
This research article evaluates the influence from quality concepts and tools in a manufacturing environment on parameters that may affect future design and development of products in the same company. It attempts to establish how quality results can be utilised to determine the level of quality control tools such as quality function deployment and concurrent engineering in a company that designs for manufacture. By establishing links from quality results and customer requirements, the research determines what critical quality tools are necessary to determine the capability of manufacturing an item without the use of excessive planning resources. Research was performed on four distinct subject matters namely design, manufacture, quality control and concurrent engineering and the results of the research was implemented in a design and manufacturing environment with the purpose of establishing direct links between quality control results and design parameters to increase future development. The research also establishes, by means of a questionnaire, the level of certification to quality standards of South African manufacturing companies, while determining their knowledge in regard to quality, its tools and concepts, as well as the level to which these are implemented and utilised in manufacturing entities.
International Technology Transfer process for the financial services industry 4.2.1 Organisational competitive advantage
Conference Paper
International technology transfer (ITT) processes are complex, risky, and fail often. When financial services organisations have the opportunity to transfer their business model and core technologies to a foreign market, comprehensive technology and market research are compulsory. Numerous applicable theories and models in technology transfer were reviewed to develop such a model. Interviews with key individuals and focus group sessions were used to rank factors that affect the success of ITT in the financial services industry; more specifically the direct short term insurance industry. These success factors were implemented in the developed market evaluation model where the user is required to enter evaluation values for each factor. The evaluation model then delivers a value that represent the market potential. This model can be used to evaluate between one and many potential markets. Two factors an organisation must always be aware of is the influence stakeholders have on the ITT process and what ITT strategy is employed.
Conference Paper
South Africa is currently in the grips of a severe power supply capacity constraint; January 2007 has already seen blackouts throughout the country, the worst is still expected in the months to come. As a measure of immediate remedy Eskom is turning to Demand Side Bidding (DSB); a methodology whereby the demand side has an opportunity to sell back flexible load to the supply side. Through this paper an assessment of DSB is carried out, with the aim of evaluating and gauging the current and potential future standing of DSB as a technology product within the South African context. The assessment is carried out using the technology balance sheet, the technology road map and the scenarios approach. The results of the assessment show that DSB is not a sustainable solution to the current power supply capacity constraint Eskom is facing.
Conference Paper
During the past decade corporate governance has received ample attention. Lately the principles of governance have been applied to other management disciplines, especially project management. This evolution of the concept of project governance resulted in various uses and applications of the term, causing confusion among academics and practitioners in various industries. Especially for large capital projects the formal definition of the term 'project governance', and agreement on the content of a project governance model, have been largely neglected. This paper reports on exploratory work to define the concept of governance for large capital projects. An international Delphi survey, that involved credible practitioners as well as academics, was conducted to better define the term 'project governance'. Finally, the paper introduces a framework for project governance.
Tax ratio and economic growth rate in South Africa: scatter of annual observations
a: b:  
The optimum level of government intervention in the economy has been researched extensively internationally but not in South Africa. This paper is primarily concerned with assessing the optimum size of government in terms of revenue and expenditure for South Africa, in order to maximize economic growth, using time series data for the period 1960 to 2006. The results indicate that the actual average tax burden far exceeds its optimum level and that the authorities will have to adjust tax policy accordingly in order to improve on the level of economic growth. The optimum level of taxation is estimated within a balanced budget scenario.
Manufacturing companies operate in a business environment where, due to the factors such as cost and location of the infrastructure, incremental growth and competitive advantage may be a result of in-house construction projects. Competitive advantage may be realised by effective management of the critical success factors of in-house construction projects. These projects often tend to be of a brown-field nature and are characterised by a high degree of uncertainty, predominantly due to the interaction between the project and the existing physical asset base. In this regard, it is vital to understand the factors that influence the success of capital and renewal construction projects in the brown-field context. Although each project has unique features, there are critical success factors which can be customised towards successful outcomes in the brown-field environment. Based on a survey of recent projects, this paper examines critical success factors applicable to brown-field capital and renewal construction projects. The paper also provides an empirical assessment of the degree of managerial focus on the critical success factors and its impact on the outcome of brown-field construction projects.
Conference Paper
The key objective is to develop a method which can be utilized to model a stochastic continuous system. A system from the "real world" is used as the basis for the simulation modelling technique that is presented. The conceptualization phase indicates that the model has to incorporate stochastic and deterministic elements. A method is developed that utilizes the discrete simulation ability of a stochastic package (ARENA), in conjunction with a deterministic package (FORTRAN), to model the continuous system. (Software packages tend to specialize in either stochastic, or deterministic modelling.) The length of the iteration time interval and adequate sample size are investigated. The method is authenticated by the verification and validation ofthe defined model. Two scenarios are modelled and the results are discussed . Conclusions are presented and strengths and weaknesses of this method are considered and discussed .
Tree depicting the Von Neumann-Morgenstern utility theory concept 
Asset management is an important part of any organisation, as it allows them to extract value from their assets. The publicly-available specification for asset management (PAS 55) outlines what a standardised asset management system should consist of. The newly-proposed series of standards from the International Organizations for Standardization (the ISO 55000 series) also aims to provide a standardised framework for an asset management system. Both of these documents, however, only tell organisations what should be done, not how to do it. This article provides an introductory overview of numerical tools that an organisation can use when implementing an asset management system, and provides resources for further reading.
The different life cycle phases of an introduced technology in the process industry that must be considered
Close (30 km) and remote (500 km) areas affected by regional pollutants of the Secunda manufacturing facility
House prices in the vicinity of the Secunda plant (in Rands) 
p>ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A Sustainability Cost Accounting (SCA) procedure has been introduced that expresses the impacts on sustainable development associated with a developed technology, by means of a common financial denominator. This paper uses a case study to demonstrate and assess the SCA procedure, which considers the construction and operation of a hypothetical Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuelmanufacturing facility at a specific location in South Africa. The SCA indicators show that the negative environmental impacts associated with the GTL technology outweigh the internal economic benefits for the company. However, a net positive social benefit is associated with the technology, which decision-makers should consider with respect of the overall sustainability of the technology. Certain limitations of the SCA procedure are highlighted, and recommendations are made to develop such a methodology further. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Volhoubaarheid Koste-Rekeningkunde prosedure (VKR) word voorgestel waarvolgens die impakte van ’n ontwikkelde tegnologie op volhoubaarheid in ’n gemeenskaplike finansiële waarde aangegee kan word. ’n Gevallestudie word hier gebruik om die VKR-prosedure te demonstreer. Die gevallestudie beskryf die konstruksie en bedryf van ’n hipotetiese Gas-tot-Vloeistof brandstofvervaardigingsfasiliteit (GTV) in ‘n spesifieke area van Suid-Afrika. Die VKR-indikators dui aan dat die negatiewe omgewingsimpakte van die GTV tegnologie tot ‘n geringe mate groter is as die interne ekonomiese voordele vir die maatskappy. Die tegnologie het wel oorwegende positiewe sosiale voordele wat besluitnemers in ag moet neem wanneer die globale volhoubaarheid van die tegnologie ge-assesseer word. Sekere beperkinge van die VKR-prosedure word uitgelig en voorstelle word gemaak om dié tipe metodologie verder te ontwikkel.</p
A proposed operational sustainability assessment framework [8]
p>ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The development and management of new technologies is fundamental to the manufacturing sector as a core operational initiative. Managers of a new technology are increasingly pressurised to consider the economic, environmental, and social impacts associated with the life cycle of the technology (and product) during decision-making – i.e. the overall sustainability of the technology. At present, there is no consensus on a methodology to incorporate externalities – for example, environmental and social impacts at macro-level, for which a company is (typically) not held financially liable – into management practices. This paper introduces the Sustainability Cost Accounting (SCA) procedure, whereby externalities (burdens and benefits) are translated into financial terms to assess the overall sustainability performance of a developed technology in the process industry. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Sentrale operasionele initiatief van die vervaardigings-industrie is die ontwikkeling en bestuur van nuwe tegnologieë. Bestuurders van nuwe tegnologieë word toenemend onder druk geplaas om die ekonomiese-, omgewings-, en sosiale impakte, wat verwant is aan die lewenssiklus van ‘n tegnologie (of produk), in ag te neem tydens besluitneming ten opsigte van die globale volhoudbaarheid van die tegnologie. Op hierdie stadium is daar geen konsensus oor die metodologie wat gevolg moet word om eksterne faktore – bv. omgewings- en sosiale impakte op makrovlak, waarvoor ‘n maatskappy tipies nie aanspreeklik gehou word nie – te inkorporeer in die bestuurpraktyk. Hierdie artikel stel die Volhoudbaarheid Kosterekeningkunde (VKR) prosedure voor, waarvolgens die oorgrote volhoudbare prestasie, in terme van eksterne voor- en nadele van ‘n ontwikkelde tegnologie, in die prosesindustrie ge-assesseer kan word in finansiële terme.</p
Five year stock history 3 LINKING ASSET CARE INTO MPT  
Efficient frontier of data from case study  
Productivity improvement within any organisation can lead to increased turnover. This study focuses on developing a maintenance productivity improvement model that is based upon an established financial investment portfolio technique known as the Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT). The model can be used as a tool to minimise and diversify the long term risk associated with variances or fluctuations in the increase in productivity in multiple maintenance service centres. This is achieved by optimising the most efficient way of splitting resources, such as time and money, between these multiple service centres, resulting in increased productivity and a more constant maintenance work load. This model is verified through the use of an efficient frontier, resulting in a graphical method to determine the link between the expected increase in productivity and the standard deviation of the increase in productivity. Ultimately this model can be adapted for use in many sectors within an organisation, over and above the application in maintenance prioritisation. This study concludes that the model offers a simple tool to aid decision-making among various combinations of assets within a maintenance context; and this model, adapted from MPT, was successfully validated with the use of an efficient frontier.
Probability of achieving MFOP length for Crusher 3 
MFOP performance for all three crushers 
This paper analyses the use and possible application of the concept of the maintenance free operating period (MFOP), derived from the aviation sector, in the mining industry. The traditionally used reliability requirement, mean time between failure (MTBF), has been found to have several inherent problems with its application and definition. These problems are explained in this paper. It also provides a brief overview of the field of physical asset management (PAM), the overall domain of the research, and thereafter provides a characterisation of MTBF and its current use in the mining industry. MFOP is then introduced and contrasted with MTBF. A methodology for the analysis of MFOP performance is introduced and then applied to a case study conducted at an Anglo American platinum mine.
During 2008 and 2009, post-apartheid South Africa and the global community experienced major economic turbulence, bringing into focus the need for skills development across the major South African economic sectors to resuscitate its failing economy. The solutions lay in organisations re-evaluating their current operational strategies by streamlining their organisations, and adopting aggressive, lean, and cost-saving approaches to remain competitive. The study introduced the need to address this issue by exploring the environments that play a role in the quality of life in South Africa. A qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis approach was used to establish the skills gap between the business market and training institutes, in an effort to alleviate the negative effects of the current state of the economy. The need for skills growth and for cost-cutting, cost-saving, and an optimisation skill - a skill descriptively and applicably seen in industrial engineering - is apparent. The role of graduate institutions in facilitating the growth of human capital development in the work environment has become a critical factor in South Africa, aimed at improving the productivity and economic growth of the country. In this paper, the focus is on three main areas of discussion: the institutional environment of students; exploring the student-lecturer relationship; and the work environment. The study highlights the influence these three environments have on industrial engineering skills and competencies attained by industrial engineering university student graduates, and how this ultimately creates a way for the South African economy to grow.
Approach to the development of the DDSs
Telemedicine applications have had much success in strengthening health systems worldwide. Unfortunately, many systems are implemented without decisions based on proper needs assessments. In South Africa, this 'Technology push' approach has led to a large amount of equipment standing dormant. It is proposed that the potential of telemedicine be measured prior to implementation, thus 'pulling' the technology towards a clinical need. A decision support system is developed that uses health informatics and computational intelligence to determine the need for telemedicine and to allocate equipment in a network of facilities to achieve the best cost benefit. The system facilitates the collection and storage of electronic health record (EHR) data in a data warehouse. A linear programming model is used with a genetic algorithm. The system was developed and tested for the South African public health sector, using data from 27 hospitals in the Western Cape Province. Results have shown that if telemedicine workstations with specific peripheral equipment, as determined by the algorithm, were implemented in the given period, an estimated R8.7 million in referral costs could have been saved for the 27 hospitals. Thus the case study provided evidence for the benefits of implementation in the chosen network of hospitals. This new application of health informatics could provide telemedicine management with a useful tool for making implementation decisions based on evidence. Future work would include the development of similar systems for other markets.
Number of respondents per production method
Awareness of maintenance approaches (formal training)
Awareness of maintenance approaches (implementation experience)
Awareness of maintenance approaches per production method (formal training)
Life cycle phase to decide on a suitable maintenance approach
Various production methods are used in industry to manufacture or produce a variety of products needed by industry and consumers. The nature of a product determines which production method is most suitable or cost-effective. A continuous process is typically used to produce large volumes of liquids or gases. Batch processing is often used for small volumes, such as pharmaceutical products. This paper discusses a research project to determine the relationship between maintenance approaches and production methods. A survey was done to determine to what extent three maintenance approaches - reliability-centred maintenance (RCM), total productive maintenance (TPM), and business-centred maintenance (BCM) - are used for three different processing methods (continuous process, batch process, and a production line method).
Article map (by year of publication) 
Distribution of articles surveyed for mathematical models 
p>ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The main purposes of this paper are to enhance the understanding of manufacturing resources planning models under uncertain conditions by documenting the current state of affairs, and to stimulate a fruitful future research direction by identifying gaps between the relevant issues and the literature available in reputable journals. This paper is a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the existing literature on manufacturing resource planning models under uncertainty. The authors have found that the combined effects/ impacts of the uncertainty factors on the system parameters have yet to be thoroughly studied. So far no research has been conducted into developing mathematical model(s) to study the uncertainty issues holistically in multi-period, multiple product, and multi-stage environments for manufacturing resources planning in association with commonality. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die primêre doel van hierdie artikel is om die insig in vervaardigingshulpbronbeplanning onder onsekerheid te bevorder. Die huidige stand van sake word ondersoek en gapings word uitgewys aan die hand van literatuur beskikbaar in gesaghebbende joernale. Die outeurs bevind in die studie dat die sisteemparameters en die invloed van onsekerheid daarop nog nie voldoende bestudeer is nie. Geen navorsing is nog onderneem om wiskundige modelle te ontwikkel om op holistiese wyse die impak van onsekerheid in multi-periode, veelvoudige produk en multi-stadium omgewing te bestudeer nie.</p
Characteristic relationships between product variety and automated assembly [8] The aim of this research was to develop and test design principles for reconfigurable assembly stations that will simplify their automation and eliminate the necessity for set-up changes when used for MCM. Design principles were also formulated for assembly stations that promote a First In First Out (FIFO) work flow, thereby negating the tardiness and manufacturing control complexity introduced by batch scheduling. The paper proceeds as follows: Section 2 reviews relevant literature on the design of reconfigurable assembly systems. Section 3 presents complexity models for mass 
The economical production of mass customised and high variety goods is a challenge facing modern manufacturers. This challenge is being addressed, in part, by the on-going development of technologies that facilitate the manufacturing of these goods. Existing technologies require either excessive inbuilt flexibility or frequent changes to the machine set up to provide the manufacturing functions required for the customisation process. This paper presents design principles for automated assembly stations within the scope of mass customisation. Design principles are presented that minimise the hardware and operating complexities of assembly stations, allowing stations to be easily automated for concurrent mixed model assembly with a First In First Out (FIFO) scheduling policy. A reconfigurable assembly station is developed to demonstrate how the proposed design methods simplify the creation and operation of an assembly station for a product family of flashlights.
An introduced sustainable development framework [26] 
p>ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Industries are increasingly under pressure to incorporate the objectives of sustainable development into company policies and decision-making processes. This study introduces a framework of sustainability assessment criteria that are relevant to projects and developments in industry. The study attempts to establish whether the professional exposure and experience of decision-makers at different management levels influence the individual’s perceptions of the relative importance of the three main dimensions of the framework. The study finds that exposure and experience do not influence the weighting values. The study further highlights the importance of distinguishing between internal decision-making within industry and external decision-making where assessments are used for public reporting. That is, the context within which the three dimensions are weighted greatly determines individual and societal perceptions. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Volhoubaarheid Koste-Rekeningkunde prosedure (VKR) word voorgestel waarvolgens die impakte van ’n ontwikkelde tegnologie op volhoubaarheid in ’n gemeenskaplike finansiële waarde aangegee kan word. ’n Gevallestudie word hier gebruik om die VKR-prosedure te demonstreer. Die gevallestudie beskryf die konstruksie en bedryf van ’n hipotetiese Gas-tot-Vloeistof brandstofvervaardigingsfasiliteit (GTV) in ‘n spesifieke area van Suid-Afrika. Die VKR-indikators dui aan dat die negatiewe omgewingsimpakte van die GTV tegnologie tot ‘n geringe mate groter is as die interne ekonomiese voordele vir die maatskappy. Die tegnologie het wel oorwegende positiewe sosiale voordele wat besluitnemers in ag moet neem wanneer die globale volhoubaarheid van die tegnologie ge-assesseer word. Sekere beperkinge van die VKR-prosedure word uitgelig en voorstelle word gemaak om dié tipe metodologie verder te ontwikkel.</p
The management of physical assets has become a popular field recently, and is acknowledged in many disciplines worldwide. Physical Asset Management (PAM) is a complex subject that requires the participation of many disciplines. Maintenance management, together with accurate and effective decisionmaking, is vital for achieving successful PAM. The primary objective of this research project was to identify the possibility of simplifying maintenance-related decision-making. With the focus on numerical decision-making techniques, the secondary objective was to investigate the practicality and useability of combining appropriate techniques to create an easily useable and understandable methodology to support maintenance-related decisions. The results confirm the practicality and useability of a simplified numerical decision-making methodology. By concentrating on the core operational questions related to maintenance, and by combining the most appropriate techniques, a simplified numerical decision-making methodology can ease the decision-making process on an operational level. This can accomplish successful PAM in a proactive, preventive and simplified manner.
Summaries in English and Afrikaans. Thesis (M.Eng.)(Industrial)--University of Pretoria, 2004.
Middle management as the change initiator (Source: Bamford & Forrester [29])  
Generic organisational culture change activity framework  
Lean culture causal activity category selection process Source: Researcher's own construction  
Lean organisational culture change framework  
Although it is generally accepted that lean manufacturing improves operational performance, many organisations are struggling to adapt to the lean philosophy. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a more effective strategy for implementing the lean manufacturing improvement philosophy. The study sets out both to integrate well-researched findings and theories related to generic organisational culture with more recent research and experience related to lean culture, and to examine the role that culture plays in the effective implementation of lean manufacturing principles and techniques. The ultimate aim of this exercise is to develop a theoretical lean culture causal framework.
In this paper we study an extension of a classic newsvendor model with balking under a service-level constraint. We also relax the assumption that the demand distribution is fully available to a decision-maker; we assume that only the mean and variance of the demand distribution are known, and discuss the procedure for determining the optimal order quantity for the concomitant model. We further extend our base model to two different cases: (i) when the fixed ordering cost is included, and (ii) when yield is uncertain. We illustrate the solution procedures for each case with numerical examples. Moreover, we discuss the performance and robustness of the approach through randomly generated test instances, and perform a numerical sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of the changes of a targeted fill-rate and variances of a demand distribution.
In this paper, laser beam melting technology is applied to the manufacture of defined porous metal structures using the exposure strategies of the machine manufacturer. It turns out that specific filter characteristics such as density, permeability, pore size, porosity, and shear strength are comparable to conventionally-made porosities [1]. To overcome some restrictions imposed by the default settings of the machine manufacturer, and to manufacture ultra-lightweight products, our own investigations - such as direct slicing -lead to an alternative exposure strategy for the laser. Here unique exposure lines, with their corresponding start and end points, are individually designed according to their practical needs. Even though this procedure is very complex and time-consuming, it leads to new possibilities for the perfusion of liquid or gaseous fluids that run through metal walls. In summary, the adjustment of the functional porosity of laser beam melted parts made of metal material is the focus of this investigation; and with it, the variation and determination of the proper process parameters is essential. With the easily adjustable porosities and pore sizes that are investigated, combined with the geometric freedom of laser beam melting, very complex elements can be integrated into one part; and this also leads to new fields of application.
Composition of powder beds
Laser processing parameters
Vickers hardness measure, from the deposited layer to the substrate.  
Coating is a technology for improving the surface properties of components. Laser coating produces uniform composition with thickened layers that display a good metallurgical bond to the base material. These coatings are dense and crack-free, and have non-porous microstructures. The advantages of the process are that the components' surface will have high resistance to wear and corrosion, even at elevated temperatures. In this work, Ti6Al4V base material was coated with zirconium and zirconia composite material to improve the base material's resistance to corrosion and wear. Zirconium powder mixed with binder (PVA and cold glue) was melted to produce a thin layer, which was then bonded to the Ti6Al4V by irradiation with a fibre laser, thus forming a zirconium + zirconia composite due to an in-situ reaction in the liquid state. The presence of binder in the Zr powder indicated a change in the microstructural behaviour, as the results showed a gradual increase in the hardness of the coated Ti6Al4V from top to bottom. It was also found that Zr + PVA binder coating was uniformly deposited, and had a less dendritic structure compared with Zr without binder or Zr with cold glue.
This article presents a framework for developing and designing a business model to target the bottom of the pyramid (BoP) population. Using blue ocean strategy and business model literature, integrated with research on the BoP, the framework offers a systematic approach for organisations to analyse and understand all aspects of the BoP and their environment, and then design a business model that minimises the risk of failure and fulfils the core requirements of the BoP. A case study on Capitec Bank demonstrates how the framework can be applied to the real world. The case study shows the practical examples that Capitec uses to target the BoP successfully, and the logic behind these actions. Further validation was done through interviews with experts in the relevant fields used in this study.
b: Functional view of organisation chart and functional decomposition  
Screenshot of the simulation model  
Extract of the simulation results  
The role and position of business process management in an organisation depends on the value it contributes to the organisation's sustainability. Business process design ensures that the conceptual business process strategy is translated into appropriate user requirements and functional requirements, and is ultimately implemented through some kind of enabling mechanism. In reality, business process design proves, at best, to be difficult when capturing and translating the complexity of business systems. In this paper, the concept of a business fractal is introduced to demonstrate an alternative way of doing business process design.
The rare, unaccounted for, events beyond the reach of strategic management  
a) An example of 'unbound' downside risk with limited upside, and b) 'unbound' upside risk with a limited downside – adapted from Taleb [6]  
Rephrased Black Swan questions
The positing of feedback from synthesis to fragility analysis phase  
Rare events, known as ‘Black Swans’, have determined the course of history. One of these was the global economic crisis of 2008. Such events highlight fields like strategic management and their shortcomings in helping to prepare organisations. The Strategic Framework for Improbable Circumstances was designed to add to the strategic management process by improving organisational preparation for these rare events. The framework was validated through interviews with experts who showed the need for such a framework, and who confirmed that it is a good first step for organisations to take towards addressing these Black Swan events.
Urgent appointment scheduling for urgent and routine patients 
The increasing demand for outpatient services has led to overcrowded clinics, long waiting times for patients, and extended staff working hours in outpatient clinics. Simulation tools have been used to ameliorate deficiencies in the appointment system, resource allocation, and patient flow management that are the root causes of these problems. Integrated studies that considered these three factors together produced better results than attempts to resolve individual causes. While simulation has proved to be an effective problem-solving tool for outpatient clinic management, there is still room for improvement. This paper reviews studies over the past 50 years that have applied management simulation to resolve outpatient clinic problems.
Example of solution represented as an associative array
Scheduler summarised code
Fitness evaluation function of the number of Iterations 
Fitness evaluation function of time 
Resources allocation and scheduling of service workflows is an important challenge in distributed computing. This is particularly true in a cloud computing environment, where many computer resources may be available at specified locations, as and when required. Quality-of-service (QoS) issues such as execution time and running costs must also be considered. Meeting this challenge requires that two classic computational problems be tackled. The first problem is allocating resources to each of the tasks in the composite web services or workflow. The second problem involves scheduling resources when each resource may be used by more than one task, and may be needed at different times. Existing approaches to scheduling workflows or composite web services in cloud computing focus only on reducing the constraint problem - such as the deadline constraint, or the cost constraint (bi-objective optimisation). This paper proposes a new genetic algorithm that solves a scheduling problem by considering more than two constraints (multi-objective optimisation). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of the proposed algorithm.
Research framework
This study probes the correlation of types of operational strategy, degrees of organisational learning, types of organisational culture, the degree of the application of e-commerce, and operational performance among high-tech firms in Taiwan. The data was collected by questionnaires distributed via mail to senior supervisors at high-tech firms in six industries at three Taiwanese science parks. The results showed that a higher degree of e-commerce application leads to a significant and positive effect on operational performance. This study suggests that, in order to upgrade operational performance, firms should enhance their organisational learning and e-commerce, along with their rational, hierarchical, consensual, and developmental cultures, and the execution of prospector and defender strategies.
1: Objectives of the research  
There is a need to determine the performance benefits that firms gain from enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, and the factors that contribute to success. Consequently, the central research problem is: To determine the impact of ERP systems on organisational performance by analysing achieved ERP benefits within the framework of a suitable performance measurement system (PMS), and to investigate the association between critical success factors (CSFs) and ERP benefits. A list of expected ERP benefits and CSFs is compiled. Performance measurement models are evaluated, and one model is designed to evaluate ERP impact. ERP experts refine identified ERP benefits and CSFs using structured interviews. These are built into a questionnaire, and used to survey South African (SA) companies in manufacturing, mining, and power generation. Results indicate that business benefits are realised by companies that implement ERP systems. By building benefits into the performance measurement model, a positive impact on organisational performance is observed. Although a core list of CSFs is identified, and three associations are found between CSFs and ERP benefits, further research is needed.
The rating sheet of categories
Importance of the lean production categories
The implementation of lean manufacturing concepts has had a significant impact on various industries. Many companies around the world have attempted to implement lean manufacturing, but the lack of an obvious understanding of lean measurement and its performance has caused its implementation to fail. This paper presents an innovative approach by using fuzzy TOPSIS to measure the production leanness of manufacturing systems, as a paradigm. This approach is applied to the Parizan Sanat company.
Past studies of performance management systems (PMS) have focused more on designing the framework and less on the effect it has on employees. Moreover, employees in developing countries may not be knowledgeable or familiar with PMS. This paper proposes two competing statistical models to examine the roles that supervisor support (SS) has in engineering organisations. It was found that SS is a mediator, but not a moderator, in the relationship between PMS and employee job satisfaction. In other words, SS partially explains why employees have positive perceptions of their jobs based on their evaluation of the current PMS; SS thus enhances the PMS in engineering organisations.
Microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is a three-dimensional (3D) non-destructive technique that is useful in many research and technology fields. Similar to two-dimensional (2D) X-ray inspections, this 3D technology allows the investigation of almost any material down to 1 micron spatial resolution and higher. In this paper we present a characterisation and demonstration of the use of CT to analyse the 3D volume of laser sintered parts including analyses of porosity, dimensional measurement of cracks and other features, and a demonstration of quality testing methods which can be used to quickly identify problems in production.
Pallet Depiction and Recognition 
Data Fusion Applications 
Manufacturing companies of today face unpredictable, high frequency market changes driven by global competition. To stay competitive, these companies must have the characteristics of cost-effective rapid response to the market needs. As an engineering discipline, mechatronics strives to integrate mechanical, electronic, and computer systems optimally in order to create high precision products and manufacturing processes. This paper presents a methodology of increasing flexibility and reusability of a generic computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) cell-control system using simulation and modelling of mechatronic sensory system (MSS) concepts. The utilisation of sensors within the CIM cell is highlighted specifically for data acquisition, analysis, and multi-sensor data fusion. Thus the designed reference architecture provides comprehensive insight for the functions and methodologies of a generic shop-floor control system (SFCS), which consequently enables the rapid deployment of a flexible system.
Mind map of the Technology Management field of knowledge 
Conceptual technology management framework at firm level (adopted from Phaal et al., 2004)
Life cycle system for large-scale resource-oriented technologies (adopted from Brent et al., 2005b; 2007)
Framework to evaluate the sustainability performances of operational initiatives (adopted from Labuschagne et al., 2005b)
p>ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The search for consensus on spent fuel management (SFM) strategies in the nuclear industry has become complex, not least in the South African context. This study identifies three SFM options: reprocessing-and-recycling, direct disposal, and indefinite storage. From the contentious issues surrounding the SFM options, a framework for evaluating the options and selecting a preferred SFM option for South Africa is proposed. It consists of evaluation criteria categorised into nine dimensions: technological, safety, environmental, proliferation, security, economic, sociopolitical, ethical, and institutional. The framework’s comprehensiveness shows that SFM options have developed to a stage where South Africa can make an informed policy decision on the strategy it wishes to pursue. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die soeke na eenstemmigheid rondom strategieë vir die hantering van verbruikte kernafvalbrandstof (SFM) is kompleks. Hierdie artikel identifiseer drie SFM-opsies: Herprosessering en herwinning, direkte verwydering, en onbepaalde berging. Vanuit die sensitiewe kwessies wat die SFM-opsies beinvloed, word ’n raamwerk ontwikkel waarmee ’n voorkeuropsie vir Suid-Afrika daargestel word. Die raamwerk bestaan uit evalueringskriteria wat in nege dimensies gerangskik word: tegnologies, veiligheid, omgewing, proliferasie, sekuriteit, ekonomies, sosio-polities, eties, en institusioneel. Die omvang van die raamwerk dui daarop dat SFM opsies tot so ’n stand ontwikkel het dat Suid Afrika ’n ingeligte beleidsbesluit kan neem oor die strategie wat hy sou wou volg.</p
In the first quarter of 2013, the Department of Industrial Engineering at the University of Stellenbosch launched a new academic course, Strategic Technology Analysis (STA), as an elective in its M.Sc. in Engineering Management and M.Eng. Industrial Engineering degrees. STA views technology as a knowledge area in its own right, focuses on the inherent characteristics of technology, and explores its natural order. The purpose was to ascertain whether a course of this nature, which offered the outline for a new academic discipline, would be of benefit to a technology-conversant management programme. The course was well-received. It encouraged a greater awareness of technological positioning - i.e., aligning overall corporate strategy with new opportunities across the entire technological frontier. This article describes the background to this initiative, the history of STA, its inherent structure, and its role in professional practice. It then looks ahead at the possible dissemination of this knowledge into different settings where technology-conversant management is taught.
SIPA competitive strategy analysis for Corporation A and its competitors 
The prominence and relation of the 14 attributes employ engineering staff, and purchase R&D equipment. According to the current operations of Corporation A, these investments have resulted in excellent order winning results. 
This study adopted 14 criteria for order-winners and qualifiers as the attributes for evaluation. The first stage used a simultaneous importance-performance analysis to analyse the competitive market situations of a corporation and its competitors. The second stage used the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method to analyse the attributes' causal relationships and levels of influence; then two methods of analysis were integrated to analyse and re-formulate the competitive strategies for the winning orders. As well as serving as a novel theory-based method to examine how manufacturers win orders, the proposals in this study can be applied to practical industry experiences.
The stage-gate system for new product development [22]. 
Critical factors identified from literature
Mortality of new product ideas [28]. 
ANP framework for technology innovation project selection
This paper describes appropriate project selection criteria and gate review-point criteria for government agencies that fund technology innovation projects in South Africa. Data was gathered via a Delphi survey in which seven expert respondents participated. The most significant project selection criteria and relevant gate reviewing criteria were established. The proposed basic framework consists of fourteen selection criteria, their associated weights, and forty relevant gate reviewing criteria. Commercial risk and feasibility was considered the most important criterion, followed by the team's skills and competence in second place. The use of these criteria when considering investment in technology innovation projects could improve the likelihood of commercial success.
A key element with which manufacturing industries should concern themselves in respect of cost and efficiency of operation is the cycle time for preparing their products. A reduction in operational time can result in dramatic improvements in both cost and efficiency. Unfortunately, cycle time problems are sometimes difficult to analyse: there are many factors related to this parameter. This paper presents a cycle time analysis of a tipping trailer frame in a heavy equipment industry. The cycle time analysis, based on the cycle time data collected by a time study, together with the use of an Arena software simulation, is outlined. From the results of this study, it was found that the manufacturing cycle time was 56 hours, and that resources were under-utilised.
The challenge for organisations to continually provide the best return on investment for their shareholders has become increasingly difficult through globalisation of the market place. There are many responses a company could make to these challenges - for example, new product development, increased market capitalisation, cost reduction initiatives, and quality management. This last response focuses on, but is not restricted to, customer satisfaction, continuous improvement, and environmental impact. Continuous improvement addresses waste in the business design and manufacturing processes, which could lead to improved profit margins. The sustainability of quality improvement programmes remains a challenge. Causality can be studied, using Six Sigma tools, to relate cause and effect. But these tools do not always allow the user to study and understand feedback from other factors, such as soft human issues, in the improvement process system, typically referred to as 'feedback causality'. System dynamics may improve this understanding. Quality improvement programmes in the heavy engineering manufacturing environment are not researched to the same degree as those in the automotive manufacturing environment. The purpose of this paper is to share results from research into the sustainability of quality improvement programmes, and the development of an appropriate system dynamics model, using qualitative case study data gathered and coded in a heavy engineering manufacturing environment.
A library of mechanical modules for MRMs [17] 
A reconfiguration of machining functionality [17] 
A reconfiguration of machining DOF [17] 
Hardware schematic of system [17] 
The OSACA reference model [14] 
Copyright: 2009 South African Institute of Industrial Engineering The reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) paradigm encapsulates methodologies that enable manufacturing systems to cope effectively with market and product changes. This research presents the design and evaluation of modular reconfigurable machine (MRM) tools as a novel machining solution within the scope of RMS. Mechanical and control designs are presented, outlining the development of this novel machining system. The property of hardware modularity displayed by MRMs enables an adjustment of system functionality and the synergistic redistribution of system resources between production streams, thus facilitating inter-process capacity scaling. Scalable production capacity and adjustable system functionality are the key objectives of reconfigurable manufacturing.
Summary in Afrikaans and English. Thesis (Ph.D. (Bedryfs- en Sisteemingenieurswese)) - Universiteit van Pretoria, 1996.
The profit for different contract deadlines 
Resource use for different contract deadlines Table 5: Simulation of resource prices 
This work considers the make-to-order production of multiple-line production considering the production rate, production time interval, production yield, holding cost, manufacturing cost, set-up cost, the penalty cost of shortage, and constrained delivery deadline. Based on the research motivation of efficient and fast decisions, this paper constructs a mathematical model for achieving the maximum total profit, and selects the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) as the approach to a solution due to its simplicity and rapid convergence. The proposed model can be categorised as a nonlinear programming (NLP) model, and can also function as a decision-making tool for real-time analyses of multiple-line production planning. A numerical example is then followed to describe and analyse the results. Actually, this study is a computerised tool to deal with the production planning of make-to-order production by constrained delivery deadlines. This research can provide not only an efficient but also a fast referenced decision for an enterprise to face fast-changing business environments, and it can solve other cases easily by changing only its input parameters.
Diagram of a typical environmental management system  
p>ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of the article is to explore the complexities of the ISO 14001 implementation process, with the objective of identifying the barriers to its implementation, the factors that influence these barriers, and finding possible solutions to address these barriers. The theoretical basis of ISO 14001, the implementation process, and its strategic implications were established by reviewing previous research. Based on this theoretical review, a self-administered questionnaire was designed to serve as a measuring instrument for the empirical research conducted among members of the Durban Automotive Cluster (DAC). The specific objectives of the empirical study were: to determine the reasons for seeking ISO 14001 certification, to determine the perceived and experienced barriers to its implementation, and to investigate the strategic implications of an Environmental Management System (EMS) such as ISO 14001. Finally, the findings, recommendations, caveats, and suggestions for further research are summarised. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die oogmerk van hierdie artikel is om die kompleksiteit van die ISO 14001 implementeringsproses te ondersoek met die doel om die hindernisse wat implementering belemmer en die faktore wat hierdie hindernisse beïnvloed vas te stel, en moontlike oplossings te vind. Die teoretiese grondslag van ISO 14001, die implementeringsproses, en die strategiese implikasies is op ’n oorsig van bestaande navorsing gebaseer. Gegrond op hierdie teoretiese oorsig is ’n selfgeadministreerde vraelys opgestel om as metingsinstrument te dien vir die empiriese navorsing wat onder lede van die “Durban Automotive Cluster (DAC)” uitgevoer is. Die spesifieke doelstellings van die empiriese studie was: om die redes waarom ISO 14001 sertifisering nagestreef is te bepaal; om die persepsies van en werklike hindernisse ten opsigte van implementering te bepaal; en om die strategiese implikasies van ’n Omgewingsbestuursisteem soos ISO 14001 te ondersoek. Die bevindings, aanbevelings, tekortkominge, en voorstelle vir verdere navorsing word ten slotte in die artikel saamgevat.</p
In Selective Laser Melting, the initial units produced are single tracks that overlap to create a single layer; from the sequence of layers, a 3D object is manufactured. The properties of the parts produced by SLM depend heavily on the properties of each single track and each layer formed by these tracks. This study evaluates the effect of processing parameters on the geometrical characteristics of single tracks manufactured from 17-4PH stainless steel powder. A single-mode continuous-wave ytterbium fibre laser was used to manufacture single tracks at laser powers in the range of 100-300 W with a constant spot size of ∼80µm. The single tracks produced were subjected to standard metallographic preparation techniques for further analysis with an optical microscope. Deep molten pool shapes were observed at low scan speeds, while shallow molten pool shapes were observed at high scan speeds. At higher laser power densities, under-cutting and humping effects were also observed. The dimensions of single tracks processed without powder generally decrease with increasing scan speed at constant laser power. However, the geometrical features of the single tracks processed with powder revealed pronounced irregularities believed to be caused by non-homogeneity in the deposited powder layer. © 2016, South African Institute of Industrial Engineering. All rights reserved.
nappropriately designed classroom furniture that does not take children’s anthropometric measurements into account has a negative effect on children’s musculoskeletal systems. In this study, which kept Covid-19 pandemic policies in mind, students’ static anthropometric dimensions were measured and their descriptive statistics calculated, using mean, standard deviation, percentiles, and statistical tests, including the t-test and one-way ANOVA. A new design for ergonomically oriented classroom furniture for primary school students is proposed that takes into consideration the measured anthropometric dimensions for students’ safety, health, and well-being, and for post-Covid-19 policies. Given the results of the study, school managements must consider the gender and age of students, and take post-Covid-19 policies/protocols into account when procuring classroom furniture. Keywords Ergonomic design; school furniture; primary school students; COVID.
The intensive and repetitive use of touch-screens may pose significant problems, such as ergonomic pain or musculoskeletal disorders. This research aims to study the effect of using mobile touch-screen devices on the human musculoskeletal system during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown and to develop a model for classifying the effects of musculoskeletal stress (pain and discomfort) on the performance of educational activities. The Cornell musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire was given to 544 participants (71% males and 29% females). An Association Rule Mining approach was applied to illustrate the correlation, and multiple machine-learning models – used to predict the impact of pain and discomfort on different body regions – were applied to determine risk levels that might interfere with the ability to perform daily activities. Most musculoskeletal disorders were reported in the neck region and lower back (64.33% and 55.33% respectively), followed by upper back (44.30%) and the right shoulder (38%). Analysis of association rules showed high positive correlation between the lower back and the neck (support = 43%, confidence = 77%). Additionally, it was found that the radial basis function network has the highest accuracy in prediction (84%). The results of the radial basis function model showed that interference in educational activities can be predicted by using pain indicators in body parts resulting from touch-screen device usage. Keywords association rule mining approach; machine learning; educational activities; mobile touch screen; musculoskeletal disorders
Engineering as a branch of science has a crucial role in the growth of the economy. The growth and development of engineering is therefore highly relevant. One way to understand this is to examine the characteristics of the scientific knowledge produced in the field of engineering. Drawing on the publications in engineering from the ISI Web of Science over the last three decades, this paper looks at the visibility and importance of engineering research in South Africa. The visibility of research publications is studied in terms of the number of citations a publication receives. The analysis shows that the visibility of South African engineering research is determined by the number of authors involved in the production of a paper, the presence of international collaboration, the degree of collaboration, and the journals in which the papers are published. Engineering research in South Africa, compared with that of all subjects, is clearly growing. But the visibility of South African engineering publications, in comparison with all other subjects, has been diminishing in recent years.
Top-cited authors
H. Steyn
  • University of Pretoria
Andre Bester
  • Academic Institute of Excellence
Samuel Mensah Sackey
  • Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science and Technology
Igor Yadroitsev
  • Central University of Technology
Ina Yadroitsava
  • Central University of Technology