Sociometry

Online ISSN: 0038-0431
Publications
Article
A critique is first presented of several previous attempts to define the distribution of influence amongst a set of actors on the basis only of the influence structure, that is, the set of influence relations between the actors, and of attempts to define the degree to which the structure is hierarchised, or, equivalently, the degree to which power is concentrated in the structure. This structure is represented by a directed graph or a matrix. A special problem in deriving such measures has been the existence of cycles in the graph. The paper then offers a new measure of the influence distribution, which takes account of the problem of cycles. It is based on each actor's indirect as well as direct influence and on the numbers of actors influencing him (directly and indirectly) as well as the numbers he influences.
 
Article
Interaction theorists have delineated the close association in friendship relations between value consensus, affectional closeness, and interaction. Categorical investigations of the social network have focused upon frequency of interaction with friends and kin. In the present paper a componential theory of attraction in the social network is developed in order to link previous theoretical discussions with the empirical social network categories. Two attractional variables, one based upon consensus and the other upon positive concern, are perceived as interpreting friendship and kinship involvements. Consensus tends to be modal in friendship and positive concern in kinship, though there are cross-categorical similarities as well as differences. The further implications of such a componential approach to the social network, and to the primary relationship, are outlined.
 
Article
This study explores some factors that might influence public attributes about social experiments. Subjects read a supposedly real news account of a medical experiment in which the scarcity of the treatment employed and the amount of scientific justification for the experiment were experimentally varied. As expected, subjects reacted negatively to the experiment when explicitly informed that while there were adequate resources for all participants to receive the treatment, some participants were being deprived of treatment for scientific purposes. Contrary to expectations, subjects explicitly told that resources were scarce and that some participants would go without the treatment in any case, were less favorable toward the medical experiment and its administrators than subjects for whom scarcity was not mentioned. It was also found that the public's opinions were significantly improved when the scientific necessity for randomization was emphasized, especially when the potential usefulness of proven results was stressed. Few differences were found in comparing male and female responses, although female readers did evidence greater dissatisfaction with moral aspects of the experiment. Implications of the results for administrators of social programs are discussed.
 
Article
Previous work completed with American student subjects has shown that the behavioral component of interpersonal attitudes is multidimensional. The present study inquired into the generality of this finding by testing a representative sample of 400 from Athens, Greece. Previous work was replicated with some slight modifications. It was found again that two of the factors of the behavioral component of attitudes, Respect and Friendship, are orthogonal. Respect is a positive function of the status of the stimulus person and a negative function of the status of the subject making the judgments. Friendship is an inverse function of the difference in status between the stimulus person and the person making the judgements; it is also a function of the similarity in the sex of the stimulus and the person making the judgments.
 
Article
Sociometric preference data from 597 thirteen-year-old boys in their classroom groups were analysed. The aim of the analyses was to compare positive and negative choices in terms of their reliability. The analysis of variance technique suggested by Hoyt (1941) was used in the estimation of the reliabilities: it was argued that this technique is particularly suited to this type of application. The measure of Sociometric Rejection proved to be much more reliable than the measure of Acceptance. Reasons for the higher reliability of the Rejection measure were discussed and it was suggested that the characteristics of the score distributions pointed to different psychological processes associated with the making of positive and negative choices.
 
Article
The propinquity theory of friendship formation is used as a guide to the analysis of social relationships of American graduate students comprising a large national sample, for whom no sociometric or ecological data are available. Elaboration of the propinquity theory suggests that accessibility, the likelihood of physical exposure of the student to others in his department, is related to gregariousness, or relative breadth of acquaintance within the department. Gregariousness is likely to be associated with informal group membership, taken as an indicator of serious departmental involvement. An accessibility index for graduate students (comprised of residence in university housing, having no children, having a job in the department, etc.) is developed. The index is related to gregariousness, and to group membership, independently of gregariousness.
 
Article
The research consisted of a field experiment accompanied by follow-up interviews. The field experiment involved rigged shoplifting incidents in which the shoplifter's appearance (hippie versus straight) was manipulated. In the interviews, subjects were tested on Trodahl and Powell's shortened Dogmatism scale; another scale measured social distance attitudes toward hippies. It was found that high and low dogmatics did not differ in their reporting of hippie and straight shoplifters, even though high godmatics exhibited higher social distance attitudes toward hippies. It was concluded that since the reponses toward persons in actual interaction situations entail demand characteristics different than responses to case descriptions, high bogmatics may have been more offended by shoplifting and hippie shoplifters, but in the highly problematic situation represented by the shoplifting incidents their disapproval was not manifested behaviorally.
 
Article
The influence of class origin on a man's occupational status is mediated by intelligence, achievement motivation, values, and educational opportunities. Since entry into prestigeful occupations generally requires higher education, which is more available in the middle-class, it was assumed that high intelligence would more strongly influence the occupational mobility of middle-class boys than achievement motivation. Although ambition may be closely associated with mental ability in the working class, owing to deficits in family support and training, it was assumed that the mobility of working-class youth would be more strongly influenced by sedire to achieve than by level of intelligence, partly as a result of their lower educational opportunities. These expectations were supported in an analysis of longitudinal data on men of middle-and working-class origin. The influence of intelligence and academic aptitude on adult occupational status occurred almost entirely through educational attainment among men of middle- and working-class origin. Drive for achievement was more predictive of occupational than of educational status among men of working-class origins, while the reverse pattern was found among men of middle-class background.
 
Article
According to McClelland, the characteristics of n Achievement are primarily relevant to the intrinsic task aspects of occupational roles. This study examines the relationship between n Achievement and preference for intrinsically satisfying occupations in a population of 394 male college freshmen. The direct effect of n Achievement upon occupational values and preferences is negligible. However, both knowledge and value-orientations mediate the relationship between n Achievement and occupational preferences in a manner supporting the hypothesis that a need such as n Achievement operates to produce goal-directed behavior only when situations are known and defined as goals by relevant value-orientations.
 
Article
Previous research has traced high need for achievement among adolescent males to certain socialization experiences in the family. Other research has demonstrated that adolescents with high need-achievement are over-represented in the middle classes. From these findings, it can be assumed that there is something about the middle classes which affects family socialization in ways conducive to high achievement motivation. Among the many variables associated with social class, the nature of a father's occupation seems to be the most likely to have this affect on family socialization. The present study examines the relationship between the nature of father's occupation and the level of achievement motivation among sons. Results indicate that adolescents with high need-achievement come from homes where fathers engage in entrepreneurial role behavior in their occupational status. This is found to be true regardless of whether or not such an occupation is middle class or working class, or whether the community where the subject lives is highly modern or traditional. These findigns are seen as specifying more exactly the social structural origins of achievement motivation.
 
Article
Three hypotheses about the initiation of acts in group interaction are substantiated. The hypotheses specify that (1) individuals have constant tendencies to initiate acts in a given type of group; and (2) the proportion of acts initiated by an individual in any particular group equals his constant normalized by the sum of the constants of all group participants. Separate session estimates of individual constant for two sets of experiments on stranger triads show agreement of .894 and .965. For any given subject, (3) predictions from interaction with strangers will not hold for interaction with family members. Further analysis suggests that family solidarity underlies the observed changes, setting families apart from the typical ad hoc laboratory groups.
 
Article
Three models concerned with the total distribution of acts in small group interaction are developed. Model 1 is an extremely simplified set of equations deriving the probabilities of initiating and receiving acts as functions of only one constant per participant plus a group constrant. The propositions employed have been shown to be highly accurate in describing observational data, but are likely to be limited to unstructuared, stranger groups. Model 2 incorporates added individual constants specific to type of act which allow treatment of aspects of personality and/or role in interaction. Model 3 adds interpersonal linkage constants, again specific to type of act, allowing treatment of sociometric or group structure aspects of interaction. Data are cited pertinent to assumptions of Model 1, and hypothetical illustrations of all models are provided. Brief comments are addressed to how these essentially static models may be treated as, or incorporated into, dynamic models.
 
Article
This paper corroborates findings in Wallin and Clark's earlier studies of sexual behavior in marriage, and suggests that the results accord with a theory of cognitive consistency. As in the earlier studies, reports of preferred frequencies of coitus were distorted to correspond with presumed cultural norms and with the respondent's own marital and sexual satisfaction. Reports of actual frequencies also were displaced-upward for "satiated" respondents and downward for "unsatisfied" respondents. Some implications are discussed.
 
Article
An experiment is reported which was designed to test adaptations to blocked means for achieving a success goal. The hypotheses tested derived from a theoretical framework employing principles of balance theory. The framework accounts for illegal innovation as predicted by Merton as well as evidence seemingly contradictory to Merton's theory. The study also suggests a sequential process in which certain conditions are established for adapting an illegitimate means.
 
Article
The Prisoners' Dilemma (PD) game is a prototype of two central concerns of sociology, the problem of order and the problem of collective action, which are both types of conflict between individual and collective goals. An index of dilemma, D, is developed to characterize situations with respect to the degree of conflict between individual and collective goals. It is hypothesized that group norms and group solidarity are mechanisms groups devise to increase cooperation in PD-like situations. In an experiment using a five-person PD game, it is shown that an increase in D leads to an increase in group friendlines and in attempts by group members to define the potential noncooperator as immoral and untrustworthy. Thus, and increase in the potential for conflict within groups can lead to strengthened group norms and cohesion if this conflict is of the sort described by the Prisoners' Dilemma. This is contrary to the prevalent conception that norms arise from an identity of interests between group members.
 
Article
Examining the labeling aspects of mental illness, incompetency proceedings were studied to identify the operation of social factors in the medical-legal process of adjudication. Various social characteristics of the deviant and of the labeler which are assumed to interact with one another were examined to determine their realtionship to outcome of adjudication. Findings suggest that the social characteristics of the labeler relative to the characteristics of the alleged incompetent were operating. The operation of these factors was explained by their tendency to increase or decrease the extent to which others deny the deviance of the alleged incompetent.
 
Article
As a continuation of the work of Schwartz, Fearn, and Stryker (1966), the following hypothesis, and a number of causal models associated with it, are tested: commitment to a deviant identity is positively correlated with (a) psychological adjustment, and (b) a report of significant others supportive of that identity. Data from 2,497 male homosexuals in the United States, the Netherlands, and Denmark support the hypothesis. Four causal models are rejected through the use of multiple regression and correlation analysis. Two models are supported. Psychological adjustment and a report of supportive significant others are directly related to homosexual commitment but not to each other.
 
Article
The focus of the study is on the relationship between two dimensions of parental behavior: support and control, and the adolescent's self-evaluation. Drawing on sociological theory which stresses the importance of the evaluative behavior of significant others in the development of the individual's self-evaluation, it was hypothesized that both parental support and parental control would be positively related to adolescent self-evaluation. The findings strongly supported the first hypothesis but not the second. Two foci of self-evaluation were identified through factor analysis: Power and Worth, and were found to be related to support but not control. Both the level of self-evaluation on power and worth and the relationships between the parental and the self variables varied somewhat by social class and by sex of parent and respondent. The findings were interpreted as giving added support to the interactionist proposition, that the self-concept arises through interaction with significant others, by pointing to the behavioral dimension especially salient in this respect, parental support. The study also suggests the importance of focusing on specific contents of self-evaluation, such as power and worth.
 
Article
The present study examines the affect of contextual frames of reference on the level of self-esteem expressed by adolescents and on the relationship between certain parental behaviors and adolescent self-esteem. Five contexts were considered as frames of reference: classroom, family, friends, in heterosexual relations, and with adults. It was found that adolescents' self-esteem was highest in the friends context and lowest in the classroom. This variation was especially pronounced on the power dimension of self-esteem, and less on the self-worth dimension. Friends also ranked as the context in which adolescents felt "the most real", while in the classroom they felt "real". Parental support (and to some extent control) was found to be significantly related to adolescent self-esteem only when adult frames of reference were used, i.e., family, classroom, and with adults. These were not antecedents of self-esteem when the contextual referent for the adolescent was his peers. This research suggests that social context is an important independent variable on self-esteem and cannot be assumed to be constant when dealing with self-variables.
 
Article
Within a brief synthesis of child psychology and sociological literature, this paper relates dimensions of religiosity (belief, experience, knowledge, and practice) to adolescents' perception of the control and support received from parents. Purposive samples were chosen from male Catholic schools in New York, St. Paul, San Juan, and Merida. Except for the Merida sample and the knowledge dimension, the opriori hypothesis that adolescents perceiving a high (low) degree of control and support score highest (lowest) on religiosity is moderately verified, mainly because of a positive relationship between support and religiosity, although control is noticeably related in the San Juan sample. Variations between Anglo and Latin samples are incipiently explained by reasons for religious behavior: Anglos attend church because of parental expectations, whereas Latins give "self" reasons. For the Anglo samples, the study demonstrates the usefulness of socialization variables in understanding religiosity, and the differences across samples point to the importance of reasons for religious behavior.
 
Article
Children between 2 1/2 and 11 were asked to identify the sex-linkage of, and indicate their preferences for, a selected inventory of artifacts associated with adult sex-roles. The children's highly accurate identification of the sex-linkage of the artifacts, as well as their patterns of preference for them, both attest to the early age at which children anticipate adult roles. The high agreement on the sex-linkage of the artifacts, both within the sample, and between the sample and the adult investigators, suggests a high intergenerational stability of certain sectors of sex-roles. The demonstrated utility of investigating role-learning by the use of role-linked artifacts points to the need for research and theory which will more effectively articulate elements of the material culture with social roles and socialization.
 
Article
When the effects of relevant background variables and other family structure variables are controlled, coming from a large family is related to poor intellectual functioning and to having self-evaluative values while at the same time having a tendency toward authoritarianism. Individuals coming from families broken by divorce or separation are more anxious, distrustful, and less ideationally flexible than are the rest of the population; the decline in ideational flexibility being greater among those raised in households in which there were no adult males. The only effect of having a working mother was a greater receptivity to innovation. In summary, since these relationships were generally not very powerful, it can be concluded that when the effects of other relevant variables are controlled they have at most a modest effect on adult functioning.
 
Article
Video tapes were made of six encoders portraying a warm and a cold experimenter. 60 decoders who were either exposed to the video, audio or both the video and audio portions of the stimulirated the presentations on the Nowlis Affect Scales. The degree of consistency among judgments and the degree to which the communication channels conveyed and facilitated the differentiation of the warm and cold presentations of the experimenters were calculated. Decoders were least consistent in decoding presentations conveyed in the audio channel; combined audio-video judgments were no more consistent than judgments based on the video channel alone. While there were significant $(p <.01)$ multivariate and univariate experimenter behavior x channel interactions on 7 of the 11 Nowlis scales, no consistent pattern across encoders was evidenced. Rather, some encoders showed variations in feelings principally through visually mediated stimuli, others through the tone of the voice. The results are discussed in the context of quantitative versus qualitative differences among the communication channels.
 
Article
The power of the "bogus pipeline," a paradigm which is intended to provide a sensitive and accurate measure of affect and attitude, was explored in two experiments. In both experiments affective responses towards a stimulus person were gathered on a more typical rating scale and were compared with bogus pipeline responses. In the first study an obnoxious stimulus person was presented as either physically handicapped or normal. Responses toward him were more negative (and more appropriate) under bogus pipeline than under rating conditions. The second study, in which subjects expressed interest in dating an attractive or an unattractive stimulus person, demonstrated that the bogus pipeline elicited more positive affect (when the stimulus person was attractive), as well as more negative affect (when he was unattractive), than did the rating procedure.
 
Article
It was proposed that liking predictions derived from gain-loss model (Aronson and Linder, 1965) would be confirmed if an evaluator's current affective stance toward the person "took the place of" his previously expressed feelings. It was further predicated that if the current affect displayed by the evaluator represented additional affective information rather than replecement of prior affect, then gain-loss predictions would be strongly disconfirmed. Results from Study I indicated that while these hypotheses were, in general, correct, a significant gain effect was not found. Anxiety data suggested that to produce a gain effect, affect replacement must be regarded as stable and permanent. Study II upheld these predictions.
 
Article
Twenty males and 20 females were asked to sing a ballad before an audience of male or female evaluators. Subjects, preselected for "poor" singing voices, received incompetent singing evaluations prior to singing publicly. Face saving, defined as sacrificing tangible (monetary) rewards to keep a deficiency from public visibility, was measured by singing time before the audience. (Longer singing time increased earnings.) Face-saving was greater among females than males but was pronounced among females facing a female audience. In a second experiment, 20 females sang before an audience of females who were "excellent" or "poor" singers. Face-saving was greater before "excellent" singers. The results are discussed in terms of the need to prevent deficiencies from becoming visible to others.
 
Article
Two experiments examine some self-evaluational as well as outcome-evaluational consequences of unexpected status placement, as a function of (a) the desirability of the position, and (b) the political attitudes of the placing agent relative to those of placed persons. In the first experiment, subjects were led to believe they had received a position which was higher or lower than that obtained by peers; in the second experiment, subjects received positions higher than, lower than, or similar to those of their peers. Primary findings of both experiments were that (a) unexpectedly high placement resulted in satisfaction with position, but lowered self-esteem (in comparison with non-placed controls, or subjects placed in positions similar th those of their peers) regardless of attitudes of the placing agent; (b) unexpectedly low placement generally resulted in position dissatisfaction, but in lowered self-esteem only where the placing agent was attitudinally similar. Self-esteem results are explained via the function of status expectancy as a statement of identity; unexpected placement hence constitutes a challenge to that identity, except where it may be explained through attitudinal antagonism between the person and the placing agent. The apparent independence of the outcome-standard function of status expectancy is noted.
 
Article
A 2 (touch-no touch) x 2 (sex of confederate) x 2 (sex of subject) between subjects design tested the affective and evaluative consequences of receiving an interpersonal touch in a Professional/Functional situation. It was found that the affective and evaluative response to touch was uniformly positive for females, who felt affectively more positive and evaluated the toucher and the environmental setting more favorably than in no touch conditions. The male response to touch was more ambivalent.
 
Article
Previous evidence suggests that eye-contact serves a number of different functions in two-person encounters, of which one of the most important is gathering feed-back on the other person's reactions. It is further postulated that eye-contact is linked to affiliate motivation, and that approach and avoidance forces produce an equilibrium level of physical proximity, eye contact and other aspects of intimacy. If one of these is disturbed, compensatory changes may occur along the other dimensions. Experiments are reported which suggest that people move towards an equilibrium distance, and adopt a particular level of eye-contact. As predicted, there was less eye contact and glances were shorter, the closer two subjects were placed together (where one member of each pair was a confederate who gazed continuously at the other). The effect was greatest for opposite-sex pairs. In another experiment it was found that subjects would stand closer to a second person when his eyes were shut, as predicted by the theory.
 
Article
Dependancy relations with parents in childhood may generalize to affilative behavior in adulthood. This hypothesis was explored in two studies which employed cross-national comparisons to reveal such relationships more clearly. Middle class male students from Guadalajara, Mexico, reported both more dependent relationships wiht their parents and tendencies to react in an affiliative manner to conflict with a peer that did comparable students from Michigan. An analysis of data from Guadalajara students alone showed a weak but significant multiple correlation between reports of parent-child dependency and the son's affiliative tendencies. The argument is made that (1) the dependency-affiliation relationship might be a function of Mexican parents providing affiliative models for their children, and (2) with appropriate models, dependent children could conceivably also be achievement oriented.
 
Article
A naturalistic time-sampling observational technique and a picture sociometric interview were used in studying the relationship between aggressive behavior and social status among preschool children. It was found that males, overall, were more aggressive than females. Additionally, when only those children who were above the median on amount of aggression for their own sex were identified,the following relationship between sex, social status and amount of aggression was noted: high aggressive male children tended to be unpopular rather than popular, while high aggressive female children tended to be popular rather than unpopular. Suggestions for future research relative to other parameters of aggression were discussed.
 
Article
The Berkowitz and Le Page hyothesis that weapons elicit aggressive behaviour was tested under the following conditions. 104 subjects were given an opportunity to shock a student or policeman confederate after receiving no shocks, 2 shocks or 8 shocks. Some subjects delivered their shocks in the presence of weapons, others in the absence of weapons and still others in the presence of weapons obviously belonging to the policeman confederate. In this study weapons were found not to function as aggression-eliciting stimuli. Instead, for nonangered students given an opportunity to shock a student confederate, weapons inhibited aggressive behaviour. Weapons also tended to inhibit aggressive behaviour among angered students given an opportunity to shock the policeman confederate. Berkowitz' explanation of the weapon's effect is rejected in favor of an operant conditioning (discrimination learning) paradigm.
 
Article
Each subject engaged in a "discussion" with two tape recorded confederates. The first confederate expressed opinions designed to anger the subject; the second confederate (the model) then aggressed against the first confederate. Prior to the "discussion," the subject had been made to feel very similar in background to the model or very dissimilar. Rusults: Subjects who observed a dissimilar model aggressed more toward the instigating confederate than did subjects who were paired with a similar model. Attitude toward the dissimilar model changed redically as a result of the "discussion."
 
Article
Ninety-six subjects were randomly assigned to cells in a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design. Manipulated variables were: (a) the frequency (high, medium, or low) with which a partner's judgment coincided with that of the subject during the first series, (b) the independence/nonindependence of the partner's coinciding or noncoinciding judgments, and (c) the private/public character of the subject's response to influence during a later series. Major findings were as follows: (1) the more frequently that subjects were agreed with during the first series, the more frequently they conformed during the second series; (2) this conformity pattern was no less clear when subjects responded privately than when they responded publicity; (3) nonindependent partners were evaluated less favorably than independent partners, but they elicited just as much conformity; (4) overall, confidence during the first series was positively related to influencibility during the second series.
 
Article
Irrelevant prior insult, set to evaluate the communicator (versus give own opinion), and extremity of the position advocated in a communication were factorially manipulated by each of 11 experimenters creating a 2 x 2 x 3 x 11 design. Posing as "on the street reporters," experiments polled 264 overweight middle-aged women in shopping plazas to obtain "after only" measurements of defamation of the communicator and agreement with the communication. Insult did not produce the effects predicted by equating irrelevant emotional arousal with involvement. Though it increased defamation it also increased persuasion. This covariation of persuasion and defamation is noteworthy. The effects of extremity depended on the insult condition; in the absence of insult greater extremity produced less persuasion and more defamation. Evaluative set (which has been labeled "distraction" in other studies) increased defamation and reduced persuasion. This findings directly contradicts previous theoretical and empirical results for "distraction."
 
Article
A recent paper by Alexander, Zucker and Brody (1970) reported findings contrary to Sherif's (1935) original results and the results of many subsequent replications. The basic assumption that there is a tendency to pattern experience was questioned as well as related assumptions underlying balance and congruence theories. Sherif's findings were thought to be the result of experimental expectancies rather than a function of the tendency to structure ambiguous stimuli. The present investigation paralleled both the Sherif and the Alexander et al. studies and utilized a third condition where subjects are disabused of expectancies of convergence and decreasing variability as well as expectancies of divergence and increasing variability. In both alone and together situations, results were divergent with the findings of Alexander et al., paralleled Sherif's original findings, and demostrated convergence and decreasing variability in the new experimental condition. These results, and the fact that variability and size of estimates were greatest in the Sherif condition, provide evidence that convergence and reduction of variability are a function of the tendency to structure ambiguous situations rather than the result of experimental expectancies of stability and order.
 
Article
This study, conducted in Sweden, replicates and extends work done in the U.S. on alienation and learning. The major hypothesis is that those who are high in powerlessness will have inferior knowledge in control-relevant areas of their experience. Two knowledge tests were constructed (concerning nuclear and cultural affairs); and it is shown that high powerlessness goes with poor nuclear knowledge, while alienated and unalienated students do not differ in cultural information. Thus, the powerlessness-learning hypothesis applies cross-culturally, and applies to a wide range of control-relevant information (e.g., nuclear war, reformatory life, and health). But, as the pertinent theory requires, (1) there are predictable limits to the learning effect, and (2) it is not attributable to personality or intellectual capacity. An effort is also made to test the hypothesis that the sense of powerlessness leads to behavioral avoidance when the individual's anxieties about control are invoked.
 
Article
A social psychological theory of personality is presented which examines the crucial relationship between self and other as perceived by the individual and communicated by topological configurations of the self in relation to significant others. The inadequacies of self and social guidance mechanisms for social adaptation are assumed to be associated with the concept of alienation. The alienation syndrome is defined as low self esteem, low social interest, and high self centrality. This triadic pattern is shown to describe behavior problem children, neuropsychiatric patients, and to some extent, persons over 40 years of age and American Negro children. It is suggested that the processes leading from exclusion to the alienation syndrome may be a self fulfilling prophecy mediated by reduced social reinforcement.
 
Article
Data are presented to test and idea advanced by Bales that scapegoating, or the displacement of hostility upon a low status member, is one mechanism by which the task leader of a small group may be protected from hostility. Conditional support for this hypothesis is found, and the relationship between scapegoating and role differentiation as alternative mechanisms for the handling of hostility is investigated.
 
Article
The question is raised as to the relative degree of determinance exerted on the distribution of rewards (egalitarian and differential) in groups by (1) the group's status structure and (2) the external consequences following the distributions. A longitudinal, laboratory experiment was designed requiring one-hour's participation of each group for ten days. The data indicated that, under the conditions of the experiment, external conquences could effect greater control of the group's reward distributions than the group's status structure.
 
Article
Role-set configuration was examined as a predictor of organizational role stress experienced by research and development professionals. Dimensions of the role set included the organizational distance and relative authority of role senders. These dimensions were found to be important, though independent, predictors of specific types of role conflict and role ambiguity. The results also revealed a threshold effect regarding the stressfulness of role-set distance, a measure of boundary relevance, which underscores the need to be wary of the role-masking artifact in research on role analysis and role stress.
 
Article
The hypothesis that the greater the ambiguity (or variance) in evaluations by referent others, the more the self-esteem motive enhances the person's self-evaluation, is tested and supported. Where the variance in evaluations by peer group members is low: (a) the correspondence between self-evaluation and the mean of others' evaluations is strong, and (b) both self-evaluation and peer evaluations tend to be lower. Where the variance in others' evaluations is high: (a) the correspondence between self-evaluation and others' evaluations is weaker, and (b) while self-evaluation tends to be higher than the mean of others' evaluations, both self-evaluation scores and peer evaluation scores are higher. Further evidence that ambiguity provides opportunity for enhancing self-evaluation is shown by the relationships between discrepancies from aspirations and rankings of the importance of different dimensions to self-evaluation.
 
Article
Implicit in Feldman's set-theoretic model of impression formation is the assumption that averaging is prepotent when the elements in a stimulus manifold are independent of one another whereas summation predominates when elements have overlapping meaning. To test this hypothesis, male and female subjects made comparative judgments of pairs of individual men or women and of groups of men or women described by sets of corelated or uncorrelated personality-trait adjectives. The principal finding, contrary to Feldman's prediction but consistent with an alternative hypothesis implied by Dustin and Baldwin, was increasing evidence of the differential effectiveness of adding as opposed to averaging as the amount of overlap in meaning of the stimulus elements decreased. No differences in the mode of stimulus integration were attributable to sex differences or to differences in the formation of personality versus group impressions.
 
Article
Subjects apparently use personal space as a buffer zone, to protect themselves from fearful others, and as a means of expressing liking or disliking of another. Another function seems to be the control of the intensity of stimulation received from others. It was proposed that Ss should regulate this stimulation by positioning themselves relative to particular others according to the intensity of stimulation these individuals provide. To test this hypothesis, male and female stimulus persons entered queues for attractions at an amusement park. It was found that Ss immediately behind them in line stood further away when the stimulus persons wore brightly colored clothes (high stimulus intensity condition) than when they wore conservative clothing. Subjects similarly stood further away when the stimulus persons used perfume or after-shave lotion than when they used no scent. Sex differences observed in this situation are somewhat contradictory to earlier findings. The inconsistencies are discussed in terms of the normative constraints of the artificial and self-conscious laboratory setting as compared with the naturalists situation used here.
 
Article
This paper proposes the consideration of data in a sociomatrix as two batteries of variables, choose and chosen. Inter-battery factor analysis is proposed as a method of factoring the data into components which summarize the data and may be considered as a first step in clique identification. The inter-battery method seems superior when compared to principal components factor analysis. The suggestion is made that an extension of existing rotational procedures is necessary for sociometric analysis.
 
Article
Previous studies have identified several psychological and social concomitants of Machiavellianism but relatively little is known about variables of socialization that determine individual differences in the trait. The present study examined two hypotheses: one relating the emergence of Machiavellianism to the acquisition of Machiavellian behaviors from parents, the second relating Machiavellianism to the acquisition of the same behaviors from sources outside the family. Reports of high and low scoring subjects on the Mach V, and reports of their parents, provided substantial support for the hypothesis that Machiavellianism emerges from sources outside the family and only minimal support was obtained for the hypothesis that children learn Machiavellian behaviors from parents or other family models. The results are consistent with Kelman's hypothesis that identification with others precedes the internalization of social norms and suggest that Machiavellianism might be viewed as a failure to establish identification with parents.
 
Article
A theory of mixed-motive games such as Prisoner's Dilemma is outlined. The theory has three components: coordination, communication, and consensus. The operational definitions of these concepts are moves (coordination), messages (communication), and attributions (consensus). Findings in studies of experimental games reviewed within the framework offered by this theory, and suggestions are made as to directions for future research.
 
Article
The sentences imposed in consecutive criminal cases are analyzed in terms of psychophysical theory. The findings reveal that the severity of the individual sentence relative to the sentences imposed in legally equivalent cases tends to shift significantly toward the relative severity of the sentence in the preceding case; the greater the similitude in substantive legal makeup between the two cases, the more pronounced is the shift. The displacements in judgment result from changes in the affective rather than the cognitive component of judicial attitudes and suggest an operational model of the juridical concept of "judicial temperament." The direction of the shift toward rather than away from the judgment in the preceding case and the powerful effect of the recency of the prior stimulation illustrate the socio-psychological foundation of the legal principle of stare decisis.
 
Top-cited authors
Linton C. Freeman
  • University of California, Irvine
Serge Moscovici
  • Fondation Maison des Sciences de l'Homme
Martine Naffréchoux
  • Université de Vincennes - Paris 8
Abraham Tesser
  • University of Georgia
Shalom H Schwartz
  • Hebrew University of Jerusalem