Sociological Focus

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Online ISSN: 0038-0237
Publications
Article
Using a sociodemographic model of the determinants of illegitimacy rates, a multivariate regression analysis of annual change in age-specific Swedish illegitimacy rates is applied to the 1911-74 period. The proxy measure of change in sexual activity was significant for all age groups. Legitimation rates for out-of-wedlock conceived births were significant for all ages except teenagers, and the final predictor, women's status, was significant for all ages except women 35-44. Explained variance for annual change was highest among ages 20-24 (66%), 25-29 (66%), and 30-34 (63%) and lower among teens (34%) and women 35-44 (47%). These results support earlier research that used a sociodemographic model to explain post-World War II change in cross-national illegitimacy rates among 23 developed countries.
 
Article
The relationship between unemployment and suicide in the United States is examined. Data for the period 1948 to 1978, primarily from the U.S. Public Health Service, are used to examine the effect of the duration of unemployment on suicide. "The results of a Cochrane-Orcutt iterative regression analysis indicate that the greater the duration of unemployment the greater the suicide rate. Using ex post forecasting techniques it is estimated that increases in unemployment during the Reagan administration have been associated with at least 929 additional deaths from suicide."
 
Article
Using census tracts as the basic unit of analysis and multiple regression techniques this study examines the relationship between infant mortality and socioeconomic status in Toledo, Ohio for the years centering around 1950 and 1970. The analysis shows that socioeconomic status is inverse and more strongly related to infant mortality in 1970 than in 1950 as measured by education and income. These increases occurred for both neonatal and postneonatal mortality. Occupation did not yield any significant relationships. These findings differ from the expectations of several studies carried out in the 1960s and clearly demonstrate the need for continuous research on this vital topic.
 
Article
This study is concerned with the debate over the supremacy of organizational versus environmental models for explaining population change within the context of metropolitan-nonmetropolitan turnaround migration. A sample of U.S. metropolitan areas is classified by a migration typology that considers sign changes or consistencies in rates of net migration between the 1960s and 1970s. "Four categories result and organizational, environmental and technological data are analyzed utilizing ridge regression with interaction terms to ascertain whether structural differences among migration categories exist." The study shows that organizational factors are more relevant for urban areas experiencing in-migration, and environmental factors are more relevant for those experiencing out-migration.
 
Article
"This paper presents the results of an ecological analysis of the relationship between infant mortality and economic status in a metropolitan aggregate comprised of six of the larger cities in Ohio covering the years 1979-81 and 1989-91.... Results of the analysis revealed, first of all, that there continues to be a clear and pronounced inverse association between the aggregate economic status of an area and the probability that a newborn infant will not survive the first year of life. There are, however, some noteworthy race-cause differences....Only one cause, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, stood out as having a generally consistent and very strong inverse relationship with economic status."
 
Article
"This study examines distance of 1975-80 interstate migration [in the United States] and several explanations for the relations between distance and characteristic of migrants and locations.... Observations are individual records from the 1980 one-in-ten-thousand PUMS files. The sample is restricted to nonblack, noninstitutionalized head of households, age 25 to 64 in 1980.... We find outmigration is shaped by characteristics of individuals; however, distance of migration is shaped by characteristics at locations. Findings lend support to an interpretation of distance reflecting psychic costs and information and are consistent with a cost/benefit view of factors contributing to distance of migration."
 
Article
Kelly and Cutright (1983), using regression techniques, conclude that birth control is among the more important determinants of Swedish illegitimacy. To derive this conclusion, they use changes in the marital fertility of wives aged 35-39 as a proxy for birth control. They maintain that annual change in the marital fertility rate of wives aged 35-39 is not likely to be greatly influenced by annual change in factors other than birth control. The "argument" appears to derive from the "desired family size" model of childbearing--a basic assumption of social demography. In it simplest form it states that most couples do not practice birth control until they reach a preconceived goal, or desired family size. It thus implies that a change in family size preferences will most affect the birth control practices of the oldest reproductive age groups. The simple form of the model has been questioned by the failure of Western couples to reproductively compensate for a major proportion of their child deaths, by the proportions of Western couples who say they would have preferred larger families than they actually had, by the predictive inadequacy of family size preferences, and by suggestions that age may be the more important determinant of reproduction. As a result some demographers now concede its inadequacy. Others are trying to relax its assumptions, with as yet problematic success. Essentially every Western fertility decline to date has been characterized by an increasing concentration of childbearing in the youngest age groups. In discussing this pattern social demographers have maintained that it could only have come about by a decline in family size preferences. This then is the standard argument supporting Kelly and Cutright's proxy for birth control. The authorities who offer it generally ignore the difficulties with the desired family size model and simply assert without justification that couples do in fact conform to it. Data on the age patterns of chronic disease and on the reproductive effects of environmental stressors suggest that the modern age pattern of fertility could also be produced by a deteriorating environment. Kelly and Cutright are incorrect in asserting that factors other than voluntary birth control could not be responsible for changes in fertility at ages 35-39. At best they may argue that their proxy is uniquely definitive provided that the desired family size model can be saved and provided the health of Western populations has not been compromised by technological change. At issue is a debate between what Dunlap calls the human exemptionalist and the ecological world views.
 
Article
PIP A number of factors have retarded the acceptance of birth control methods among peasant communities in Egypt: 1) the religious world-view of the peasant discourages him from interfering with the natural process of procreation; 2) the large family is important socially and economically in peasant society for strength and security and for the distribution of labor; 3) the status of a married woman depends to a great extent on the number of children, particularly the number of sons, she bears; and 4) in the Egyptian village, the midwife discourages the use of contraception. Acceptance and utilization of birth control methods in Egypt are directly proportionate to the level of education of the individual. The better the economic status of the family, the smaller the family is likely to be. Demographically, the closer a family lives to Cairo, the more likely it is that birth control techniques are being used. Egyptian family planning programs which take into consideration the difficulties of spreading the acceptance and use of contraceptives in traditional societies are discussed.
 
Article
The effects of the changing spatial distribution of the population in the United States are examined. "Hypotheses concerning the changing relationship of sustenance organization components and nonmetropolitan net migration rates between the 1960s and 1970s are tested. Multiple regression analysis reveals the following changes in the demographic impact of five types of economic activity from the 1960s to the 1970s: manufacturing--positive to insignificant; agriculture and mining--negative to positive; service--positive effect increases; and retail--insignificant for both periods." The author notes that "the introduction of settlement pattern characteristics as control variables does not change these relationships. The [R squared] for all the sustenance activity variables taken as a whole is 21 percent for 1960 and six percent for 1970, suggesting that alternatives to the traditional explanations of nonmetropolitan demographic change should be more fully developed."
 
Article
Most analyses of racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare focus on individuals rather than organizations. Healthcare organizations may be one mechanism that produces disparities if the representation of minorities within organizations' patient populations is associated with differential patterns of service delivery. This research considers whether the racial and ethnic composition of addiction treatment centers' caseloads is associated with the likelihood that organizations offer any prescription medications to treat addiction, psychiatric conditions, or pain. Data were collected from 288 publicly-funded substance abuse treatment centers in the US. Logistic regression was used to estimate models of medication availability. The percentage of racial and ethnic minority patients was negatively associated with the odds of medication availability, even after controlling for organizational characteristics and patients' diagnostic characteristics. Future research should continue to investigate how healthcare organizations may produce inequalities in access to high-quality care.
 
Article
PIP The author argues that Vietnamese patriarchal views regarding gender roles have led to greater educational advancement among Vietnamese women as compared to men in the US. Data for this study were obtained from the 1990 census and from interviews in 1994 at two high schools located near a Vietnamese community and at a public high school for honor students. The survey sample included 402 Vietnamese students from the three schools. The sample was 90% of all Vietnamese students enrolled at these schools and 75% of high school students living in the neighborhood near the schools. Census data showed that Vietnamese women over age 25 were more likely than similarly aged men to have less than a high school education or a college education. The education gap between men and women declined among the population aged under 25 years. Among married men and women aged 16-24 years, there were few gender differences in the proportion of school drop outs. However, among the unmarried aged 16-24 years, young women were significantly more likely to be enrolled in college and were less likely to drop out of school. Among the sample student population, findings indicate that female students had significantly higher grades and spent more time on home work. Census reports reveal that women were more likely both to report the lack of plans for college and to report that college was very important to them. Fathers stressed the importance of obedience until marriage and achievement among daughters. Fathers expected daughters to advance educationally for a number of reasons. Mothers agreed with fathers that the education and employment of women was not a rejection of traditional Vietnamese values. Mothers believed that daughters would be increasing their potential resources by improving their educational status. Adolescent males held more traditional attitudes towards wives as mothers. Young women reported stricter social controls of behavior from parents.
 
SCHOOL COMPOSITION (% LATINO) AND INDIVIDUAL LEVEL PREDICTORS OF SUBSTANCE USE OUTCOMES 
Article
This article examines key aspects of the school environment - its composition by ethnicity and acculturation - as important social contexts for understanding Mexican immigrant and Mexican American adolescents' drug use norms and behaviors. Results are presented based on surveys completed by Mexican-background students from 35 Phoenix. Arizona middle schools, whose enrollment ranged from a numerical minority to an overwhelming majority. Multivariate mixed models tested for the influence of school ethnic composition measures on substance use outcomes, while accounting for individual level predictors and for the nesting of data at the school level. The proportional representation of Latinos in the school was not a factor in an individual's drug use norms or drug use for the sample overall. Once students were broken down by acculturation status, however, ethnic composition had an effect. Less acculturated Mexican heritage students in schools with higher proportions of Latino students reported less substance use and less adherence to pro-drug norms. Further investigation using other measures of ethnic composition suggested that these effects were attributable to the larger presence of less acculturated Latinos in the school rather than more acculturated Latino students. These school-level effects support the individual-level results indicating that less acculturated Mexican American students face less daunting substance use risks. The results suggest that ethnic group size, but not necessarily numerical predominance, matters and that within-group differences influence the effect of a particular ethnic group's presence in the school. In other words, the majority does not always rule. These findings are interpreted using the concepts of segmented assimilation and school level social capital.
 
Article
PIP Data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey were used to analyze the relationship between relative power of spouses and agreement or disagreement on future fertility desires. The data do not allow a comprehensive assessment of actual sources of power. Three types of status differentials that might influence fertility decisions were studied: age, occupation, and education. 864 husband-wife pairs, in which both stated their preference to have or not have another child, were studied. Most men were considerably older and better educated than their wives, and 8% of men vs. 2% of women had jobs in the highest status category. 69.2% of couples agreed they wanted another child and 13.5% agreed they did not. In 5.8% of couples disagreeing, the wife, but not the husband, wanted another child; in 11.5%, the husband, but not the wife, wanted another. The relative status variables were incorporated as regressors in a multinomial logistic regression to test the influence of status differences on agreement or disagreement. Limited evidence was found to back any hypothesis of a relationship between relative status of spouses and agreement or disagreement. Evidence was found, however, to support the claim that women having a higher occupational status than their husbands inclines couples toward agreeing not to have more children and away from agreement to have more. Further research is needed to clarify the meaning of disagreement and the dynamics of resolution of differences.
 
Article
PIP The extent to which the traditional inverse relationship between infant mortality and socioeconomic status holds true in Kansas is examined for the years around 1950, 1960, and 1970. A social-ranking approach and correlation and regression analysis fail to confirm this inverse relationship. The authors suggest that the social organization characteristics of a rural U.S. state may provide a quality of life that transcends socioeconomic differentials.
 
Article
"This study examines the relationship between black population concentration (% black), black population change and white population change for small American suburbs for the 1950-1980 period. Linear, tipping point (curvilinear) and interaction models of racial transition are evaluated for each decade by region (South and non-South), controlling for several other suburban characteristics (age, annexation and distance to the Central Business District) which may affect both black and white population change. The analyses show that racial transition in suburbs involves the parallel development of white and black populations with mainly weak and complex causal linkages which are sensitive to broader suburbanization patterns."
 
Article
This study compares the fertility patterns of foreign-born and native-born women in Canada and examines whether same set of social characteristics accounts for differential fertility among both the groups. The study also assesses the importance of social characteristics and assimilation on immigrant fertility behavior. Two generations of currently married/cohabiting women with spouse present are analyzed using multiple regressions. The results reveal similar effects on fertility of social characteristics for foreign-born and native-born, while in the case of younger generations the effects are stronger. The younger generation appears to be a more adequate group for assessing the social characteristics than the older generation, although the influence of assimilation on the fertility of both the generations are minor.
 
Article
Utilizing a probability sample of college students, the significance of gender as a social and demographic correlate of sex role attitudes is explored to determine: (1) its explanatory power relative to other variables and (2) its ability to condition or specify the effects of other variables. Among 13 social and demographic variables, gender explains more variance in sex role attitudes than any other predictor and also conditions the effects on sex role attitudes of social class, community size, and choice of college major. Contrary to expectations, the effects of religious affiliation are equally strong for males and females. Interpretations focus on the differential significance of family social class influences on the type of sex role conceptions endorsed by offspring.
 
Article
Sloan (1984) argues that annual changes in marital fertility of Swedish wives aged 35-39 between 1911 and 1974 is not a result of annual changes in the use of birth control, but is due to changes in health conditions that increase or decrease marital fertility. As evidence of the lack of effect of contraceptive practice on fertility Sloan cites a study published in 1916 whose author concluded that contraceptive use or nonuse had no effect on family size. Sloan is unaware of the shroud of ignorance that blinded such research in the distant past. There was no accepted methodology to determine contraceptive effectiveness until the 1930s, and scientists did not know key elemental facts about human reproduction. For example, the relationship of ovulation to the risk of pregnancy was unknown in 1916, and was to remain a mystery for more than a decade thereafter. Sloan's "declining health" explanation of low fertility in the West is merely a variant of an older attempt to explain low fertility as a result of high protein intake. Sloan's view that modern couples do not contracept to reach a desired family size and that changes in family size preference will not affect birth control practice among older (or younger it appears as well) couples seems to us to be an idiosyncratic view at best and directly opposed by all survey research. Couples do contracept most effectively when they are trying to prevent an additional birth. The view that failure of some Western couples to reproductively compensate for their child deaths as explained by poor reproductive health seems to assume that couples in non-Western population do so compensate, but this is wrong. The idea that such bereaved couples should have another child is so insensitive to tragedy as to defy further reply. Sloan's acceptance and use of reports that some couples say they wanted more children than they had ignores massive research findings of unwanted fertility among couples in populations with long histories of birth control practice. Further, it is difficult to have much faith in such responses since about 1/2 the couples in the Whelpton el al. study cited by Sloan also said they were fecund. These responses mean that couples may say that they want more than they actually had, but they deliberately did not have such a large and "ideal" family size because of other factors not considered by Sloan. Since it appears that Sloan was unable to find another authority, he cites a 3 page comment of his own in support of the hypothesis of deteriorating environment. He does not actually empirically link age patterns of chronic disease with fecundity loss; his view also ignores research indicating improved health conditions, at least among US women, after the mid-1930s that increased fecundity and then fertility. Thus, his argument that factors other than voluntary birth control could explain annual change in Swedish marital fertility among older couples is unsupported by empirical evidence. His remarks are also irrelevant to the use made in the author's article concerning marital fertility rates as a proxy for the use of annual birth control change among younger unmarried women. The marital rate varies, as does the illegitimacy rate. Annual increases in marital fertility are related to annual increases in illegitimacy; annual declines in marital rates to annual declines in illegitimacy. Sloan's hypothetical trends in fecundity have no bearing on our empirical study of annual change in Swedish illegitimacy rates. Finally, Sloan's claim that social demographers do not view a changing environment as problematic is unsupported and unjustified. author's modified
 
Article
Numerous authors have attempted to examine the timing of mortality in relation to socially significant events. Typically, previous findings have not adequately answered the question of why the hypothesis is often confirmed with small samples and not with large ones, what an appropriate time interval of study would be, and whether the pattern applies across year, gender, race, marital status, age and cause of death. The present study attempts to examine birthdate as the criterion date while using a large sample from official state mortality records. The total population for the present study were all deaths by natural causes in the State of Ohio for 1979, 1980, and 1981. Analyses were done by various time intervals (day, week, and year) and by examining possible patterns based on the aforementioned third variables. The findings show that there is a greater tendency for persons to die within thirty days after the date of birth than before. More specifically, there was a statistically significant pattern of increased mortality for those who were never married and for ill-defined causes of death. A theoretical foundation and a brief interpretation of these findings is offered.
 
Article
PIP This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.
 
Article
"The black communities of the United States have a disproportionate number of single-parent families: In point of fact, over one half of all black families with children are single-parent families; the great majority of these single-parent families are headed by females. The fastest growing segment of single parent families is young never-married females who...have incomes below the poverty line. Using a causal model analysis, this particular study undertook to compare subsamples of continuous two-parent and one-parent families to find out what intra-familial dynamics 'cause' early versus late teenage pregnancy. The results suggest that positive child-parent affect is generally associated with delayed teenage pregnancy, and negative child-parent affect is generally associated with early teenage pregnancy. Moreover, the father's influence is significant in both two-parent and one-parent families."
 
Article
PIP Patterns in childlessness rates for blacks and whites in the U.S. from 1950-1972 were examined using 1940, 1950, and 1960 census data and data from Current Population Reports for 1969 and 1972. Among ever married women, aged 15-49, the proportion of childless black women declined from 29.1%-13.6% from 1940-1972, while the porportion of childless white women declined from 22.9%-14.3% from 1940-1969 and then increased slightly to 15.6% in 1972. The decline in childlessness observed for both blacks and whites during this period was attributable, at least in part, to improved medical care. When age specific rates were examined 2 diverse patterns emerged. For females, aged 15-24, childlessness rates for blacks were lower than for whites throughout 1940-1972, and the differences between blacks and whites increased over time. However, for females, aged 30-39, childlessness rates were higher for blacks than for whites throughout 1940-1972, and the gap between white and black rates decreased over time. In general the data demonstrated a convergence in childlessness patterns for blacks and whites. Childlessness rates were viewed as an indication of social integration. Childlessness is not a norm in American society. The general decline in childless rates among blacks and especially among blacks over 30 years of age indicated that the wider society was serving as a reference group for blacks. Among blacks under 25 years convergence was less apparent and indicated that younger black women were less integrated into the larger society than older black women. On the basis of recent trends it was predicted that convergence between black and white childlessness patterns would continue; however, in view of the upturn in the childlessness rate observed for whites since 1969, it was expected that the childlessness rates for both blacks and whites would increase somewhat in the coming years.
 
AnalysJN of R' Change Due w Charai-fensdiN Variatiies. EihniL'iiy. and E(hnicily-Educa[ion [nrcraclion Term 
Standar-ii^ed Regression Coefficients Showing The Independent Effects af Education and Ethnicity-E-lucation Contrasts on Fertility 
Summary Table of The Relafionship Beiwcen Minoriiy Slaius. Edutaiion anil Feniliiy and Theoretical Esplanalions of Slaiisiical Effects 
Article
PIP Investigates the relationship among ethnicity, education, and fertility for selected Canadian ethnic groups, introducing several extensions of Johnson's recent elaboration of Goldsheider and Uhlenberg's minority group status hypothesis. The findings suggest that among Asiatics and Germans the prevailing reproductive pattern is an assimilative one relative to the British majority group. Native Indians and Dutch maintain high levels of reproduction, but at post secondary school attainment their mean family sizes converge with the British. Ukrainian, Italian, and Jewish minorities experience below average fertility, and at high levels of education it is the British group which converges with the low fertility pattern of Jews and Italians. Ukrainians differ, as their fertility is consistently below the majority group, regardless of education level.
 
Article
This paper examines the extent of injection use among children as well as the factors that influence the use of injections for treating childhood diseases in four sub-Saharan African countries. Employing the Andersen Behavioral framework of predisposing, enabling and need factors, data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were examined. About 30 percent of children with fever, and about 20 percent of children with respiratory problems were treated with injections.Multivariate analyses showed that the effects of the predisposing and enabling characteristics upon use of injections were consistently higher than those of the need component, suggesting the existence of great inequities in the health care system. Implications for preventive health care are examined.
 
Article
PIP Rural-urban migration in England and France during the Industrial Revolution is examined. In particular, the author investigates factors underlying variations in rates of migration to London and Paris and concludes that the extent of change in migration patterns has been overestimated. Most migration continued to come from the hinterlands of the two cities and from other traditional sources, as the negative impact of distance overwhelmed other factors associated with regional variations.
 
Article
This research involves a longitudinal analysis of a large number of urban areas for two distinct historical periods during the Twentieth Century. The study indicates that while human ecology's general assumption that sustenance activity regulates community growth is correct, the theory overemphasizes the role of industrial capacity in this process. Growth appears to be more a function of a community's managerial activity than its production capacity. Basic-non-basic activity theory fails to predict a community's growth potential. Nevertheless one aspect of sustenance activity, the city's role in coordinating goods and services flows, has a significant impact on growth. Several other ecological variables, region and the extent of transportation activity, influence urban growth. Yet none of these factors show consistent relationships with growth through time.
 
Article
This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person's desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking.
 
Article
Three categories of work characteristics ? employment expectations, job satisfaction, and job experiences ? in addition to commonly considered family variables, are examined as influences on sustained employment between 1964 through 1968 for a national sample of college-educated wives, class of 1961. Number of children and husband's income have the strongest, and negative, effects on sustained employment. Additionally, two work characteristics, one work orientation measure (expectation of being employed during the preschool child stage), and one job satisfaction measure (overall job satisfaction) are significant, and positive, influences. No other variable pertaining to wives' work characteristics is significantly related to sustained employment Because the responses in the data set were collected in the 1960s, the data in this article can serve as a comparison point for subsequent studies.
 
Article
PIP The present study was based on data collected separately for husbands and wives from 365 couples to determine levels of consensus on a series of variables related to the family forming process. Following Scheff (1967), consensus was operationalized as both agreement and coorientation in the marital dyad. The data generally indicated low levels of consensus on such variables as contraceptive efficacy, desired family size, child spacing, unwanted pregnancies, communication with spouse, and levels of alienation. It becomes clear that survey research data collected solely from wives or husbands contain an important source of error - a selective distortion of the facts about family life and fertility behavior in many instances. Disparities in perceptions and world views suggest the importance of treating the couple as a unit in studies of relationships between alienation and fertility behavior. The lack of consensus within the marital dyad may constitute a major obstacle to rational decision making, particularly on sensitive topics and in areas surrounded by high levels of ego involvement. Couples not only disagree but lack awareness of their disagreements. This information suggests that many crucial family events are not planned. It becomes more appropriate to question whether decisions are made at all, and if so, to what extent, under what conditions and by whom.
 
Article
"This analysis examines the institutional context of infant mortality in Peru using economic, social, health care, and public health measures as indicators of development and equity. Using linked data from population and economic censuses, government agencies, and health surveys on twenty-four Peruvian provinces, I explore how economic development and institutional contexts influence health outcomes. Regional inequities based on rural population, subsistence activity, women's illiteracy, monthly income, Gross Domestic Product, medical care, and health facilities are compared. Then a cluster analysis identifies institutional contexts that have internal similarities.... My conclusion is that understanding regional inequities--defined in terms of economic development, social institutions, and health services--leads to enhanced explanations of disparities in health outcomes."
 
Article
PIP The 1978 U.S. Bureau of the Census reported 4.3 billion as the world's population. 3.1 billion were living in the less developed areas where life is characterized by poverty and low levels of material well-being. In the develop countries the per capita income averaged $490, compared to $5,210 in developed areas. Little attention has been paid to the status of women in developing countries, where the impact of development often has a negative effect. As a measure of women's status, rates are given for male/female infant mortality. If the ratio is less than 1.14 the status of women is low. If the is 1.15-1.24 the status is medium. If the ratio is 1.25 and over, women enjoy high status. In countries where women have low status the population growth ra averages 3%. Where the status of women is medium, the growth rate is 2.5%. I countries of high status the population growth rate is 2.2. Further research is needed on correlations between population and economic growth, with particula emphasis on subtle factors behind population/economic development.
 
Article
"This paper deals with delayed marriage and singlehood among the Irish as a focus for the study of the persistence of ethnic characteristics. Patterns of delayed marriage in Ireland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are reviewed, and evidence is also presented that Irish persons in other countries (especially in the United States) continue to show significantly higher rates of singlehood and postponed marriage than persons of other nationality groups. Discussion includes how delayed marriage became common in Ireland during the past 150 years and what may be involved in the apparent persistence of this pattern today in Ireland and among the Irish in other countries."
 
Article
PIP Problems associated with past research on the fertility-development issue are identified in this article, and a model of the macro-level determinants of fertility -- a model informed by the revised theory of fertility transition -- is specified. This model is estimated both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In addition, a model is specified that assesses the importance of a family planning program effort on fertility change in less developed countries. The effects on fertility change of other variables is controlled. Using crude birth rates for 117 countries, the model is operationalized and the revised model is applied to 1974 rates. A longitudinal model of 1955-1959 to 1974 change in rates is then tested. The final model for 81 less developed countries from the original set of 117 countries includes a measure of family planning effort. Results support the view that high levels of modernization increase motivation to control fertility, but they also show that excessive reliance on developmental change in less developed countries to bring about fetility declines would prolong unnecessarily the current period of rapid population growth. The dominant role of modernization in the models that lack data on family planning programs only facilitates understanding of the past. Modernization is not the only road to future lower fertility. Modernization, abortion, and family planning programs are explicit policy relevant variables. It was found that legalized abortion has a large and independent impact on lowering birth rates and that family planning programs also reduce unwanted births in less developed countries. These programs were the most important factor related to change in 1955-1959 to 1974 crude birth rate.
 
Article
Despite the growing population of Latinos in the United States, there is little research that explores how discrimination affects the mental health of Latino youth along racial lines. In this paper we ask two closely related questions. First, do black Latino youth have higher or lower symptoms of depression than nonblack Latinos? Second, is the relationship between race and depression among Latino youth buffered by discrimination stress? Results from the Transitions Study show that black Latino youth have significantly higher symptoms of depression than nonblack Latinos. The relationship between race and depression depends on daily-but not on lifetime-experiences of discrimination. The combined effect of race and discrimination holds in the face of a wide range of measures of stress, including major lifetime events, recent life events, and chronic stressors. These findings encourage future research that considers the mental health effects of racial variation among Latinos.
 
Article
This paper assesses the relative impact of direct and indirect determinants of marital fertility in Pakistan, where the vast majority of women do not use any method of fertility regulation. Data came from the 1990/91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, and models were estimated for women aged 15–49, 15–24, 25–34 and 35–49. The younger cohort may be the vanguard of change; change which may be masked by investigating only the conventional 15–49 age group. Findings indicate that unlike the older cohorts, the younger cohort does not have negative and significant relationships between education, employment and fertility; and, that the current use of family planning is positive and significant with fertility for the 35–49 cohort only. These findings suggest that there is a threshold or minimum number of children that a woman must produce before determinants such as current use of family planning, education and employment impact fertility.
 
Article
PIP Studies testing theories of urban primacy and foreign penetration in developing nations largely support the premise that these phenomena both prevail and negatively impact economic growth in developing nations. This paper, however, presents results of a study of Turkey as an exception to patterns reflective of the world-system model and dependency theory found in ideal-typic developing nations. Theoretically, 1 or 2 major urban centers may distort and fragment the spatial economy of a developing nation. These cities are able to politically and economically manipulate/regulate national policy in their self-interest, and leave nonprimate regions as fragmented local markets. As such, these cities impede the development of an integrated spatial economy. From the birth of the Turkish nation-state in 1923, however, a strong central government has structured economic and political patterns to direct national control away from Istanbul-centric interest groups. Moreover, little support exists for the presence of foreign economic domination. The paper then examines to what extent the Turkish spatial economy has become less distorted and fragmented. It subjects 1955-80 data to modernization theory and human ecology, and finds no support for ecological arguments linking integrative activity to system size or contact technology. Study results confirm the modernization argument about spatial economy, with more modernized provinces showing proportionately higher levels of integrative activity. Finding implications are briefly discussed.
 
Article
The relevance of world system/dependency theory, and ecological-evolutionary theory for the population processes of currently developing nations is explored and evaluated by testing hypotheses drawn from models of fertility and fertility decline implied by them. Despite the preliminary and necessarily limited nature of the tests and measures, some support is found for hypotheses drawn from boh perspectives. Techno-economic heritage is found to affect fertility change directly, and world system status and techno-economic heritage are each found to affect fertility level and fertility change through independent effects on intervening variables. In addition, a significant interaction effect of techno-economic heritage and world system status on fertility level is found.
 
Article
Previous studies of the relationship between exchange mobility and economic development have produced conflicting results. This paper resolves the conflicting findings through a critical examination of the measures of exchange mobility used in these studies and a reanalysis of one of the data sets. It is concluded that development is positively related to exchange mobility among the nonfarm male labor force but not to the occupational inheritance of men from farm backgrounds. The latter finding explains the absence of a relationship between development and exchange mobility for the total male labor force. The issue of whether or not the development-mobility relationship is spurious is then discussed.
 
Article
"Past studies have found a modest, positive association between size of family of orientation and preferred family size and fertility behavior in the family of procreation. While there is some consistency in the findings, contradictions are also noted. The present study replicates earlier studies dealing with preferred family size, and seeks to resolve some of the contradictions by utilizing multiple classification analysis to determine the simultaneous impact of parental family size, religion, happiness, life style stability, and birth order on family size preference." The data, collected in 1981-1982, concern 379 U.S. college students.
 
Article
"This paper examines how living in a single parent family affects intergenerational marriage patterns regarding preferred family size. Data collected from 1,300 college students at a large midwestern [U.S.] university provide further evidence of a positive relationship between number of siblings in one's family of origin and preferred marital family size. However, this relationship does not hold for all groups. Factors affecting preferred family size differ for males and females from intact and nonintact family structures. The positive relationship between size of family of orientation and family of procreation holds only for individuals from intact homes."
 
Article
PIP Individuals of higher socioeconomic status live longer and enjoy better physical and mental health relative to individuals of lower social status. Socioeconomic status differences in health status persist over time. This paper examines the association between socioeconomic status, psychosocial factors, and health in Georgetown, Guyana. The major causes of death are cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease; life expectancy at birth is 67.3 years for males and 72.3 years for females; and the infant mortality rate is 44 per 1000 live births. Data for the study were drawn from a probability sample of 654 adult residents of Georgetown. A significant inverse association was found between formal education and morbidity for four of the six measures of health status. The authors investigated the extent to which self-concept, health behaviors, stress, and social ties are linked to health status and socioeconomic status, and can explain socioeconomic status differences in health status. Psychosocial factors, especially the self-concept measures of self-esteem and mastery, were found to play a moderate role in accounting for educational differences in health status.
 
Article
This study investigates the relationship of modernity of sex roles to pregnancy planning. Scanzoni's Modernity of Sex Roles instrument was administered to 59 primiparous women who had given birth in a metropolitan midwestern hospital. Discriminant function analysis found six of the Scanzoni items to significantly discriminate between planners and nonplanners. The findings are discussed in terms of the measurement properties of the Scanzoni instrument and its usefulness for predicting pregnancy planning.
 
Article
PIP The relationship between religion and sex role orientation is examined in a 1964 study of 4843 white, married, college graduate women. It was hypothesized that 1) women with different religious affiliations differ in their levels of sex role traditionalism, with Catholics and fundamental Protestants being the most traditional, followed by mainline Protestants, then Jews, and finally by the religiously unaffiliated, who are expected to be the least traditional, and 2) these differences can be explained by differences in social characteristics or degree of religious involvement. Sex role traditionalism was measured by asking respondents to identify with either a feminist (career-oriented) or traditional (family-oriented) viewpoint. Baptists and Catholics had the most traditional sex role attitudes, followed by fundamentalists, then mainline Protestants. Women with no religion and Jewish women were most likely to identify themselves as feminists. The relationship of socioeconomic characteristics and sex role attitudes was weak, while the degree of religious involvement seemed to have an independent effect on traditionalism. 2 factors limit the generalizability of study results. Research suggests that a convergence in fertility behavior between Protestants and Catholics has taken place since 1964, although the basic connection between family values and religion persists. Also, a sample of college graduate women is likely to overrepresent agnostics and athiests and underrepresent other unaffiliated individuals, as well as to be weighted toward the upper socioeconomic groups.
 
Article
After the Cultural Revolution China initiated a very intensive family planning programme. Although statistical data are not available, there is enough information to conclude that the custom of postponing marriage and planning births is gaining momentum. The new socio-economic environment is much more conducive to the acceptance of family planning by the young adults than was the case in previous campaigns. Contraceptives, abortions and sterilizations are free of charge and readily available through the extensive public health system. Most important to the success of the programme are the unique methods of motivation which involve virtually all segments of the society.
 
Article
While literature demonstrates that interscholastic sports participation is associated with positive academic outcomes, this relationship is rarely analyzed at a macro-level (the school-level). To date, there is no research examining whether increases in schools' female and male interscholastic sports participation rates is associated with increases in female and male AP enrollment rates. Using a national sample of 4,644 public high schools during the 2009-2010 school year, we test several gender-specific hypotheses linked with the association between schools' sport participation rates and advanced placement enrollment rates (AP math, AP science, AP foreign language, and overall AP enrollment). The findings reveal that schools' female and male sports participation rates have a positive association with schools' female and male AP math, AP science, AP foreign language, and overall AP enrollment rates. Moreover, the findings suggest that females benefit more than males in regard to the positive relationship between interscholastic sports and AP enrollment.
 
Article
This paper examines the impact of public and private support systems on cognitive outcomes for children born to adolescent mothers. The data for this analysis were drawn from the 1979 to 1988 rounds of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The sample consists of 1382 children wlio were between the ages of six and ten in 1988. The key inputs for this analysis are four indicators of private support: average family income, extensiveness of mother's employment, presence of grandparents and presence of a significant other. Additionally, I use one indicator of public support: average number of survey years that the family received welfare benefits. All five indicators are averaged over the life span of the child. I also control for maternal resources ? intellectual skills and self-esteem. Overall, the findings indicate that private support systems are important in shaping children's cognitive achievement but these effects are contingent on the levels of maternal resources available. These results also suggest that total family income is a more important predictor of reading achievement than is a history of welfare receipt. Rather than focusing solely on the potential negative effects of welfare receipt on children, researchers and policy analysts should also be concerned with how maternal resources may interact with available private support systems to affect child development.
 
2007 North Central Sociological Association/Midwest SOCiological Society Joint Annual Meeting Program Sessions by Session Type 
1991 and 2006 North Central Sociological Association and 1992 and 2006 American SOCiological Association Final Program Sessions by Type 
Article
In this essay, I examine the role of teaching and learning in the culture of the regional association in American sociology. I analyze the programs of (1) the 2007 joint meeting of the North Central Sociological Association (NCSA) and the Midwest Sociological Society (MSS); (2) the 2007 annual meeting preliminary programs of the Eastern Sociological Society (ESS), the Pacific Sociological Association (PSA), and the Southern Sociological Society (SSS) along with the 2006 annual meeting programs of the MSS and NCSA, as well as the American Sociological Association (ASA); and (3) the 1991 NCSA and 1992 ASA annual meeting programs. I identify program trends with regard to teaching, professional development, undergraduate students, graduate students, and research on higher education. I conclude by identifying regional association annual meeting best practices regarding each of these areas.
 
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