Social Indicators Research

Published by Springer Nature
Online ISSN: 1573-0921
Learn more about this page
Recent publications
Map showing district-wise poverty clusters (2008–2009) in Pakistan (excluding FATA and AJK)
Maps of district-wise rural infrastructure 2008 (excluding FATA and AJK)
Moran scatter plot for poverty measure
Lisa cluster map and significance map of poverty measure
The role of infrastructure in poverty alleviation remains ambiguous due to weak institutions in developing countries. Considering spatial dependence, this study provides empirical evidence on the role of rural infrastructure in poverty alleviation using district-wise data of Pakistan. Results indicate positive direct as well as spatial spillover effects of financial infrastructure and female education infrastructure while positive direct effects of energy infrastructure are observed. The insignificant role of health and transportation infrastructure in poverty alleviation is a matter of serious concern. From a policy point of view, allocation of sufficient financial resources, improvement of female education infrastructure in rural areas and reformulation of health and transportation policies should be priority steps for poverty alleviation. An adverse effect of male education infrastructure on poverty reduction is detected, which needs further exploration. Adverse spillover effects of water and sanitation infrastructure on poverty may suggest the authorities to revise the implementation procedure of National Sanitation and Drinking Water Policy. The analysis might be relevant to the South Asian region due to homogeneous economic development. Moreover, the study provides evidence informing the debate on balanced regional development in developing countries with a particular focus on high and medium level of poverty clusters.
We examine determinants of subjective wellbeing (SWB) for mothers of dependent children in material hardship, using a modification of the New Zealand Treasury’s Living Standards Framework (LSF) and data from the General Social Survey. We convert the LSF—an indicator dashboard—into a tool for prioritising social policies by placing SWB at the head of a hierarchy of wellbeing domains. Several determinants of these mothers’ SWB conform to standard findings; however, two important differences stand out. One is the lack of a protective effect from employment on SWB for this group (unlike the protective effect for males). The other is a positive relationship between a mother’s SWB and satisfaction with her own skills/knowledge; this effect is particularly strong for sole mothers in hardship, dominating any effect of qualifications on SWB. The analysis demonstrates both a practical use of a modified LSF, and the value of taking a gender-specific approach to analysing wellbeing.
This study investigates the effect of parental aspirations gap on children’s educational attainment between 2007 and 2014, using two waves of Indonesian Family Life Survey data. The aspirations gap is measured by the difference between one’s future reference point and his or her current life evaluation reported by each household head and spouse. The results show that boys whose fathers report a moderate level of the aspirations gap achieve substantially longer schooling years than the mean level of their same age cohort. Furthermore, the relationship is found to be inversely U-shaped, implying that an excessive aspirations gap discourages investment in children’s human capital. An increasing aspirations gap of parents is also found to impede the educational attainment of children in poor families, which are more vulnerable to shocks that are found to increase the gap. Overall, the results of this paper shed light on the role of parental aspirations gap in the link between socioeconomic status of family and educational outcomes of children in Indonesia, where the gap of the poor is found to increase faster than the rich.
Profiles of Democratic Competence Notes: CITCON = importance of conventional citizenship; CITSOC = importance of social citizenship; ETHRGHT = tolerance and respect of ethnic minority groups; GENEQL = attitudes toward gender equality; INTPOLS = interest in political and social issues; INPOLEFF = internal political efficacy; CITEFF = citizenship efficacy; INTRUST = trust in governmental institutions
Research is mixed on the current state of democratic consolidation in transitioning states and whether young people are prepared to help sustain a culture of democracy. This study draws on the Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competencies for Democratic Culture and the framework of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study to explore patterns of democratic orientation among adolescents in Albania and Belarus (N = 711). Latent profile analyses identified five groups of democratically oriented adolescents in both states: (a) All-around citizens, (b) Idealistic and Disengaged, (c) Duty-oriented, (d) Diversity Enthusiasts and (e) Alienated. Results further revealed that profiles were unevenly distributed between the two countries and that profile membership was differentially related to adolescents’ perceptions of school climate and their intentions to participate in civic and political life. The article concludes with a discussion of how consideration of heterogeneity within democratically-competent youth can inform efforts to promote a culture of democracy in transitioning societies.
Plot of country means for each of the dependent variables. Note: the dashed horizontal line indicates mean for all EU countries. Vertical whiskers on each point indicate standard deviation
Predicted probabilities (with 95% credible intervals) of viewing climate change as a very serious problem (belief)
Predicted probabilities (with 95% credible intervals) of viewing climate change as important relative to other issues (salience)
Predicted probabilities (with 95% credible intervals) by levels of GDP per capita of seriousness and salience of climate change for different values of left–right orientation
Cross-country research on public opinion on climate change has mostly focused on people’s beliefs about whether climate change is happening or is a serious problem, with little attention paid to other opinion dimensions such as issue salience. Relying on Eurobarometer data from 28 EU member states, we systematically compare the public’s belief in and salience of climate change, examining variation across the EU using Bayesian multilevel analysis. We find high levels of belief but low levels of salience in most countries. Salience varies substantially between countries and is positively related to country wealth. Levels of greenhouse gas emissions appear to have a negative relationship with both belief and salience, and individuals’ political orientation has more influence on climate opinion (particularly salience) in richer countries than in poorer countries. Overall, our findings suggest that belief and salience are distinct dimensions, and that country context influences salience more than belief.
Longitudinal cross-lagged panel model of the associations between income, subjective social status, episodic memory, and executive function. Bolded lines represent significant non-autoregressive paths, while dashed lines indicate nonsignificant paths. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001. Age, gender, education level, employment status, retirement status, unemployment from T1 to T2, retirement from T1 to T2, and household size were controlled for in all pathways
Little evidence exists to determine whether individual variations in objective income versus subjective social status would more strongly predict cognitive outcomes in adulthood. In the present study, we contrast the predictive validity of objective income against subjective social status on cognitive outcomes using two large-scale, general public samples. In Study 1, we cross-sectionally examined a sample of Singaporean adults (N = 848; 379 males; Mage = 37.19) to determine whether income or subjective social status would predict reasoning ability. In Study 2, we examined a sample of American adults (N = 1476; 694 males; Mage = 53.70) across approximately ten years using latent variable cross-lagged panel modelling to determine whether income or subjective social status would predict long-term episodic memory and executive function after accounting for baselines. Age, gender, education, employment status, and household size were controlled for. Results indicated that objective income predicted all cognitive outcomes in both studies, whereas subjective social status did not. Additionally in Study 2, reverse-causal pathways in which cognitive functioning was specified as a predictor of later income were not supported. Overall, the results suggest replicable, unidirectional links between objective income and multiple indices of cognitive functioning that were not found for subjective social status.
Traditional GDP calculations exclude the ecological environment and natural resource depletion, arguing that sustained economic growth can lead to sustained welfare improvements. The Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW) is a monetary measure of sustainability and economic welfare aimed at overcoming some of the limitations of GDP. Given the significant impact of industrial development, the demographic composition, and the balance of payments in economic growth and sustainable economic well-being, we propose an improved ISEW method (SE-ISEW), where the structural index is used instead of the Atkinson index as a measure of structural imbalance. This study calculates and compares the ISEW and SE-ISEW for 30 provinces in mainland China from 1997 to 2017 and discusses highly controversial methodological assumptions related to income inequality, long-term environmental damage, and nonrenewable energy consumption. Findings show that China's GDP is larger than ISEW and SE-ISEW respectively. Moreover, the “relative threshold effect”—increases in social welfare are slower than the expansion of economic scale—has been found in many provinces. In the case of rapid economic growth, the gap between GDP and ISEW or SE-ISEW has increased over time. This study reveals an unbalanced development of China's economic growth and sustainable welfare growth and provides a new way of thinking about structural transformation.
Social Indicators Research (SIR) publishes novel and groundbreaking research focusing on social indicators related to quality of life and sustainability. Using bibliometrics, this study aims to offer a retrospective of the major trends (e.g., publication, citation, and top contributing authors, institutions, and countries) and intellectual structure of SIR. The retrospective indicates that SIR, which has grown substantially in productivity and impact, attracts contributions worldwide, notably from the USA, with 11 major themes revealed between 1974 and 2019. Using a zero inflated negative binomial regression, this study also reveals the factors that influence the citation count of SIR publications, namely article age, number of author keywords, title novelty, title length, USA affiliation, and number of authors. Noteworthily, this study, which represents the inaugural review of SIR, should be useful for readers to gain rich insights into the state of research on social indicators related to quality of life and sustainability.
Socioeconomic changes in Japan. Note) Real GDP indicators are from: MLIT (2012), Cabinet office (2021), High school/ college admission rate are from: e-Stat (2021), Ageing rate: Statistics Bureau of Japan (2020), Fertility rate: MHLW (2020), Blue (the sum of skilled manual, non-skilled manual), White (the sum of professional-managerial, routine, non-manual) collar, and Farming rates: Ishida (2018)
Class mobility table
Trends in the origin and destination class weights (both males and females)
Trends in the origin and destination class weights (left: males, right: females)
The study investigates the relationship between intergenerational social class mobility and subjective well-being in Japan. It considers the macro-social context and examines how socioeconomic changes affect the association between intergenerational social class mobility and life satisfaction. Based on data drawn from the Social Stratification and Social Mobility Survey from 1985 to 2015 for both males and females, we adopted the diagonal reference model to measure the effects of origin, destination, and mobility. We found that the life satisfaction of mobile members was mainly determined by their destination rather than their origin classes. We did not find additional mobility effects. The analysis confirmed that the effects of class mobility differed across cohorts and that there is a trend of the origin and destination weights. Those who were mobile in a period of recession tended to be more affected by their origin class than those who were mobile in a period of high or stable economic growth. Whereas these trends were confirmed for both males and females, it was more prominent among females. We found additional mobility effects on the youngest female cohort and identified that horizontal mobility harms life satisfaction for this cohort. We also found that the association between class mobility and life satisfaction changes according to the socioeconomic environment and that the mobility impacts differ by gender.
Cohort effects of general social participation in China (***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, ^p < 0.1)
Cohort effects of participation in three Olsonian associations in China
Cohort effects of Olsonian participation in China (Binary)
Cohort effects of Olsonian participation in China (Poisson)
People’s social participation is deeply rooted in social change and development. Based on the World Values Survey data from 1990 to 2018, this study analyzed the temporal trend of social participation across successive cohorts in China using the hierarchical age-period-cohort-cross-classified random effects model. The results show that social participation continued to fall among Chinese born before 1972 and then successively rose in the following cohorts. However, this cohort effect was mainly attributed to the participation in Olsonian associations, and it could be partly explained by people’s education attainment. The cohort effects of participation in three Olsonian associations, including trade unions, political associations and professional organizations, were similar to that of general social participation. The significant increase in social participation in cohorts born after the 1970s is mainly attributed to China’s socioeconomic and educational development, and a favorable environment for social development is a critical factor for civic social participation.
One of the forms of public participation in the local governance system is civic budgeting which actively engages residents in developing projects and voting on the submitted proposals. Civic budgeting aims to involve local communities in deciding how a defined portion of public resources should be allocated by means of a democratic debate. Public spaces are the essence of urban life; therefore, the aim of the study was to analyze civic budget records relating to public spaces. The study was conducted in the largest Polish cities. The research involved quantitative and comparative analytical methods. The analysis focused on community involvement and local community needs, represented by a wide array of public space-related project categories. The analyzed cities were ranked according to their civic engagement, and the resulting classification was compared with voter turnout during polls on the proposals adopted as part of the CB process. The results revealed considerable diversity in both civic engagement and local needs, and they could be used to develop guidelines for designing public spaces in the urban planning process. The present findings are also a valuable source of information for local governments in their efforts to improve the functioning, attractiveness and development of user-friendly spaces in citizen-oriented cities.
The Leave No One Behind principle is at the core of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development and acknowledges that poverty is multidimensional and should be examined at individual level. Notwithstanding this, most empirical studies use the household as the unit of analysis for multidimensional poverty measurement. However, estimation of poverty levels at household-level underestimates poverty levels of the society and does not capture intra-household inequalities. The objective of this study is two-fold: (1) developing a country-specific individual-level multidimensional poverty measure; and (2) providing estimates of multidimensional poverty for Botswana. This study contributes to the limited literature on individual-level multidimensional poverty measurement. Empirically, this study offers the first attempt to estimate a nationally relevant and context-specific multidimensional poverty index for Botswana using the individual as a unit of analysis. The results reveal that an estimated 46.2% of individuals are considered multidimensionally poor based on individual-level analysis. This figure is higher than the household-level estimate of 36.5%, which indicates that using the household as a unit of analysis leads to underestimating poverty levels in the society. The results show that on average, the multidimensionally poor are deprived in 47.4% of all indicators under consideration. This finding indicates that multidimensional poverty intensity is also a considerable concern in Botswana. These findings warrant policy interventions.
Paths to remove the causal relationship between LPM pollution and health damage
Research framework of this paper
Sample distribution area (
Source: Arc GIS 10)
Relationships between risk preference and environmental exposure
Relationships between health risk perception and environmental exposure
Rural women are an integral part of the agricultural economy. Still, their exposure to environmental pollution, especially in the context of risk preference and health risk perception, has not gained much attention in the existing literature. So to explore this notion, a survey and experimental data of 714 rural Chinese women as pig breeders are taken, we innovatively evaluate the degree of environmental exposure from the pre-exposure, in-exposure, post-exposure intervention of women breeders, and two-stage least squares (2SLS) method is employed to address the endogeneity issue between health risk perception and environmental exposure. The results show that rural women breeders suffer from severe environmental exposure, and the degree of environmental exposure is up to 72.102(Min = 0, Max = 100). Risk preference also emerges as a crucial determinant behind their environmental exposure, but health risk perception significantly deters the degree of environmental exposure. The health risk perception can offset risk preference effects on women breeders’ environmental exposure by 15.15%. Moreover, considering the heterogeneity of the breeding scale, it is found that the impact of risk preference and health risk perception on women breeders’ environmental exposure is an inverted U-shaped relationship, i.e., the results are at the turning stage when the breeding scale is 31–40 heads. Based on the empirical findings, the study offers guidelines for policymakers to enhance awareness amongst women breeders regarding health and pollution and encourage them to opt for environment-friendly breeding. Moreover, this research also has substantial guiding significance for related research on environmental exposure of rural women in other developing countries.
Mapping the multidimensional poverty index in Bihar
Source Authors' calculation using the DHS data
Contribution of each dimension to multidimensional poverty.
Source Author’ calculation using the DHS data (2015–16)
Vulnerability of agriculture to climate change in Bihar
Does deprivation of assets imply an increased likelihood of vulnerability to climate change? Our study attempts to answer this question by analyzing the multidimensional poverty in rural Bihar, followed by deciphering the link between the developed poverty index and vulnerability of agriculture to climate change. Vulnerability index used in the present study was developed under the National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) by the Government of India. As most people in rural areas and those dependent on rural based livelihood activities (such as agriculture, forestry and livestock) are more vulnerable to vagaries of weather, related attributes (i.e. land ownership, livestock ownership as well as access to agriculture equipments) are included in our analysis. We found that the extent of multidimensional poverty in rural Bihar was 0.278 indicating that rural poor were deprived in 27.8 percent of the total potential deprivations that they could experience overall. It varied from 0.19 to 0.39 across districts. The findings highlight that a majority of the population were deprived in living standard dimension, followed by health and education dimensions. Further, the districts where the multidimensional poverty was high were also more vulnerable to climate change. The study advocates for formulation of district specific programs that can target major contributing factors resulting in reducing the extent of multidimensional poverty and vulnerability.
Replacement rates have gained acceptance as a useful metric for assessing the conditions of retirees and households at point of retirement. Here we use data from the SHARE longitudinal database to investigate income dynamics within a comparative European context. Our analysis, centering on households as opposed to the individuals on whom international data commonly focus, reduces replacement rates to their components—pension, work income, etc.—and looks at the dynamics among household members in relation to work and pension income. Total replacement rates vary widely among the fourteen countries sampled: overall replacement rates are around the Bismarckian 70% across the entire sample, 80% in countries that have Social Democratic and Continental social-policy regimes, and 60% in countries that have East European and Middle Eastern regimes. Looking at the pension and wage components, however, the latter accounts for about 30% of household income—an important fact for decision-makers to consider. Couples tend to retire together, especially if close in age, and work income compensates amply for lower pension income. The Gini coefficients of our sample are compared before/after retirement to determine whether the social programs that underlie pensions mitigate income inequality after retirement. Finally, we examine the well-being and quality of life of retirees and their households. We find a positive correlation between replacement rate and indicators of retirees’ and their households’ quality of life, e.g., satisfaction with life, ability to consume healthcare services, and ability to cover unforeseen expenses.
Composition of MPI by headcount and intensity in Arba Minch town and surrounding district.
Source: Own computation, based on household survey data, 2019
Summary of variables, working hypothesis and descriptive statistics results
Dimensions and composition of MPI in rural and urban. Source: Own computation based on household survey data, 2019
Multidimensional poverty is the main problem in rural as compared to urban areas of Southern Ethiopia. Despite numerous efforts made to measure multidimensional aspects of welfare at the national level. However, there exist limited studies done on a comparative analysis of rural to urban. This study assesses the problem by comparing urban (Arba Minch town) with rural areas of Gamo zone in Southern Ethiopia. The aim was to measure the level and identify the underlying factors of multidimensional poverty. A representative 396 households selected using both stratified and simple random sampling techniques. The primary data analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and econometrics (ordered logit model) analyses. The Alkire and Santos method was used to measure the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) and its category. The result shows that multidimensional poverty is more chronic in rural people (with an incidence of 54%, 76% of severity, and 41% of MPI) than people in urban (with an incidence of 48%, 45% of severity, and 22% of MPI). The level of venerability to multidimensional poverty measures influenced by a number of demographic, socio-economic, farm-specific attributes, institutional factors in combination with composite indicators of MPI. The case study shows that poverty reduction policies and programs have to be designed for urban and rural areas by capturing the associate aggravating factors. Therefore, the study suggests holistic policies and strategies across the country should be abandoned and disaggregated into urban and rural by policymakers.
Relative position and rank of cities
In today's creative economy, ideas and intellectual capital have replaced natural resources, and human creativity is the ultimate source of economic growth. Creative Capital selects specific cities and regions for work and living, known as creative cities; Cities that have the greatest capacity to attract, retain and nurture creative capital. This research aims to assess where Teheran stands both internationally and nationally among the most creative cities, known for their capacity to attract, retain and nurture creative economy, ideas and intellectual capital. First, a creative city framework is developed based on a review of 11 existing creative city indices. Second, based on their frequency of use, relevance and data availability 40 indicators were identified and computed. Using the VIKOR Method, an effective multi-criteria decision-making approach for diverging indicators, a national and international benchmarking analysis is performed on Teheran and selected cities. Results from the national benchmarking suggest that Teheran generally outperform the other Iran metropolis in 16 indicators. However, results from the international benchmarking show mix findings, where Teheran is well ranked in the human capital factor, and needs improvement in other factors including territorial assets, tolerance and resilience, and R&D and technology. Policy implications are discussed in the conclusion.
Mean values of selected demographic and employment variables Variable SIH 17-18 LLFS Feb 20 LLFS Mar 20 LLFS Apr 20 LLFS May 20 LLFS Jun 20
Estimated household monthly market income (labour, business, investment) by pre-Covid equivalised household disposable income quintiles
Changes in income inequality in Australia, 2020
Modelled unemployment rates compared with official figures, 2020
This paper undertakes a near real-time analysis of the income distribution effects of the Covid -19 crisis in Australia to understand the ongoing changes in the income distribution as well as the impact of policy responses. By semi-parametrically combining incomplete observed data from three different sources–the monthly Longitudinal Labour Force Survey, the Survey of Income and Housing and administrative payroll data–we estimate the impact of Covid -19 on the Australian income distribution and decompose its impact into the income shock effect and the policy effect between February and June 2020, covering the immediate periods before and after the initial Covid -19 outbreak. Our results suggest that, despite growth in unemployment, the Gini coefficient of equivalised household disposable income dropped by more than 0.02 points between February and June 2020. This reduction is due to the additional wage subsidies and welfare supports offered as part of the policy response, offsetting the increase in income inequality from the income shock effect. The results shows the effectiveness of temporary policy measures both in maintaining living standards and avoiding increases in income inequality. However, the heavy reliance on the support measures shown in the modelling raises the possibility that the changes in the income distribution may be reversed, or even that inequality and living standards could substantially worsen once the measures are withdrawn.
Multidimensional poverty under different poverty lines (k).
Source ELCA, own elaboration
Vulnerability to multidimensional poverty under different poverty lines (k).
Source ELCA, own elaboration
Household in poverty (MPI) and vulnerability (VEMP) urban area.
Source ELCA, own elaboration
Household in poverty (MPI) and vulnerability (VEMP) rural area.
Source ELCA, own elaboration
  • Jhon Edwar HernándezJhon Edwar Hernández
  • Blanca ZuluagaBlanca Zuluaga
This paper analyzes Colombian households’ vulnerability to multidimensional poverty. For this purpose, we apply the vulnerability as expected poverty approach and the multidimensional poverty index to obtain the probability of a household being poor in the future. The source of information was the Colombian Longitudinal Survey. By employing the Feasible Generalized Least Squares methodology in three stages, the results indicate that the percentage of vulnerable households is greater than the percentage of poor households. In addition, the pattern of vulnerability differs depending on the area (i.e., rural or urban) in which the households are located. These findings have important policy implications; specifically, they enable us to distinguish between groups of people that require particular policy strategies: households that are persistently poor require poverty alleviation interventions and those that are not poor, but have a high probability of becoming poor in the future, need poverty prevention strategies.
With the closure of schools due to the Covid-19-pandemic, parents of schoolchildren had to quickly adapt their daily schedules by taking over responsibilities of homeschooling for their children, while arranging their own schedule. This study first identifies the parents who are most challenged by having to ensure homeschooling responsibilities and then assesses how homeschooling affects different dimensions of parents’ wellbeing. Analyzing data from a large general population-representative panel survey in Switzerland, we compare subjective wellbeing before the Covid-19-outbreak to wellbeing at the end of the semi-lockdown. Almost one fifth of parents report being sometimes overwhelmed by homeschooling obligations for their children. Women, mid-aged and lower-educated individuals as well as those with young children and a lower income are particularly overwhelmed. Being sometimes overwhelmed by homeschooling does not cause changes in life satisfaction, stress and negative affect. Yet, it leads to a decrease in positive affect. We derive recommendations for educational and public health policies.
Age–Period–Cohort profile. a By period, b by birth cohort, c by age. Notes: This figure plots the average monthly earnings by age, period and birth cohort
‘Detrended’ Age–Period–Cohort effects on earnings without and with controls. Note: Results of APCD Model (solid lines). Controlled model is adjusted by education, nationality, country of birth, region of residence, economic activity, temporary contract, experience, contribution group and firm size. Vertical axis shows APCD coefficient and horizontal axis shows each APC component. Dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence intervals
Results of APCT-Lag model without and with controls. Note: Results of APCT-Lag Model (solid lines). Controlled model is adjusted by education, nationality, country of birth, region of residence, economic activity, temporary contract, experience, contribution group and firm size. Vertical axis shows APCT-Lag coefficient and horizontal axis shows each APC component. As the period coefficients of the APCT-Lag model are the same as those obtained in the APCD model, we do not show them in the figure
‘Detrended’ Age–Period–Cohort effects on earnings by gender without and with controls. Note: Results of APCD Model (solid lines). Controlled model is adjusted by education, nationality, country of birth, region of residence, economic activity, temporary contract, experience, contribution group and firm size. Vertical axis shows APCD coefficient and horizontal axis shows each APC component. Dotted lines represent 95 percent confidence intervals
Results of APCT-Lag model without and with controls by gender. Note: Results of APCT-Lag Model (solid lines). Controlled model is adjusted by education, nationality, country of birth, region of residence, economic activity, temporary contract, experience, contribution group and firm size. Vertical axis shows APCT-Lag coefficient and horizontal axis shows each APC component. As the period coefficients of the APCT-Lag model are the same as those obtained in the APCD model, we do not show them in the figure
This paper provides new evidence on how intergenerational income inequality evolves during the period 2005-2019. Using the Continuous Sample of Working Histories (CSWH), which includes administrative data about working lives and personal characteristics of Spanish workers, we shed light on the effect of the Great Recession on income inequality between cohorts in Spain. As a proxy of income, we employ monthly earnings data, provided by the CSWH. From a life course approach, we use two age-period-cohort (APC) models which allow us to separately identify three components: cohort, age and period effects. First, we examine relative earnings which will reveal whether there are income differences between generations. Second, we measure how absolute earnings have developed over time. Our results suggest that some generations are more disadvantaged in terms of income by their year of birth than others. Likewise, the evidence points out that the economic context experienced by a generation in their transition to the labour market is a key factor in the development of their income.
Environmental sustainability awareness has encouraged the promotion of a number of environmental programs and initiatives and, accordingly, the use of social networks for the dissemination and support of these initiatives has grown significantly. Thus, the purpose of the work is to understand United Nations World Environment Day (WED) programs impact on the digital public debate using Twitter data mining. For that, an ad hoc methodology is designed to provide it to authorities and organizations that wish to analyze the impact of different initiatives or programs on society. All in all, the research carried out analyzes more than 400,000 tweets sent during the 2021 edition of the WED. The tweets have been processed using Big Data techniques and Social Network Analysis. The research reveals that the WED was a trending topic initiative that was discussed in positive terms, where collective sentiment was shown. The topics covered dealt with the event day and the different initiatives related to restoration of ecosystems. However, it is noted that: there is no coordinated action by the institutions, groups or individuals involved in the conversation and the initiative tends towards homophily; digital mobilization is mostly centered in the host country (Pakistan) and, above all, in the neighboring country (India) and, the conspicuous absence of the business sphere in the discussion.
Previous research on the direction of the relationship between civic participation and well-being has evidenced that civic participation is a promoter of well-being among older adults in Europe. Accordingly, the objective of the present study is to identify and analyze the differences between European welfare systems regarding both civic participation and well-being. For this purpose, a logistic multilevel regression analysis was performed as an empirical strategy, using the cross-sectional data from the 9 waves of the European Social Survey (2002–2018). Significant differences in well-being were observed, with Anglo-Saxon elders being the healthiest, and the Nordic the happiest and most satisfied with their lives. In contrast, Eastern European seniors reported the lowest levels of well-being. Also, Nordic countries are the most civically engaged, followed by the Continental and Anglo-Saxon, while Mediterranean and Eastern countries engage the least. However, the impact of civic participation on well-being is strongest for the Mediterranean countries, while its impact on satisfaction and happiness is weakest for the Nordic countries. The 3 models of the multilevel analysis indicate that civic participation has a positive impact on health, happiness and life satisfaction, and that this effect is quite robust. Also, by adding country-level macro variables to the model, it is possible to reduce the random effects and hence to better explain these international differences. Concisely, the impact of civic participation on the well-being of the elderly differs across nations and should therefore be considered by policy makers.
Mean levels of trust in 29 countries.
(Source: OECD Survey of Adult Skills. PIAAC 2012 and 2015 Databases. The bar represent average levels of trust in each country. The dots represent the average levels of trust in the 146 regions for which complete data are available)
Hypothesized pathways between education and trust
Multilevel Structural Equations Model (MSEM) 1-(1,1)-1 of direct and indirect relations between education and trust. (Note: INC: Income; EDU: Years of schooling; SES: Socio-Economic Status of respondents; ABIL: Literacy)
Total effect of education and level of diversity
This paper examines between-country differences in why education promotes trust using data from 29 countries (and 146 regions) participating in the OECD’s Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). Results indicate that education is strongly associated with trust and that individuals’ literacy, income, and occupational prestige are important mediators of this association. Contrary to previous studies we do not find that country level or regional level birthplace diversity is associated with average levels of trust. However, education gradients in trust and the extent to which these are due to social stratification or cognitive mechanisms vary both at the country and regional level depending on birthplace diversity. Multilevel mediation-moderation analyses reveal that in countries and regions with greater birthplace diversity there is a greater polarization in levels of trust between individuals with different educational qualifications. This polarization is primarily due to cognitive mechanisms.
Trends in poverty in the United States over the period 1991–2019
Comparison of the poverty rankings by Rln\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$R_{\ln }$$\end{document} and RW\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$R_W$$\end{document}
Comparison of the poverty rankings by Rln\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$R_{\ln }$$\end{document} and RFGT2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$R^2_{FGT}$$\end{document}
Comparison of the poverty rankings by Rln\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$R_{\ln }$$\end{document} and RFGT0\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$R^0_{FGT}$$\end{document}
This paper provides a characterization of a new class of ordinal poverty measures that are defined by means of the aggregate generalized poverty gap. To be precise, we propose to use the sum of the differences between the transformed fixed poverty line and the transformed level of income of each person below the line as our measure. If the transformation is strictly concave, the resulting measure is strictly inequality averse with respect to the incomes of the poor. In analogy to some existing results on inequality measurement, we show that the only relative (scale-invariant) members of our class are based on strictly concave power functions or the natural logarithm. Moreover, we show that our measures allow for a useful decomposition that is akin to those examined in some earlier contributions. In an empirical analysis, we compare the logarithmic variant of our index to two well-established alternative orderings. Unlike numerous indices that appear in the earlier literature, ours do not explicitly depend on the number of poor or on the total population size, thereby ruling out any direct influence of the head-count ratio on poverty comparisons.
Drinking water sources across Nigeria's geopolitical regions.
Type of cooking fuel across Nigeria's geopolitical regions
Flooring material across Nigeria's geopolitical regions
Logistic regression of poverty predictors among Nigerian households
Nigeria currently has the highest number of people living on less than USD1.90 a day, becoming what some analysts labeled "the poverty capital of the world." This article explores the multiple dimensions and predictors of household poverty in Nigeria using the 2018 Demographic and Health Survey data (n=40,427). Results from the Chi-square analysis indicate significant regional disparities in multidimensional poverty, which is endemic in the Northwest and Northeast regions that constitute 75.3% of Nigeria's poorest households, 62.3% of household heads without formal education, and about half (49.7%) of households lacking access to electricity. Logistic regression results show that access to electricity is the most significant predictor of poverty in Nigeria, with an odds ratio (OR) of 10.46, followed by education (OR=1.99), place of residence (OR=0.37), land ownership (OR=0.58), livestock ownership (0.57), number of bedrooms (1.32), and gender (0.73). Other significant predictors are drinking water sources, sanitation facilities, cooking fuel, and housing conditions. Reducing multidimensional poverty requires improving electricity supply and human development interventions in education, water, sanitation, and healthcare, targeting deprived households. These are essential for achieving sustainable development.
Classification tree for Contribution to environmental protection. Overall percentage of correct classification: 62.4%
Measure of variable importance (%)
In recent years, environmental problems have become a serious issue worldwide due to the increasing damage caused by climate change. People’s environmental awareness has grown, and public opinion is now demanding effective action from governments. Young people around the world are playing an important role in this, with the Fridays For Future movement, calling on policymakers to make environmental protection one of their political priorities. Through a survey of 1,975 high school students, this paper aims to contribute to the study of young people’s sustainable behaviors and their awareness to take effective action against environmental degradation, to explore their concerns and opinions about environmental issues, and to find out what ecological practices they are willing to adopt in their daily lives. Data analysis is conducted using tree-based methods to examine the sustainable behaviors and define the key practices that constitute them. The results of classification tree show that sustainable behaviors impact lifestyles, whether through less demanding actions such as turning off the faucet or appliances, or willingness to work as a volunteer, among others. The Random Forest provides us with a ranked list of sustainable behaviors that young people engage in to reduce and stop environmental degradation. The results of this study may be of interest to policy makers who need to plan educational pathways for students from elementary school to university, as environmental culture must be a cornerstone of our society.
Due to the dramatic health situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, in Italy the emergency remote teaching lasted longer than in other countries. The mandatory teaching modalities have required digital transformation processes in a framework where digital-divide is one of the limitations to school modernization. We believe that the experience can promote a deeper formatting of organizational process. The paper shows results of a multitarget research carried out during the Italian lockdown aiming at animating the debate around school from multi-actors perspectives and at supporting policies. The paper aims at showing the potentiality of a multivariate statistical method as a tool supporting school managers in identifying those challenges they have to face to improve the setting up of internal processes. The main result is a model supporting the decision making process at orienting school managers strategies.
Subjective Well-being in Italy by Indicator. Relative Frequency of Answers
In the original publication of the article the figure 4 was was published incorrectly and the same has been corrected here.
In the original publication of the article the Acknowledgement section has been missed to include and now the same has been updated in this correction.
We explore the effects of parental divorce and parental temporary separation on well-being of children at a specific stage of their development according to the parental relationship quality. Despite the importance of this subject, among previous studies only few consider very young children and are based on statistical methods properly tailored to enhance causal evaluations. We attempt to establish the effects on both cognitive abilities and psychological dimensions of children at age five by using data drawn from the first three waves of the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Using an appropriate imputation method, we apply the augmented inverse propensity treatment weighted estimator to infer causality. Overcoming some of the limitations of previous research, we find that the dissolution of high-quality parental unions has the most harmful effects on children, especially concerning conduct problems. We demonstrate the substantial variation on consequences of parental divorce depending on the level of parental relationship quality. We show that parental temporary separation is a type of family disruption that has significant negative effects on young children. In fact, we infer that they have more conduct and hyperactivity problems than children from stable or divorced families. Our results also suggest children to be targeted with appropriate policies aimed to reduce the adverse effect of family disruption.
Initially considered a ‘luxury’ good and now becoming a more popular and diffused landmark, the spatial distribution of residential swimming pools reflects the socio-spatial structure in Mediterranean cities, offering a kaleidoscopic overview of class segregation and economic disparities. The present study hypothesizes that economic downturns, resulting in alternative phases of social polarization and mixing, affect the spatial distribution of pools. To verify this assumption, the spatial distribution of pools in Athens, Greece—a city with evident social disparities and largely affected by the great recession—was analysed during the most recent expansion and recession. Results shed light on the spatial linkage between pool density, class segregation and dispersed urban expansion in a context of rising income disparities. The spatial distribution of swimming pools became increasingly polarized in the Athens’ metropolitan region. The spread of residential pools in wealthier districts suggests how recession has consolidated disparities between rich and poor neighbourhoods. Based on the empirical findings of this study, pools can be considered a proxy of increased socio-spatial disparities reflecting class segregation and economic polarization at the local scale.
Quantile composite-based path modeling is a recent extension to the conventional partial least squares path modeling. It estimates the effects that predictors exert on the whole conditional distributions of the outcomes involved in path models and provides a comprehensive view on the structure of the relationships among the variables. This method can also be used in a predictive way as it estimates model parameters for each quantile of interest and provides conditional quantile predictions for the manifest variables of the outcome blocks. Quantile composite-based path modeling is shown in action on real data concerning well-being indicators. Health outcomes are assessed taking into account the effects of Economic well-being and Education. In fact, to support an accurate evaluation of the regional performances, the conditions within the outcomes arise should be properly considered. Assessing health inequalities in this multidimensional perspective can highlight the unobserved heterogeneity and contribute to advances in knowledge about the dynamics producing the well-being outcomes at local level.
Components of the log-normal mixture, wkf1,k\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$w_k\,f_{1,k}$$\end{document} and (1-wk)f2,k\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$(1-w_k)f_{2,k}$$\end{document}, associated with the observed incomes of Valle D’Aosta belonging to the set R0=Sn\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathcal {R}}_0={\mathcal {S}}_n$$\end{document} in first iteration (k=1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$k=1$$\end{document}) (left panel) and to the set R1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\mathcal {R}}_1$$\end{document} in the second iteration (k=2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$k=2$$\end{document}) (right panel). Year 2015, income expressed in tens of thousands of euros. Kernel density of the income distribution (solid line) and components of the log-normal mixture (dashed line)
Stratification resulting from the iterative procedure (vertical bars). The last class represented is the one below the highest threshold of each region. Poverty stratification with respect to the national poverty line (NPL)—bars below horizontal dashed black line; poverty stratification with respect to the regional poverty line (RPL)—bars below the piece-wise solid red line. Here Dk=ak-ak-1,\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$Dk=a^k-a^{k-1},$$\end{document}k=1,2,…,8,\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$k=1,2,\ldots ,8,$$\end{document} and the y-axis shows the individual equivalent disposable income. The dotted line denotes the regional median line (RML). (Color figure online)
Individual equivalent disposable income threshold shares of the poorest classes (i.e., threshold to national median income) in 2005 and 2015. (Color figure online)
Shares of individuals in the poorest classes (i.e., poorest class size to the national population size) in 2005 and 2015. (Color figure online)
We develop an iterative procedure to generate stratification in non-overlapping classes of a population based on a one-dimensional variable, namely, the Italian income. The procedure works under the assumption that the income distribution is generated by a log-normal mixture of homogeneous income groups. The number of income groups is not determined a priori but rather endogenously by the iterative procedure that stops when the solution to a specific second-degree polynomial equation does not exist. We apply the approach to study the heterogeneity of Italian incomes and the poor population at regional level in the years 2005, 2010, and 2015. The cross-regional comparisons show differences in inequality and stratification dynamics while comparisons over time show the evolution of the classes.
The evolution of multidimensional poverty estimated with the proposed multidimensional poverty index in Germany (dot-dash line), France (solid line), Italy (long-dash line), Poland (dashed line) and Sweden (dotted line) for β=1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\beta = 1$$\end{document}, β=0\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\beta = 0$$\end{document} and β=-1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\beta = -1$$\end{document} .
Source: authors’ calculations based on the EU-SILC referred to the years 2006, 2010 and 2015
An important aspect of the multidimensional perception of poverty phenomenon is the dependence among the underlying indicators. However, the commonly applied approaches to multidimensional poverty assessment do not capture this interdependence. In this paper we propose a new multidimensional poverty index accounting for the dependence and innovate over the weighting approach. The weighting method proposed here incorporates the copula-based rank dependence among well-being dimensions and contains necessary normative parameters. In particular, the latter includes the elasticity of substitution among dimensions and the belief-adjusting parameter, which specifies the direction of relation between the dependence and the weights. The results of poverty evaluation in the selected European countries suggest that multidimensional poverty is driven not only by the individual shortfalls, but also by the degree of interdependence among well-being indicators. Moreover, multidimensional poverty is relatively higher, if dimensional weights are in direct proportion to the dependence compared to the cases of inverse relation and equal weighting. Considering the novel weighting approach, this paper contributes to the literature on composite indicators by suggesting a channel to enclose the dependence structure in the multidimensional poverty index.
Bayesian Networks’ three fundamental connections: a serial connection; b diverging connection; c converging connection
A directed acyclic graph (DAG) with eleven nodes. The Markov blanket of node X3\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$X_{3}$$\end{document} comprises the nodes in the blue region: its parents {X1,X2}\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\{X_{1}, X_{2}\}$$\end{document}, its child {X4}\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\{X_{4}\}$$\end{document} and its child’s other parents {X8,X9}\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\{X_{8}, X_{9}\}$$\end{document}. As per the local Markov property, the global probability distribution factorizes as P(X)=P(X1)P(X2)P(X6)P(X7)P(X8|X6)P(X3|X1,X2)P(X9|X2X7)P(X10|X7)P(X4|X8X3X9)P(X11|X9)P(X5|X4)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$P({\mathbf {X}}) = P(X_{1})P(X_{2})P(X_{6})P(X_{7})P(X_{8}|X_{6})P(X_{3}|X_{1}, X_{2})P(X_{9}|X_{2}X_{7})P(X_{10}|X_{7})P(X_{4}|X_{8}X_{3}X_{9})P(X_{11}|X_{9})P(X_{5}|X_{4})$$\end{document}
Averaged network structure estimated by adopting prior Strategy 1 (blacklist only) with NUTS 1 level macro-areas (NW-NE-C-S-I)
Averaged network structure estimated by adopting prior Strategy 2 (blacklist and whitelist) with NUTS 1 level macro-areas (NW-NE-C-S-I)
Measurement of well-being has been a highly debated topic since the end of the last century. While some specific aspects are still open issues, a multidimensional approach as well as the construction of shared and well-rooted systems of indicators are now accepted as the main route to measure this complex phenomenon. A meaningful effort, in this direction, is that of the Italian “Equitable and Sustainable Well-being” (BES) system of indicators, developed by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and the National Council for Economics and Labour (CNEL). The BES framework comprises a number of atomic indicators measured yearly at regional level and reflecting the different domains of well-being (e.g. Health, Education, Work & Life Balance, Environment,...). In this work we aim at dealing with the multidimensionality of the BES system of indicators and try to answer three main research questions: (I) What is the structure of the relationships among the BES atomic indicators; (II) What is the structure of the relationships among the BES domains; (III) To what extent the structure of the relationships reflects the current BES theoretical framework. We address these questions by implementing Bayesian Networks (BNs), a widely accepted class of multivariate statistical models, particularly suitable for handling reasoning with uncertainty. Implementation of a BN results in a set of nodes and a set of conditional independence statements that provide an effective tool to explore associations in a system of variables. In this work, we also suggest two strategies for encoding prior knowledge in the BN estimating algorithm so that the BES theoretical framework can be represented into the network.
Area of study within Northern Italian regions: Milan, Turin and Genoa, by level of urbanization. Source: own elaborations on Municipalities data
Population of young people by local context and residence with/without parents (percentage). Source: Own elaborations on 2013 ArchIMEDe data
Estimated probability of being poor, by type of household. Source: Own elaborations on 2013 ArchIMEDe data. Note: The graph reports the average estimated probabilities and the 95% confidence intervals (very small and not visible because of the large sample size). We apply statistical inference on the population data in order to account for possible random errors. Moreover, following Gelman et al. (2013) the population has to be considered as a sample produced by an underlying generative process, that can always generate a different population at some other moment in time
Probability of being poor in relative and absolute terms by level of urbanization and type of household of independent young people. Source: Own elaborations on 2013 ArchIMEDe data. Note: The graph reports the average estimated probabilities and the 95% confidence intervals (very small and not visible because of the large sample size)
In countries characterized by large territorial differences in living standards, indicators of relative poverty measured at the national level might hide significant heterogeneities in the experience of individual households. We propose a relative indicator of poverty to be computed at the local level and to be added to the standard national poverty indicators. In fact, the greater the distance between local and national relative poverty, the more heterogeneous are contexts within the same country, hence requiring heterogeneous and specific policies at the local level to be added to nationwide ones. To show the usefulness of this additional indicator, we offer an application to young households in three provinces of North-Western Italy, the richest area in the country. Thanks to the additional indicator, we show that the poverty of households with children, mostly living in metropolitan areas or small towns, emerges only when observing a “local relative” measure of poverty. We conclude by discussing the gains of our proposed indicator for local policy interventions, to be added to nationwide policies.
International literature has shown that demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, social ties and supports in the host country play an important role on migrants’ subjective wellbeing. The influence of such characteristics has been widely studied so far, especially on immigrants’ levels of life satisfaction, but how living transnational partnerships and parenthoods might affect the subjective wellbeing of migrants and how this situation might be reflecting social integration issues still remains poorly understood. This paper is aimed at covering this gap by analyzing each one of the components of subjective well-being: own assessment of life satisfaction (cognitive component), feelings of loneliness (emotional component) and sense of belonging (affective component). Ordinal logistic regressions were run on a selected sample of the Survey on Social Conditions and Integration of Foreign citizens carried out by ISTAT in 2011/2012. Results have shown that living in transnational families differently affect subjective wellbeing, being particularly important for the cognitive and emotional components among married immigrants. Self-perceived social integration has been found to be a protective factor of immigrants’ levels of subjective wellbeing, having a preventive role on their levels of life satisfaction and feelings of loneliness.
This study presents a comparative analysis of subjective well-being in the Italian regions (NUTS2) by synthesizing several ordinal indicators. In recent decades, the use of subjective indicators, i.e. information collected at individual level, has become widespread in official statistics. This article refers, in particular, to those subjective indicators that detect perceptions, points of view and emotional states. The data source is the ad-hoc module on subjective well-being of the European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions, one of the harmonised European official statistical surveys. In synthesizing the information, the study applies the Partially Ordered Set methodology. The purpose is to safeguard the multidimensionality of the phenomenon and the ordinal nature of the items. The study synthesizes the dimension of subjective well-being at micro level, i.e. at individual level, and reports the individual condition of subjective well-being at regional level. In doing so, it explores the informative potential of the ad-hoc module on subjective well-being, which seems not yet fully exploited.
Absolute average rank differences for the four aggregation methods under different random perturbations
In the analysis of well-being, according to the “beyond GDP” approach, it is important to measure well-being and how it is distributed across territories and among the different groups that make up society. This paper focuses on job quality, which is an important aspect of life that contributes to well-being. More precisely, the social environment at workplace is measured by a composite indicator, and its distribution across European countries is investigated. A comparison of different aggregation approaches for the construction of the composite indicator is provided, and the measure is examined by means of influence and robustness analyses.
Hasse diagrams of BES domains: Italian regions; year 2017
Radar-charts of BES domains’ average heights: Northern Regions; year 2017
Radar-charts of BES domains’ average heights: Central Regions; year 2017
Radar-charts of BES domains’ average heights: Southern Regions; year 2017
Cartograms of BES domains: year 2017
The official Italian well-being measuring system (“Equitable and Sustainable Well-being—BES”) is probably the worldwide most advanced attempt to pursue the beyond GDP perspective effectively. In it, well-being is described in terms of 12 domains and a complex multi-indicator system of around 130 indicators, drawn mainly from Istat (official Italian statistical bureau) surveys and administrative archives. In order to get a more synthetic view of well-being, in the last four BES reports Istat employed aggregative procedures providing composite indicators for each well-being domain. The aggregative road to synthesis is however problematic, when complex and non-highly correlated indicator systems are to be summarized, mainly due to its compensative nature and interpretational difficulties. As a valuable alternative, in this paper we adopt a non-aggregative approach to synthesis, based on Partially Ordered Set Theory (Poset Theory) and show how it can be used to provide more “complexity-preserving”insights into well-being. In particular, we describe each well-being domain as a partially ordered set and compute synthetic indicators for well-being rankings at regional level for year 2017, getting more robust and interpretable results than with mainstream aggregative procedures.
The Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) declined a multidimensional approach to measure equitable and sustainable well-being (Benessere Equo Sostenibile, BES) at a detailed territorial level, that is, at the provincial level (NUTS3) entailing a wide spectrum of indicators grouped into domains related to Health, Education, Work and life balance, Economic well-being, Social relationships, Politics and institutions, Security, Landscape and cultural heritage, Environment, Innovation research and creativity, and Quality of services. These indicators can help in describing the territories because they can spot situations of concern, such as in the South of Italy. The gap between North and South Italy has increased over time, a picture we can describe using each of the indicators, but also by jointly considering them by using a factor analysis and clustering and constructing a composite indicator. Contrary to some researchers who have suggested the employment of time series indicators for the period 2004–2016 looking for a latent factor, that takes into account the joint temporal trend of the indicators, in this paper, the situation among three different moments over time is compared: before the 2008 crisis and a few years after it. To do this, we have chosen a certain number of indicators on the basis of their features.
Trend of absolute poverty incidence, at the individual and the household level—2005–2017.
Source: elaborations on HBS and IT-SILC
Trend of individuals’ income-based absolute poverty, AROP and SMD—2007–2017.
Source: elaborations on IT-SILC
Despite the debate about the introduction of an official absolute poverty line is growing in the EU, at the moment Italy is the only EU country providing an official measure of absolute poverty. Absolute poverty is estimated in Italy with reference to household consumption using the Household Budget Survey (HBS), but it can be estimated also relying on incomes. Focusing on the Italian experience, this article contributes to the literature and to the national and European policy debate about poverty measurement in three ways. First, a detailed review of the methodology adopted in Italy to compute absolute poverty is presented. Second, the article investigates what changes when absolute poverty is assessed relying on income (using EU-SILC data) instead than on consumption (using HBS). Third, a comparison between income-based absolute poverty and the two main indicators of poverty and social exclusion used at the EU level—at risk of poverty rate, AROP, and severe material deprivation index, SMD—is shown. Main findings are: (1) the level and the characteristics of the poor change when absolute poverty is measured with reference to income rather than to consumption; (2) the incidence of income-based absolute poverty has risen more steeply than the incidence of the AROP since the upsurge of the economic crisis in 2008; (3) a very low correlation at the individual level between the income-based absolute poverty status and the SMD status emerges, thus strongly questioning the idea of using SMD as a proxy of absolute poverty.
Percentage of people who have reported one or more events of experienced food insecurity (FIES) in the last 12 months by gender, world regions and European areas—2014
Food insecurity is the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire foods in socially acceptable ways. The study presents a comparison of the principal determinants of individual food insecurity in Europe and other Continents, with particular regard to gender, since the literature clearly states the importance of women in the administration of food in the household. The study of gender related differences in food insecurity is particularly important in Europe, since women experience food insecurity at a larger extent than men, but with a variability related to the geographical distribution and with complex relationships with economic and social drivers. Using a large international sample of individual level data, that allows the analysis for developed Countries for the first time, and the first experiential measure of food insecurity comparable at the global level, the paper analyses the principal determinants of gender differences in food insecurity. In order to verify if women’s vulnerability in food insecurity is moderated by specific factors, the modelling approach allows gender to vary by education, poverty, place of residence. The results suggest that the driver that could most mitigate women disadvantage is education: people with a university degree present a lower probability of experiencing food insecurity, both for men and for women. On the contrary, familial characteristics, such as the number of children in the household, present a higher impact on women’s food insecurity than on men’s.
The progressive flexibility of labour relations has not always been perceived by workers as an opportunity, but as an ever-growing sense of precariousness. This appears all the more true in a country like Italy, where the labour market has long been characterized by some rigidity. Health is a fundamental domain of well-being and, although the relationship between health and job insecurity has been clearly highlighted, the correct causal effect along with differences at the territorial level have not always been brought into focus. The aim of this paper is to provide insights on health status differentials across Italian territories, in relation to individual working histories. To analyze the potential causal effects of career on self-reported health (SRH) a propensity score approach, based on the inverse probability of treatment weighing, has been used. Available data shows great differences at territorial level: in Northern Italy, the economic conditions seem to increase the probability of having good health, while in the other regions of Italy key factors seem to be age, children or the sector and size of the company where an individual works. Our findings have also shown the presence of a causal effect on the work history patterns of SRH in northern Italy, and not elsewhere. This may imply that in an area with high occupational levels having only a temporary employment is perceived as the merest chance, and could generate stress both at a physical and mental level. In other areas, high unemployment levels seem to arouse low expectations and the only fact of having a job—even if temporary—can be perceived as a positive aspect.
In this paper, we define clusters of homogeneous Italian regions with respect to the evolution over time of well-being. In particular we identify three partitions of the Italian regions based on the yearly time series of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of the BES (equitable and sustainable well-being), in the period 2010–2016. The partitions are obtained using a Dynamic Time Warping-based Fuzzy C-Medoids clustering model for multivariate time series. The results show a territorial gap between northern and southern regions with respect to the economic, social and environmental dimensions. The central regions have a diversified behavior with respect to the different dimensions.
Ageing and migration are two of Europe’s fundamental demographic processes, challenging a wide range of social policies. Their intersection generates a wide taxonomy of types of individuals, from the most well-off and active ones to those more deprived and marginalised and for whom being old and having a migration background represents a double jeopardy. Yet in discussions of the ‘demographic time bomb’ of ageing, the special circumstances of ageing migrants are rarely recognised. Thus far, in Europe, very little is known about ageing populations with a migratory background, and this is even more true for Italy, that turned into an immigration country only in the late 1980s and where older migrants are a neglected, although growing, group in the Italian population. In this paper, we unpack ageing migrants’ wellbeing by focusing on life satisfaction, as a broader indicator of individual’s wellbeing; in particular, we analyse the effect of migration experiences on migrants’ perception of the quality of life in old age. We use data from the Social Condition and Integration of Foreign Citizens survey (2011–2012) and build several indicators related to different structural and socio-cultural dimensions of integration to analyse different patterns of association with life satisfaction among different groups of ageing migrants in Italy. Our study has important implications form both theoretical and policy perspective as it contributes to the advancement of original knowledge on the factors that shape wellbeing in later life in a context of migration.
Top-cited authors
Ed Diener
  • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Ruut Veenhoven
  • Erasmus University Rotterdam
Alex C. Michalos
  • University of Northern British Columbia
Robert Biswas-Diener
  • Portland State University
Inglehart Ronald
  • University of Michigan